Tachyphonus rubrifrons Lawrence

LeCroy, Mary, 2012, Type Specimens Of Birds In The American Museum Of Natural History Part 10. Passeriformes: Emberizidae: Emberizinae, Catamblyrhynchinae, Cardinalinae, Thraupinae, And Tersininae, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 2012 (368), pp. 1-125: 74-75

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http://doi.org/ 10.1206/775.1

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Tachyphonus rubrifrons Lawrence


Tachyphonus rubrifrons Lawrence   Tachyphonus propinquus Lawrence  

Tachyphonus rubrifrons Lawrence, 1865c: 106   (line of the Pan. R. Road, near Lion Hill Station).

Now Heterospingus rubrifrons (Lawrence, 1865)   . See Hellmayr, 1936: 345, Storer, 1970: 288, Wetmore et al., 1984: 476–477, Sibley and Monroe, 1990: 744, American Ornithologists’ Union, 1998: 575, Isler and Isler, 1999: 120–122, and Dickinson, 2003: 814.

SYNTYPES: AMNH 409460 View Materials , male, collected by James McLeannan and John Galbraith, AMNH 409461 View Materials , female, collected by McLeannan   ; AMNH 40962 View Materials , female, collected by  

McLeannan and Galbraith; AMNH 40963 View Materials , male, collected by McLeannan, all from near the Lion Hill Station , ca. 09.13N, 79.54W ( Siegel and Olson, 2008), of the trans-Panama railway. From the George N. Lawrence   Collection GoogleMaps   .

COMMENTS: In the original description of rubrifrons, Lawrence   stated that the first specimen he received was marked as a male, but that he believed it might be the female of T. xanthopygius   . He had listed it ( Lawrence   , 1861b: 331) as ‘‘ T. xanthopigius, Scl.   , ³. Irides reddish brown; quite rare.’’ This was probably AMNH 409463, as it was collected by McLeannan alone (as were all of the specimens reported in Lawrence   (1861b). Afterwards, he had received another male and two females. The second male, AMNH 40960, is the bird described as the male in the original description of rubrifrons   , as it is the specimen of the four that has the ‘‘front and part of crown dull red.’’ However, no type was designated, so all four specimens are syntypes, even though only AMNH 409460 and 409461 were marked ‘‘Type’’ by Lawrence   and only those had been included with the AMNH types. AMNH type labels have been added to the other two. All four specimens had been marked rubrifrons   by Lawrence   , and this had been marked out and propinquus   added by him.

The name Tachyphonus propinquus   was introduced by Lawrence   (1867a: 94) as a replacement name for T. rubrifrons   . He thought the dull red on the forecrown of the described male to be the result of a stain caused by some food item and considered the name ‘‘ rubrifrons   ’’ therefore to be inappropriate. However, inappropriateness is not a reason to reject a name (ICZN, 1999: 21, Art. 18; p. 109, G), and the name rubrifrons   is the valid name (ICZN, 1999: 26, Art. 23.3.7). Hellmayr (1936: 345) listed propinquus   as a synomym of rubrifrons   .

Tachyphonus cristatus fallax J.T. Zimmer   Tachyphonus cristatus fallax J.T. Zimmer, 1945: 18  

(Puerto Indiana, mouth of the Río Napo, Perú). Now Tachyphonus cristatus fallax J.T. Zimmer,  

1945, See Storer, 1970: 289–290, and Dickinson,

2003: 805.

HOLOTYPE: AMNH 232913 View Materials , adult male, collected at Puerto Indiana , ca. 03.28S, 73.03W ( Stephens and Traylor, 1983), mouth of the Rio Napo, Loreto, Peru, on 3 August 1926, by Carlos Olalla and sons. GoogleMaps  

COMMENTS: Zimmer cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed the specimens he examined ( Zimmer, 1945: 19). Paratypes are: Ecuador, Rio Suno , above Avila, AMNH 179786–179790 View Materials , three males, two females, 1–13 February 1923   ; below San Jose´ , AMNH 183267 View Materials , male, 3 April 1924, AMNH 183272 View Materials , female, 18 April 1924   ; lower Rio Suno , AMNH 183270 View Materials , female, 14 March 1924   ; mouth of Lagarto Cocha , AMNH 256990 View Materials , male, 17 January 1926   ; AMNH 257126 View Materials , female, 15 January 1926, all the the foregoing collected by the Olallas   ; El Loreto, AMNH 510816 View Materials , male, 1896, from the Dalmas Collection via the Rothschild Collection   ; Sarayacu, AMNH 510817 View Materials , 510818 View Materials , males, undated, Buckley Collection via the Rothschild Collection. Peru, Sarayacu , Rio Ucayali, AMNH 238651 View Materials , male, 14 July 1927, collected by the Olallas   ; mouth of the Rio Curaray , AMNH 256983 View Materials , 256984 View Materials , 256986 View Materials , 256988 View Materials , 256989 View Materials , four males, one female, collected in March, October, December 1925, and January 1926, all collected by the Olallas   ; Rio Mazan , AMNH 407295 View Materials , female, no date, from the Bassler Collection   .

See Wiley (2010) for details concerning the Olalla’s collecting localities in Peru and Ecuador.


American Museum of Natural History














Tachyphonus rubrifrons Lawrence

LeCroy, Mary 2012

Tachyphonus cristatus fallax J.T. Zimmer

Zimmer, J. T. 1945: 18

Heterospingus rubrifrons (Lawrence, 1865)

Isler, M. I. & P. R. Isler 1999: 120
Sibley, C. G. & B. L. Monroe, Jr. 1990: 744
Wetmore, A. & R. F. Pasquier & S. L. Olson 1984: 476
Storer, R. W. 1970: 288
Hellmayr, C. E. 1936: 345

Tachyphonus rubrifrons

Lawrence, G. N. 1865: 106