Serrapinnus aster Malabarba & Jerep

Malabarba, Luiz R. & Jerep, Fernando C., 2014, Review of the species of the genus Serrapinnus Malabarba, 1998 (Teleostei: Characidae: Cheirodontinae) from the rio Tocantins-Araguaia basin, with description of three new species, Zootaxa 3847 (1), pp. 57-79: 58-63

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Serrapinnus aster Malabarba & Jerep

new species

Serrapinnus aster Malabarba & Jerep   , new species

Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 , 2a–b View FIGURE 2 , 3 View FIGURE 3 , 4a View FIGURE 4 , 5a View FIGURE 5

Holotype. MZUSP 115011 View Materials , 22.9 mm SL, male, Brazil, Tocantins State, Município de Arraias, periodic lake at confluence of rio Paraná and rio Bezerra , rio Tocantins drainage, 11 Jan 1989, J. C. Oliveira & W. Costa.  

Paratypes. All from Brazil, rio Tocantins-Araguaia basin.   Goiás State: MCP 41862 View Materials , (3, 31.6–33.2 mm SL), córrego Volta Grande, tributary of left margin of PCH Piranhas reservoir, Município de Piranhas , 16°35’59’’S 51°48’33’’W, 18 Jul 2007, Equipe CPA ltda. MCP 42033 View Materials , (3, 28.4–32.7 mm SL), córrego Salobrinha, tributary of rio Claro, GoogleMaps   Município de Montes Claros de Goiás , 15°58’35’’S 51°24’09’’W, 27 Feb 2007, G. A. Pereira. UFRGS 12015 View Materials , 22 View Materials , 23.0– 31.1 mm SL, GoogleMaps   Município de Piranhas, tributary of rio Piranhas , between Piranhas and Bom Jardim de Goiás , 16°21’43.3”S 51°55’10.2”W, 7 Feb 2010, V. A. Bertaco, F. R. Carvalho & F. C. Jerep. UFRGS 12023 View Materials , 54 View Materials , 32.3 View Materials – 10.6 mm SL, 2 c&s, 25.3–26.1 mm SL, GoogleMaps   Município de Montes Claros de Goiás, tributary of rio Claro, 100 km from road intersection to Betânia , between Jussara and Montes Claros de Goiás , 15°55’32.0”S 51°19’25.8”W, 6 Feb 2010, V. A. Bertaco, F. R. Carvalho & F. C. Jerep. UFRGS 12034 View Materials , 5 View Materials , 28.5 View Materials –31.0 mm SL, GoogleMaps   Município de Jussara, tributary of rio Claro , 15°58’0.0”S 50°48’59.7”W, 6 Feb 2010, V. A. Bertaco, F. R. Carvalho & F. C. Jerep. Tocantins State: MZUSP 115012 View Materials , 10 View Materials , 21.3–26.3 mm SL, 2 c&s, 23.9–25.0 mm SL, same data as holotype GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. Serrapinnus aster   is distinguished from all congeners except S. potiguar   , by the scimitar-shaped ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays of mature males, almost all of which form a semicircle, resulting in a portion of the ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays having a multi-pointed partial star-shaped margin ( Fig. 2a View FIGURE 2 ) vs. ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays rod-shaped or spatulate, usually parallel to each other, except for the anteriormost procurrent rays being inclined forward in some species. Furthermore S. aster   can be diagnosed from S. potiguar   and other species of the genus by the presence of 7–9 cusps on the premaxillary teeth (vs. 5 cusps in S. microdon   and S. potiguar   , 9 to 11 in S. lucindai   , S. sterbai   and S. tocantinensis   and 10 to 12 in S. gracilis   and S. littoris   ), the incomplete lateral line (vs. complete in S. heterodon   ), the hyaline dorsal fin (vs. with a proximal black blotch in S. notomelas   ), and the absence of a black spot on the posteroventral region of the abdomen (vs. the presence of a black spot in that region in S. kriegi   ).

Description. Morphometric data in Table 1 View TABLE 1 . Body short and compressed. Greatest body depth at dorsal-fin origin. Snout slightly pointed in profile. Dorsal profile of head gently convex from snout to anterior portion of supraoccipital bone. Posterior portion of supraoccipital slightly concave. Predorsal profile slightly convex from posterior end of supraoccipital to dorsal-fin origin. Dorsal-fin origin located at midbody. Dorsal profile from base of last dorsal-fin ray to caudal-fin origin straight to slightly convex in females and ventrally arched in preserved mature males. Ventral profile of caudal peduncle straight in females, distinctly convex due to hypertrophy of ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays in males. Caudal peduncle slightly longer than deep. Ventral profile of head and body from tip of mouth to pelvic-fin origin convex, then straight until anal-fin origin on females but slightly concave in mature males. Anal-fin base straight to slightly concave in females, anteriorly convex and distinctively concave posteriorly in mature males.

Head relatively small. Posterior margin of opercle sinusoidal with upper portion concave and lower portion convex. Mouth terminal, mouth slit situated immediately below horizontal through middle of pupil. Maxilla angled posteroventrally; posterior tip reaching vertical close to anterior border of eye and horizontal through ventral border of eye. All teeth pedunculated, distally expanded. Premaxilla with 4(1) or 5(1) teeth in single row and bearing 7–9 cusps. Midcentral cusp higher and wider than lateral cusps. Maxilla with 2(2) teeth bearing 5–7 cusps. Dentary with 7(2) large teeth bearing 5 or 7 cusps, followed by one smaller tooth with 3 cusps and one conical tooth. Smaller lateral cusps of dentary teeth sometimes overlapping adjacent tooth cusps; overlap usually absent between posteriormost teeth. All dentary tooth cusps upwardly pointed or slightly directed towards interior of mouth ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ).

Dorsal-fin rays ii,8(1), 9*(16). Dorsal-fin origin at midlength of body. First unbranched dorsal-fin ray about one-half length of second unbranched ray; following branched rays progressively decreasing in size. Adipose-fin origin slightly posterior to vertical through end of anal-fin base. Anal-fin rays iii,16(2), 17*(6), 18(7) or 19(2). First unbranched anal-fin ray only observable in cleared and stained specimens. Distal profile of anal-fin slightly concave in females, deeply concave in males. Last unbranched and first 5–6 branched anal-fin rays longer, remaining rays progressively decreasing in size. Tip of longest anal-fin rays of mature males laterally overlapping last anal-fin rays, and sometimes reaching ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays when caudal peduncle arched. Analfin origin posterior to vertical through base of last dorsal-fin ray. Males with acute, elongate, retrorse hooks, posterolaterally arranged on last unbranched to 8 th, 9 th or 10 th branched anal-fin rays ( Fig. 4a View FIGURE 4 ). Two unpaired hooks present per lepidotrichia ray segment of on each lateral half of ray. Hooks situated along posterior margin and posterior branches of rays; extending from distal half of proximal lepidotrichia segment to distal end of ray. Hookbearing rays with segments and branches progressively fused with increasing maturation of males. Mature males with hypertrophied soft tissue associated with hook-bearing anal-fin rays. Pectoral-fin rays i,9*(6), 10(9), 11(2). Pectoral-fin ray falling short of pelvic-fin origin in females, but extending beyond that point in males. Pelvic-fin rays i,7*. Pelvic-fin origin anterior to vertical through dorsal-fin origin. Pelvic-fin rays of males with 1 or 2 acute, elongate hooks per lepidotrichia segment. Hooks ventromedially placed on all rays, and associated with hypertrophied soft tissue. Principal caudal-fin rays 18(1), 19*(14). Procurrent caudal-fin rays 11(2) dorsal, 13(2) ventral. Ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays hypertrophied in mature males, extending beyond ventral muscles and skin of caudal-peduncle resulting in multi-pointed semicircular star-shaped structure. Hypertrophied ventral procurrent ray scimitar-shaped: anteriorly bent, proximally acute, expanding distally and ending abruptly in pointed distal tip ( Fig. 2a View FIGURE 2 ).

Scales cycloid, similar in size over all of body. Lateral line partially pored with 6*(2), 8(5), 9(8), 11(1), 13(1) pored scales; scales in lateral line scale row 31(3), 32*(6), 33(4), 34(3), 35(1). Predorsal scales 9(7), 10(6), 11(2), 12(1). Scale rows between lateral line and dorsal-fin origin 5(1) or 6*(16). Scale rows between lateral line row and pelvic-fin origin 4*(16) or 5(1). Scale rows around caudal peduncle 12(1), 13*(8), 14(8). Scales along anal-fin base 6(1), 8*(2), 9(3), 10(6), 11(3), 12(1), 13(1).

Supraneurals 4 or 5; abdominal vertebrae 15; caudal vertebrae 19 in two clear and stained specimens.

Color in alcohol. Overall background body color yellow ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ). Head with numerous and large melanophores on dorsal and opercular regions. Small, dark melanophores surrounding mouth opening and over maxilla. Scales on dorsum and on rows above lateral line with subtle reticulated color pattern due to concentration of melanophores along distal border of scales. Body with faint dark midlateral stripe, usually in form of narrow black line along middle longitudinal body axis, beginning anterior to dorsal-fin origin and ending in caudal spot. Body with scattered pigmentation ventral of lateral line. Melanophores aligned along myosepta on posteroventral region of body. Black to brown, rounded spot on caudal-fin base; spot not reaching upper or lower margin of caudal peduncle and extending posteriorly over one-half to two-thirds of middle caudal-fin rays. Dorsal, anal, pectoral and pelvic fins scattered with few melanophores between rays. Adipose fin unpigmented. Caudal fin covered with diffuse dark chromatophores along fin rays, except for clear areas on base of caudal-fin lobes just posterior of caudal-fin spot. No humeral spot; triangular, darkened area in humeral region due to presence of pseudotympanum within musculature.

Sexual dimorphism. Sexually mature males with hooks on pelvic- and anal-fin rays, ventrally arched caudal peduncle in preserved specimens; hypertrophied hook bearing anal-fin rays, expanded in sagittal plane usually with fused ray segments; and hypertrophied ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays ( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 , 2a–b View FIGURE 2 , 4a View FIGURE 4 ).

Distribution. Serrapinnus aster   is distributed on the upper portions of the rio Tocantins basin, mainly in the tributaries of the rio Paraná and rio Tocantins ( Fig. 5a View FIGURE 5 ).

Etymology. The species name, aster   , refers to the star-shaped ventral profile of the set of hypertrophied procurrent caudal-fin rays present in the mature males of the species.


Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul


Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile