Arumatia anyami Ghirotto, Crispino & Neves, 2022
Ghirotto, Victor Morais, Crispino, Edgar Blois, Engelking, Phillip Watzke, Neves, Pedro Alvaro Barbosa Aguiar, Góis, Júlia de & Chiquetto-Machado, Pedro Ivo, 2022, Arumatia, a new genus of Diapheromerinae stick insects (Insecta, Phasmatodea) from Brazil, with the description of five new species and a reassessment of species misplaced in Australian genera, European Journal of Taxonomy 827 (827), pp. 1-85 : 27-34
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|Arumatia anyami Ghirotto, Crispino & Neves|
gen. et sp. nov.
Arumatia anyami Ghirotto, Crispino & Neves gen. et sp. nov.
From Arumatia fulgens gen. et comb. nov. it differs by a shorter median segment ca ¾ the length of the metanotum, the slightly shorter cerci and the lack of a black dorsal line. From A. dubia gen. et comb. nov. it differs by the presence of a black spot on the ventral region of the prothorax, a shorter median segment ca ¾ the length of the metanotum, the more homogeneous and less spiniform setae at the apex of the carinae of the tibiae, the longer subgenital plate, the smaller epiproct, the more emarginate posterior margin of the anal segment, shorter and less tapering cerci, tergum VII with posterior margin just gently widened, longer gonapophyses VIII and a thicker gonoplac. Some mouthparts differ between the two species, as A. anyami gen. et sp. nov. has a different microtrichia pattern as a circle on the galea and not a band and has slightly more setae on the lacinia, a thicker galea and thicker labial palp segments than A. dubia . From A. crassicercata gen. et sp. nov. it differs by the lack of a praeopercular organ, longer cerci and slightly thinner legs. Arumatia anyami gen. et sp. nov. also has a thicker galea and thicker labial palp segments than those of A. crassicercata . From A. aramatia gen. et sp. nov. it differs by a shorter and less elongate head, a shorter median segment ca ¾ the length of the metanotum, the more homogeneous and less spiniform setae at the apex of the carinae of the tibiae, the emarginate posterior margin of tergum X, the slightly longer subgenital plate, the lack of praeopercular organ, the shorter gonoplac and gonapophyses IX and longer gonapophyses VIII. From A. motenata gen. et sp. nov. and A. diamante gen. et sp. nov. it differs by the shorter, less elongate head, the wider galea, the absence of an apical sessile spine on the apex of the ventral, antero- and posteroventral carinae of the tibiae, the more emarginate posterior margin of tergum X, the shorter epiproct, the longer subgenital plate and the absence of praeopercular organ.
As a science communication initiative, several possible epithets for the species were put forward for voting by students and teachers at a Brazilian school in São Paulo, São Paulo State. The winning epithet was ‘ anyami ’, composed of the words ‘ an ’, meaning ‘ghost’ or ‘shadow’, and ‘ yami ’, meaning ‘night’, both from Tupi-Guarani, a South American indigenous language. The name is to be treated as a noun in apposition and refers to the nocturnal and cryptic habit of stick insects, which also inspired the ordinal name Phasmatodea .
Paratypes BRAZIL • 4 ♀♀; same collection data as for holotype; MZUSP 1090 View Materials , MZUSP 1319 View Materials , MZUSP 1320 View Materials , MZUSP 1321 View Materials GoogleMaps • eggs; same collection data as for holotype; MZUSP GoogleMaps .
Female (holotype, MZUSP 1091) MEASUREMENTS (in mm). Body (without cerci) 91.9, head 4.0, antennae at least 45, pronotum 3.2, mesonotum 20.7, metanotum 8.3, median segment 5.5, abdomen (excluding median segment) 50.2, cercus 5.4, profemur 22.6, protibia 22.7, mesofemur 15.5, mesotibia 14.8, metafemur 19.5, metatibia
COLOUR ( Fig. 14 View Fig ). Known only from aged preserved specimens. Entirely green to pale yellow, eyes dark brown, profurcasternum dark.
HEAD ( Fig. 15 View Fig ). Elongate, smooth and with sparse setae mostly on dorsal region. Vertex flat but very gently convex at posterior margin to fit underneath pronotum, frontal convexity developed, frontal suture round. Eyes small, slightly elongate, approximately 0.2× length of head. Cervix covering about half length of head, cervical sclerites developed. Gula slightly tapering posteriorly, bearing setae and covering ca more than half of cervix. Subgena narrow with posterior projection at ca height of middle of eye. Submentum narrow and curved towards posterior, mentum simple and prementum somewhat wide. Glossa elongate and rounded, paraglossa larger, roundly falcate, almost reaching labrum. Lacinia with three distal teeth, one large medially and two smaller laterally, mesal edge bearing bundles of ca 20 large setae from base to sclerotized portion. Galea broad, roundly elliptical, bearing long setae, apically with dense round tuft of hairy and large microtrichia with few distinct circular granules present dorsally and posteriad to this patch ( Fig. 15D View Fig ). Galealobulus present, small, widely round and basally fused to galea ( Fig. 15D View Fig ). Maxillary palpal segments cylindrical, labial slightly widened. Clypeus wide, approximately elliptical. Labrum strongly notched anteromedially. Left mandible with two smooth and straight edges, dorsal cutting edge sharp, ventral edge blunt, mesal surface with convex globose protuberance near ventral cutting edge and sinuous furrow between both edges. Right mandible with sharp dorsal cutting edge, straight but interrupted at border with ventral edge by round edge, ventral edge irregular, level and molariform with two projections, without protuberances on mesal surface. Both mandibles with dense row of long setae at base of dorsal margin. Antennae filiform with at least 45 segments, reaching or exceeding posterior margin of median segment ( Fig. 15A–C View Fig ). Scapus ca 1.7× as long as wide, basally constricted in dorsal view, slightly compressed dorsoventrally. Pedicellus subglobose, large, slightly longer than half length of scapus. Antennal bump very discrete dorsally on posterior region of 12 th antennomere.
THORAX ( Figs 14 View Fig , 15A–C View Fig , 16A View Fig ). Smooth with scattered dispersed setae inserted in paler small dots. Pronotum longer than wide, slightly constricted pre-medially and slightly wider from transverse sulcus towards anterior margin, fairly flat in lateral view. Transverse sulcus of pronotum conspicuous and forwardly curved towards anterior, longitudinal sulcus conspicuous and distinct. Paranota curved, slightly narrower medially and ca 3× as long as wide, procoxopleurite apically round and ventrally concave ( Fig. 15A–C View Fig ). Probasisternum strongly tapering towards anterior, with two thin apices on anterior margin, profurcasternum round ( Fig. 15C View Fig ). Mesothorax 6.5× as long as prothorax and as wide as prothorax, anteriorly slightly widening towards posterior region. Mesonotum with pair of distinct lateral
carinae, mesepisternum lanceolate and regularly widening posteriorly. Mesepimeron slightly elongate, pointing towards posterior and slightly exceeding posterior region of mesothorax, mesocoxopleurite indistinct, mesofurca Y-shaped ( Fig. 14 View Fig ). Metathorax continuing the pair of lateral carinae of mesonotum, metepisternum long, similar to mesepisternum, metepimeron extremely elongate, extending across entire length of median segment, posteriorly pointing and slightly exceeding end of median segment. Metacoxopleurite very discrete but elongate, metafurca Y-shaped ( Fig. 14 View Fig ). Metanotum 1.5× as long as median segment ( Fig. 16A View Fig ). Median segment anteriorly marked by two lateral short and slender transversal dark markings ( Fig. 16A View Fig ) and continuing the pair of thoracic lateral carinae.
LEGS ( Figs 14 View Fig , 15A–C View Fig , 16 View Fig ). Slender. Hindlegs slightly extending beyond epiproct but not cerci, anterior legs slightly longer than hindlegs, midlegs distinctly shorter. Coxae slightly elongate and smooth ( Fig. 15B–C View Fig ). Profemora slightly longer than mesothorax, mesofemora about 0.7× as long as profemora, metafemora slightly shorter than mesothorax. Protibia slightly longer than profemur, mesotibia slightly shorter than mesofemur, metatibia slightly longer than metafemur ( Fig. 14 View Fig ). Profemur presenting distinct basal curvature ( Figs 14 View Fig , 15A–B View Fig ). Femora and tibiae with five carinae without setae among them. Carinae of femora and tibiae distinctly keeled. Antero- and posteroventral carinae of femora with distinct apical toothed prominence. Carinae of all femora, tibiae and basitarsi bearing row of short setae
slightly stouter on posterior region of meso- and metatibiae, stronger on mesotibiae ( Figs 14 View Fig , 16B–D View Fig ). All basitarsi very elongate, with pro- and metabasitarsi significantly longer than respective following tarsomeres combined and mesobasitarsi almost longer than respective following tarsomeres combined, with hairy setae restricted to apical portion in ventral patches ( Fig. 16B–D View Fig ). Remaining tarsomeres with setae on ventro-lateral patches in all portions not covered by euplantulae. Tarsomeres I–III with discrete dorsal round apical projection. Arolium round and broad, dorsally bearing setae. Pretarsal claws symmetrical, dorsally and outwardly with setae. Euplantulae well developed in all tarsomeres, composed of two symmetrical pads separated by median groove in tarsomeres I–III, of single pointing domed pad
in tarsomeres IV and of single flattened lobed pad in tarsomeres V. Euplantulae present only apically at tarsomeres I–II, covering ca half or less the length of tarsomeres III, covering two thirds the length of tarsomeres IV and covering almost entire ventral surface of tarsomeres V ( Fig. 16B–D View Fig ).
ABDOMEN ( Figs 14 View Fig , 17 View Fig ). External surface as in thorax, bearing few setae across its entire length. Median segment shorter than metanotum ( Fig. 16A View Fig ). Combined length of segments II–X slightly longer than combined length of head, thorax and median segment. Terga II–VII and sterna II–VIII bear discrete lateral carinae near lateral margins. All segments longer than wide. Segments II and III as long as VI and slightly longer than VII, segments IV–V slightly longer than III, tergum VIII significantly shorter than preceding segment and slightly longer than IX, tergum IX ca as long as X. Lateral borders of tergum VII gently curving downwards and inwards near posterior margin. Tergum X just slightly narrower towards apex in dorsal view, posterior margin distinctly emarginate with right-angled indent showing
epiproct ( Fig. 17A–B View Fig ). Epiproct small, domed in dorsal view, dorsoventrally flattened, prominent, slightly exceeding posteriormost margins of tergum X and visible dorsally, barely laterally ( Fig. 17A– B View Fig ). Paraprocts elongate, bearing setae, posteriorly acute and straight ( Fig. 17B–C View Fig ). Cerci extremely elongate, straight, basally narrower, fitting paraprocts, pointing to posterior, cylindrical and tapering only posteriorly and slightly shorter than terga IX and X combined ( Fig. 17A–C View Fig ). Praeopercular organ absent ( Fig. 17C View Fig ). Subgenital plate lanceolate, acute, reaching posterior margin of tergum X, gradually tapering towards posterior and totally covering gonapophyses and gonoplac ( Fig. 17C View Fig ). Gonapophyses and gonoplac flattened, dorsoventrally for gonapophyses VIII, lateroventrally for IX and laterally for gonoplac ( Fig. 17D View Fig ). Gonapophyses VIII longer than IX and slightly longer than gonoplac, slightly
exceeding anterior margin of tergum X, gonapophyses IX reaching ¾ the length of tergum IX. Gonapophyses VIII very elongate, somewhat narrow and linear, IX conical, short and abruptly tapering towards posterior ( Fig. 17D View Fig ). Gonapophyses IX ventrally folded to fit within gonapophyses VIII. Gonangulum distinctly reduced, flat. Gonoplac elongate, somewhat lorate, slightly tapering towards posterior, bearing setae, exceeding gonapophyses IX but not VIII and reaching ca anterior margin of tergum X ( Fig. 17D View Fig ).
Measurements (in mm, N = 3): body 88.1–90, head 4–4.8, antennae 40.5, pronotum 3–3.3, mesonotum 20.8–21.5, metanotum 7.4–7.8, median segment 5.2–5.6, abdomen (excluding median segment) 48.1– 50.2, cercus 4.9–5.4, profemur 22.4–23.3, protibia 21.3–22.1, mesofemur 14.2–15, mesotibia 13.8–14.8, metafemur 18.9–19.7, metatibia 20–20.4.
Egg ( Fig. 18 View Fig )
Measurements (in mm, N = 2): length 2.3–2.4, height 1.7–1.8, width 1.5. Relatively small, capsule subrectangular to ovoid, constricted at opercular collar ( Fig. 18A–B View Fig ), gently compressed laterally
( Fig. 18E View Fig ) and ca 1.8× as long as wide and 1.3× as long as tall. Mid to dark brown. Capsule surface roughly textured with small irregular reticulate ridges ( Fig.18C, E View Fig ). Micropylar plate elongate, occupying large area of dorsal region, elliptical with parallel sides and round margins ( Fig. 18E View Fig ). Micropylar plate with lighter elevated outer circle delimiting darker inner flat region confluent with micropylar cup. Micropylar cup small, rounded and only slightly elevated. Median line short, same colour and elevation as elevated margin of micropylar plate ( Fig. 18E View Fig ). Opercular collar narrower (constricted) than rest of capsule, with minute and delicate bristles surrounding edge. Operculum elliptical, with a short irregular reticulated elevation composing non-stalked capitulum ( Fig. 18D View Fig ).
Distribution ( Fig. 52 View Fig )
Known only from the type locality, Forte Príncipe da Beira, Costa Marques, Rondônia, Brazil, along the border with Bolivia along the Guaporé River in the Amazon Forest. Interestingly, the type locality is influenced by and in very close contact with the Beni savannahs of Bolivia ( Fig. 52 View Fig ), which lie right at the other margin of the Guaporé River. There are also smaller patches of savannah formations in nearby areas at Costa Marques and it is uncertain whether individuals were collected in fully forested areas or in savannah formations.
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