Corynoneura ferelobata Sublette et Sasa
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|Corynoneura ferelobata Sublette et Sasa|
Type material. Holotype male, GUATEMALA, Barretal , 3.i.1981, slide n° I-39, specimen n° 1 . Paratypes: allotype female, specimen n° 12 and two paratypes pupal exuviae, n° 6, on the same slide as holotype; one female together with paratype male of C. hirvenojai, Barretal , I-40; two males, I-41; one female, I-44; one female (not a male), I-45; one female, I-46; one male with pupal exuviae, I-47, 3.ii-3.iii.1981; one male and one female (not two females), Rincon I-100, on the same slide as holotype male of Thienemanniella medialis Sublette et Sasa and two pupal exuviae of Onconeura semifimbriata (Saether) .
Considerations about the type material. Paratype females on slide and I-40, I-44 and I-46 are not C. ferelobata since in these specimens one Sca is smaller than the other whereas the allotype of C. ferelobata has both Sca with the same size. Moreover in specimens I-40 and I-46 it is not possible to see the well sclerotized posteromedially strongly invagination of the labia and the lamella of the coxosternapodeme ( Sublette & Sasa 1994, Fig. 51), in the female on slide I-44 the labia are distinct, forming together a semicircle, not invaginated at the posterior margin. About the two paratypes considered females on slide I-100, one is a male, unfortunately laterally mounted, with a very short gonostylus, not like C. ferelobata and the other is a female, with two Sca sclerotized, one much smaller than the other, also not corresponding to C. ferelobata . Slide I-42 was not studied. In conclusion, from the material examined apart from holotype and allotype only slides I- 41specimen number 2, I–45 and I–47 correspond to C. ferelobata . Specimen number one on slides I-41 is slide-mounted in lateral position, but the apex of the antenna do not correspond to C. ferelobata . Holotype and allotype of C. ferelobata have pubescent eyes.
Additional material examined. 6 males, BRAZIL, MS, Bodoquena, Fazenda Califórnia, Malaise 4, 20°41´49.9´´S, 56°52´54.0´´W, C. A. Martins. 4 males, MS, Aquidauana, Res. Ecológica UEMS, Malaise 9, 26.ix.2011, C. E. Lamas. 2 males, MG, Caboverde, 21° 27.169´S, 46°20.823´´W, 01–04.xi.2010, MT#2 , Brown, B., Kung, G. and others. Two pharate males and one pharate female ( MPSW041 ), all with pupal exuviae, one of the males with larval exuviae, MG, Paraisópolis, 22°39´54.81´´S, 45°55´38.29´´W, 1370 m a.s.l., 11.x.2009, S. Wiedenbrug. Two pharate males with pupal exuviae, one pharate female with larval and pupal exuviae, one pupal exuviae, SP, Jundiaí, Serra do Japí, 23°14´38´´S, 46°57´16´´W, 1041 m a.s.l., 18.xii.2007, S. Wiedenbrug. One pharate male with pupal exuviae ( MPSW 052 ), SP, Ubatuba, Stream besides Ruínas da Lagoinha , 23° 30.468´S, 45°11.923´W, 0 m a.s.l., litter, 5.i.2010, S. Wiedenbrug. One pharate female with pupal exuviae same data as before but 11.iv.2009. One male with pupal exuviae, SC, Florianópolis, Ratones, Sítio Quintal da Ilha , Af. Rio Ratones , 27° 30´33´´S 48°29´22´´ W, 12.vii. 2008 in wood, L.C. Pinho. Six males, SC, Urubici, Morro da Igreja , 1822 m a.s.l.. 18.ix–05.xii.2004, malaise trap, cloud forest, L.C. Pinho. One male GoogleMaps , COSTA RICA, Guanacaste, Petilla , 8–9.v.1993, net, n° chi 20076, Z.M. Bergen 2058, T. Andersen .
Diagnostics Characters. The male of C. ferelobata can be recognized by the antennae with 8–9 flagellomeres; tergite IX with two posterior humps; sternapodeme as an inverted V attached laterally to phallapodeme; phallapodeme rounded strongly curved to posterior, with lateral apex divided in two rami, posterior one longer; inferior volsella small, rounded and distinct; aedeagal lobe low, gonostylus slender apically hooked without basal scale. The female has two Sca of less than 50 µm long, copulatory bursa and labia posteromedially strongly invaginated, and coxosternapodeme curved with lamellae. The pupa has tergites with homogeneous fine shagreen, shagreen points longer than wider. Sternite I bare, II with very fine shagreen, without longer spinules. Segment IX and anal lobe together almost forming a circle, as long as wide. The larva of C. ferelobata has the dorsal integument granulated, first antennal segment subequal to postmentum length, mentum with three median teeth, median tooth minute, seta on posterior parapod apparently simple.
Male (n = 3–6)
Total length 0.81–1.16 mm. Wing length 0.56–0.72 mm.
Color. Thorax brownish. Abdominal tergites I–IV whitish, other tergites and genitalia brownish. Legs whitish.
Head. AR = 0.24–0.43. Antenna with 8–9 flagellomeres, apical flagellomere 77–110 µm ( Fig. 13 A). Flagellomeres, except first and last, with more than one row of setae each. Eyes pubescent.
Thorax. Antepronotal lobes dorsally tapering.
Wing. Clavus/wing length 0.24–0.27. Anal lobe absent.
Legs. Hind tibial scale 27–35 µm long, with one s-seta ( Fig. 13 B).
Hypopygium ( Figs 13 C–D). Tergite IX with 4 setae. Laterosternite IX with 1 seta. Superior volsella absent. Inferior volsella small, rounded and distinct. Aedeagal lobe low (not drawn). Sternapodeme as an inverted V. Phallapodeme long, rounded, curved to posterior, attached to lateral sternapodeme on lateral posterior third. Gonostylus without a scale, thin and orally curved.
Metric and meristic features in Table 1.
Female (n = 1–2)
Thorax. 0.35–0.48 mm.
Head. AR = 0.33–0.39. Antenna with 5 flagellomeres, apical flagellomere 30–45 µm long. Flagellomeres with more than one row of setae each. Eyes pubescent.
Thorax. Antepronotal lobes dorsally tapering.
Legs. Hind tibial scale 35–37 µm long, with one small s-seta.
Genitalia ( Fig. 13 E) Tergite IX with 4 setae. Laterosternite IX with one seta. Two seminal capsules 37–42 µm long; spermathecal ducts subequal, join together shortly before seminal eminence. Membrane well sclerotized. Coxosternapodeme curved with lamellae, copulatory bursa posteriorly strong invaginated, posterolateral folded. Labia bare membranous, posteriorly strongly invaginated. Notum 25 µm long. Apodeme lobe pointed. Gonocoxapodeme straight. Cercus 17–22 µm long.
Metric and meristic features in Table 2.
Pupa (n = 2–3)
Total length 1.24–1.41 mm.
Color (exuviae). Cephalothorax light grey, abdomen transparent except muscle markings, lateral margin and anal lobe.
Cephalothorax. Frontal apotome rugose. Thorax suture smooth slightly rugose, with some small spinules at the scutal tubercle region. All Dc-setae thin taeniate, except Dc 3 about 2 µm wide and 80 µm long. Dc 1 displaced ventrally. Wing sheaths with two to four rows of pearls.
Abdomen ( Figs 14 A–D). Tergite and sternite I bare, tergites and sternites II-IX with homogeneous shagreen, points on sternites much smaller than points on tergites. Conjunctives TII/III-TVI/VII and SIII/IV-SVII/VIII with small spinules. Segment I with 1, II with 3 L-setae and III-VIII with 4 long taeniate L-setae. Anal lobe rounded ( Fig. 14 C). Anal lobe with fringe complete, 3 taeniate macrosetae and inner setae taeniate.
Metric and meristic features in Table 3.
Larva (n = 1)
Head. Postmentum 163 µm long. Head capsule integument dorsal granulated in reticulate pattern ( Fig. 14 E). Mentum with three median teeth, median tooth minute, first lateral teeth small, less sclerotized and adpressed to median, five additional lateral teeth ( Fig. 14 F). Antenna 348 µm long, segments two and three darker (not drawn). First segment longer than postmentum length.
Abdomen. Ventral setae not modified ( Fig. 14 G). Subbasal seta on posterior parapod not serrate, simple ( Fig. 14 H).
Metric and meristic features in Table 4.
Remarks. The type material of Corynoneura ferelobata was collected in small mountain streams of Guatemala and according to Fu et al. (2009) it also occurs in China. The present study also recorded the species, for the first time, in different regions: larvae were collected from litter deposited near the water surface from small mountain streams of the Atlantic Forest in São Paulo State. The species was also found in other small mountain streams of the same biome in Minas Gerais and Santa Catarina States in Brazil. Corynoneura ferelobata was also collected in small streams in a Semideciduous Forest in Mato Grosso de Sul ( Brazil) and in Costa Rica, in the province of Guanacaste.
The single difference between the specimens from Brazil and Guatemala was found in the pupa. In the specimens from Guatemala, the shape of the shagreen points is shorter and wider than the shagreen points of Brazilian specimens, which are longer than wider. Unfortunately the larva of the specimens from Guatemala is not known. The Chinese specimens, only known as males, are larger than specimens from Guatemala and are characterized by the wing length between 0.70–0.85, antenna with 9 flagellomeres and AR 0.27–0.34. Brazilian specimens have AR 0.24–0.43 and number of flagellomeres 8–9, the specimens from Minas Gerais are smaller (wing length 0.56–0.57 mm), but larger in Santa Catarina State (wing length 0.72 mm).
Sublette and Sasa (1994) mention that the male of C. ferelobata is very similar to C. lobata Edwards and both species differs slightly on genital features, the size and the number of the antennal flagellomeres. According to Schlee (1968), the number of flagellomeres and the size of the specimens should not be the main characters to differentiate species, the author mentioned that measurements in C. lobata are very variable in the same population in Europe and the antennal ratio varies between 0.20–0.64, reflecting the variation in the number of flagellomeres (9-11). Fu et al. (2009) uses the shape of the gonostylus to separate males of C. lobata from C. ferelobata ; which is slender in C. ferelobata and median expanded in C. lobata , however the observation of this character depends on the position of gonostylus on the slide.
The pupae from C. ferelobata and C. lobata are identical ( Sublette & Sasa 1994). The larva of C. ferelobata sampled in the Serra do Japi, SP, keys in C. lobata by Cranston (1982), Schmid (1993) and Epler (2001), however the middle tooth of the Brazilian specimen is much smaller and the first antennal segment longer (175 µm) than the mean given by Schmid (146 µm).
According to E. Stur (pers. comm.), analysis of partial COI gene sequences from different specimens of C. lobata from the Holartic region indicate the existence of multiple species within this group.
More associated material of C. lobata and C. ferelobata from the different locations is necessary to light the problem and help to stablish the real limits and also in the segregation of this species. The unusual distribution pattern may suggest the existence of cryptic species among the C. ferelobata complex.
Museum of Zoology
Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics
Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium
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