Anastrepha tenebrosa Norrbom

Norrbom, Allen L., Muller, Alies, Gangadin, Anielkoemar, Sutton, Bruce D., Rodriguez, Erick J., Savaris, Marcoandre, Lampert, Silvana, Rodriguez, Pedro A., Steck, Gary J., Moore, Matthew R., Nolazco, Norma, Troya, Henry, Keil, Clifford B., Padilla, Anabel, Wiegmann, Brian M., Cassel, Brian, Branham, Marc & Ruiz-Arce, Raul, 2021, New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Suriname and Pará, Brazil, Zootaxa 5044 (1), pp. 1-74: 38-40

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Anastrepha tenebrosa Norrbom

new species

Anastrepha tenebrosa Norrbom   , new species

Figs. 15 View FIGURES 15–16 , 65–67 View FIGURES 55–66 View FIGURES 67–73 , 94–95 View FIGURES 92–97 , 111 View FIGURES 98–120 , 139 View FIGURES 132–144 , 165–166 View FIGURES 165–166

Diagnosis. Anastrepha tenebrosa   can be distinguished from other species of Anastrepha   by the following combination of characters: Scutum without medial white to yellow vitta; cell bm mostly to entirely infuscated, at most orange only medially; and S-band with middle section mostly brown, at most with small orange area posteriorly in cell br and/or small mottled orange area in cell r 2+3. It differs from most other species of Anastrepha   by its predominantly brown wing pattern, with the C-band and S-band broadly connected, and the V-band complete, broadly connected to the S-band anteriorly and also connected to it in cell dm. In wing pattern it resembles A. brunnealata Norrbom & Caraballo   , A. caudata Stone   , A. concava Greene   , A. fuscoalata Norrbom   , A. hendeliana   Lima and A. melanoptera Norrbom   , which have the C-band and S-band connected in cell dm or at least the hyaline area between them narrowed. It differs from A. brunnealata   and A. fuscoalata   in lacking an orange area in the C-band posterior to the pterostigma, from all of these species except A. concava   in having the aculeus tip nonserrate, from A. concava   in having vein M 1 more strongly curved apically, shorter terminalia, and a much shorter aculeus tip, and from A. melanoptera   in having larger and more sclerotized hooklike dorsobasal denticles on the eversible membrane, longer terminalia, and a broader aculeus tip. The shape of the aculeus tip in A. tenebrosa   is also distinctive, with its lobelike expansions near midlength. The tip somewhat resembles species of the doryphoros group. The pattern of denticles on the eversible membrane, which almost connect ventrally, resembles that of A. acca Norrbom.  

In the key of Zucchi et al. (2011) A. tenebrosa   runs to A. isolata Norrbom & Korytkowski   , from which it differs in lacking an extension from the S-band in cell m 4, having much longer terminalia, and a non-serrate aculeus tip, to A. furcata   Lima, from which it differs in having longer terminalia and the aculeus not dorsally curved, or to A. hendeliana   .

Two sequences of A. tenebrosa   ( MT763883 View Materials , MT763884 View Materials ), both from adult specimens from ExplorNapo, Peru, were included in the COI barcode analysis of Moore et al. (in prep.). Both are unique, and they formed a separate cluster (i.e., with a COI barcode gap), with an intraspecific K2P distance of 0.6%. The smallest interspecific K2P distance was 8.4% with A. sodalis   .

Description. Mostly yellow to orange. Setae dark red brown to black.

Head: Yellow to orange except brown ocellar tubercle. 4–6 frontal setae; 2 orbital setae, posterior seta well developed. Ocellar seta weak, 1–2 times as long as ocellar tubercle. Facial carina, in profile, straight or concave on dorsal two-thirds. Antenna not extended to ventral facial margin. Palpus in lateral view dorsally curved, evenly setulose.

Thorax: Mostly orange; without brown markings; with following areas white to pale yellow: postpronotal lobe and lateral margin of scutum bordering it; sublateral scutal vitta from transverse suture to posterior margin, including base of intra-alar seta; scutellum; dorsal margins of anepisternum and katepisternum; katepimeron; and most of anatergite and katatergite. Medial scutal vitta absent. Subscutellum and mediotergite entirely orange. Mesonotum 3.49–4.07 mm long. Postpronotal lobe, notopleuron, scutum and scutellum entirely microtrichose; scutal setulae orange medially, brownish laterally, evenly distributed sublaterally. Chaetotaxy typical for genus. Katepisternal seta orange, weaker than and 0.2–0.4 times as long as anepisternal seta.

Legs: Entirely yellow to orange.

Wing ( Figs. 65–67 View FIGURES 55–66 View FIGURES 67–73 ): Length 8.63–9.66 mm, width 3.61–4.11 mm, ratio 2.33–2.44. Apex of vein R 1 at 0.56 wing length, proximal to level of anterior end of crossvein r-m. Cell c 1.13–1.24 times as long as pterostigma; pterostigma 3.17–3.50 times as long as wide. Vein R 2+3 not sinuous. Crossvein r-m at 0.65–0.70 distance from bm-m to dm-m on vein M 1. Vein M 1 strongly curved apically; cell r 4+5 at apex 0.78–0.86 times as wide as at level of dm-m, 0.72–0.77 times as wide as maximum subapical width. Cell cu a with distal lobe relatively long, length of cu a 1.66–1.75 times as long as anterior margin, lobe 0.82–0.98 times as long as vein CuA+CuP. Wing pattern mostly dark brown. Cband mostly dark brown, cell bc orange, cell c with base orange, brown posterobasally and anterodistal, medial part usually orange at least anteriorly, paler to subhyaline posteriorly; pterostigma dark brown except posterobasal corner; rest of band in cells r 1, r 2+3 and br dark brown. C-band and S-band broadly connected from base to vein R 4+5, except usually with small hyaline anterobasal area in cell dm; hyaline marginal spot in cell r 1 triangular, with apex aligned with or usually very slightly proximal to crossvein r-m. Cell bm brown, usually paler medially; cells br, bm, dm entirely microtrichose. Basal half of S-band mostly dark brown, with large orange area in cell dm and usually extending into posterior part of cell br although sometimes only as a few dotlike spots, orange area often fading to hyaline in anterobasal corner of cell dm; mottled orange and brown in cell r 1 and sometimes in cell r 2+3; posterodistal margin with or without weak incision in cell m 4; distal section mottled pale and moderate brown, moderate brown on margins; medium width, at apex of vein R 2+3 0.60–0.80 times width of cell r 2+3, usually broadening at vein R 4+5, not extended to apex of vein M 1, without marginal hyaline areas; hyaline area proximal to apex of band extended almost to vein R 2+3. V-band with proximal arm mostly to entirely brown, usually paler centrally bordering anterior part of crossvein dm-m and in parts of cell r 4+5; broad, connected to S-band along vein R 4+5 or more broadly in cell r 2+3, also connected in cell dm, usually more broadly in male; on posterior margin extended approximately four-fifths distance to vein CuA+CuP; distal arm slender to moderately broad, entirely brown or mottled orange anteriorly, connected to proximal arm; hyaline area between arms of V-band and vein M 1 one-fourth to one-third width of cell cell r 4+5.

Abdomen: Mostly orange, without brown markings.

Female terminalia: Oviscape 3.40–4.90 mm long (4.73–4.90 in 4 Peruvian females, 3.40 in Pará, Brazil female), 0.97–1.20 times as long as mesonotum (1.17–1.20 in 4 Peruvian females, 0.97 in Pará, Brazil female), straight in lateral view; mostly dark orange (Pará, Brazil female) to dark brown, usually red brown, sometimes diffusely paler on apical fourth, orange ventrally proximal to spiracle; setulae denser on apical tenth; spiracle at basal 0.26–0.32. Eversible membrane ( Figs. 94–95 View FIGURES 92–97 ) with dorsobasal denticles in band almost connected ventrally, with approximately 55 medium length hooklike denticles in 12 V-shaped or oblique rows. Aculeus ( Fig. 111 View FIGURES 98–120 ) slightly ventrally curved in lateral view, 3.50–4.23 mm long (4.16–4.23 in 3 Peruvian females, 3.40 in Pará, Brazil female, but tip broken), 0.89 times oviscape length; in ventral view base gradually expanded, 0.22–0.24 mm wide, shaft 0.11–0.13 mm wide at midlength; tip ( Fig. 139 View FIGURES 132–144 ) 0.22–0.23 mm long, 0.05–0.06 times aculeus length, 0.07–0.08 mm wide at base, 0.080 –0.094 mm wide preapically, 2.84–3.14 times as long as wide at base; in ventral view strongly tapered subbasally, then expanded at proximal 0.45 and strongly tapered again, distal half elongate triangular with lateral margin slightly convex, nonserrate; 0.065 –0.069 mm wide in lateral view, 0.87–0.93 times ventral width. Spermathecae not dissected.

Male terminalia ( Figs. 165–166 View FIGURES 165–166 ): Epandrium shorter than high in lateral view, in posterior view with posterodorsal margin without medial V-shaped indentation. Lateral surstylus relatively short, extended beyond prensisetae by 1.5–2.0 times length of prensiseta; in lateral view short triangular, acute apically; in posterior view short, somewhat truncate, medial margin convex, lateral margin straight basally, convex subapically. Proctiger with ventral and lateral sclerotized areas narrowly separated. Phallus 6.23–6.89 mm long, 1.65–1.82 times as long as mesonotum; glans 0.52–0.58 mm long.

Distribution. Anastrepha tenebrosa   is known only from Brazil (Pará) and northeastern Peru (Loreto).

Biology. The host plants and other aspects of the biology of this species are unknown.

Type data. Holotype ♀ ( MHNJP), PERU: Loreto: ExplorNapo, Trail Curassow , [3.25506°S 72.90928°W, 144 m, trap] EN-ML-03, [24–] 30 Sep 2015, [U. Cabral] GoogleMaps   . Paratypes: BRAZIL: Pará: Oriximiná, Porto Trombetas , REBIO-Rio Trombetas , Tabuleiro base, 1°21.763’S 56°50.782’W, 65 m, multilure traps, 8–23 Sep 2018, M. Savaris & S. Lampert, 1♀ ( MELQ DZUP460218 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . PERU: Loreto: ExplorNapo, trail ACTS to Canopy walkway, 50 m before platform 1, 3.25166°S 72.90707°W, 127 m, trap EN-ML-14, 1–7 Oct 2015, U. Cabral, 1♂ ( USNM USN- MENT01526579) GoogleMaps   ; ExplorNapo, Trail Curassow , 3.25506°S 72.90928°W, 144 m, trap EN-ML-03, 7–13 Jan 2015, U. Cabral, 1♂ ( FSCA USNMENT01556797) GoogleMaps   ; same, 24–30 Sep 2015, 2♂ ( MHNJP) 2♀ ( USNM USNMENT01526488, USNMENT01526577)   ; Trail Curassow, 500 m before junction with Trail RenuPeru , 3.25546°S 72.90851°W, 156 m, trap EN-ML-38, 1–7 Oct 2015, U. Cabral, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT01526578) GoogleMaps   ; Trail Curassow, 900 m beyond junction with Trail RenuPeru , 3.25428°S 72.90316°W, 137 m, trap EN-ML-10, 18–24 Feb 2015, E. J. Rodriguez & J. Caballero, 1♀ ( SENASA) GoogleMaps   ; same, 24–30 Sep 2015, U. Cabral, 1♂ ( MHNJP)   ; Trail Curassow, 1200 m beyond junction with Trail RenuPeru , 3.2529°S 72.9029°W, 134 m, trap EN-ML-11, 19–26 Nov 2015, U. Cabral, 1♂ ( SE- NASA) GoogleMaps   ; ExplorNapo , trail parallel to trail to canopy walkway, 550 m from ACTS, 3.25116°S 72.90372°W, 139 m, trap EN-ML-41, 18–25 Feb 2015, E. J. Rodriguez & J. Caballero, 1♂ ( MHNJP) GoogleMaps   ; ExplorNapo, Trail RenuPeru, 200 m beyond Botanical garden, 3.25735°S 72.9138°W, 123 m, trap EN-ML-18, 18–24 Feb 2015, E. J. Rodriguez & J. Caballero, 1♂ ( MHNJP) 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT01526580) GoogleMaps   ; ExplorNapo, Trail Tambos, 150 m beyond junction with Trail Curassow , 3.25128°S 72.90323°W, 136 m, trap EN-ML-23, 18–25 Feb 2015, E. J. Rodriguez & J. Caballero, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00875629) GoogleMaps   ; same, 6–12 Nov 2015, U. Cabral, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT01556798)   ; ExplorNapo, Trail Tambos, 50 m before junction with Trail Medicine , 3.25075°S 72.90182°W, 156 m, trap EN-ML- 24, 25 Feb 2015, E. J. Rodriguez & J. Caballero, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00677120) GoogleMaps   .

Etymology. The name of this species is a Latin adjective meaning dark or dusky, in reference to the predominantly dark brown wing pattern.

Comments. This species has not been assigned to a species group. In wing pattern it resembles the species of the caudata   group, and to a lesser extent A. concava Greene   , which has the base of the S-band entirely brown. Unlike the caudata   group, however, A. tenebrosa   lacks the medial scutal vitta and its aculeus tip is nonserrate, with a large steplike margin, somewhat resembling species of the doryphoros group. The surstyli in the male are at least superficially similar to those of A. concava   . In a preliminary phylogenetic analysis using anchored hybrid enrichment (Wiegmann et al., in prep.), A. tenebrosa   is clustered with A. conjuncta Hendel   , the only species of the doryphoros group included in the analysis. In the COI analysis of Moore et al. (in prep.), A. tenebrosa   clusters closest to A. sodalis Stone   and an undescribed species from Ecuador. The single female from Pará, Brazil has the aculeus tip broken, and is relatively small, with shorter terminalia, but is tentatively considered to be conspecific with the Peruvian females.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology