Hurleyella salina, Runyon, 2019

Runyon, Justin B., 2019, Two new species of Hurleyella Runyon & Robinson (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), with the first record from the Neotropics, Zootaxa 4568 (3), pp. 548-560 : 552-558

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Hurleyella salina

sp. nov.

Hurleyella salina sp. nov.

( Figs 2 View FIGURES 1–2 , 4 View FIGURES 3–4 , 6 View FIGURES 5–6 , 9, 10 View FIGURES 9–10 , 15–21 View FIGURES 15–20 View FIGURE 21 )

Description. Male. Body length 0.8–1.0 mm; wing 1.0– 1.1 mm x 0.4–0.5 mm (width). Habitus ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 1–2 ). Head ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 5–6 ): Relatively broad, slightly longer then wide; face covered with dense silver pruinosity; dorsal half broadly triangular, ventral half very narrow, with sides nearly parallel; frontoclypeal suture rather distinct, separating broader upper face from narrow lower face; ommatidia distinctly enlarged near face. Frons with silver pruinosity except with dark brown pruinosity on and around ocellar triangle. Dorsal postcranium with silver pruinosity. Vertical setae positioned lateral to anterior ocellus and midway between anterior ocellus and margin of eye, subequal in size to ocellar setae (subequal in length to first flagellomere); postocular setae largely absent, but with at most 3–4 very short, white setae. Palpus gray pruinose, small, ovate, with subapical brown to black seta (with strong pale reflections in certain lights) and minute pale hairs. Proboscis dark yellow-brown, sclerotized, shiny, not enlarged; with short white hairs at apex. Antenna wholly black; first flagellomere subtriangular with round apex, slightly longer than wide, with rather long pale hairs; arista-like stylus apical, about as long as height of face. Thorax: Scutum dark brown with sparse gray-silver pruinosity and violet reflections; postpronotum and notopleuron with dense gray-silver pruinosity. Setae of thorax rather short, black; 4–5 dorsocentral setae; acrostichal setae absent; 1 notopleural seta; 1 scutellar seta per side, no additional hairs; 1 postpronotal seta; proepisternum with 1 small white hair. Pleura dark brown with dense gray-silver pruinosity. Legs: Mostly yellow and without major setae. Coxa I yellow, sometimes darkened basally, with very sparse, white anterior hairs, those at apex distinctly longer. Coxa II and III dark brown with dense gray-silver pruinosity on basal half or more, usually yellow at apex. Coxa II without lateral seta; coxa III with minute lateral hair. Femora yellow, without preapical setae. Tibia I, II and III yellow, darkened at extreme apex. Tarsi brown from apex of basal tarsomere. Ratios of tibia:tarsomeres for leg I: 20– 10–6–4–3 –3; for leg II: 26– 13–6–4–3 –3; for leg III: 3 0–9–8–5–3–3. Wing ( Fig. 4 View FIGURES 3–4 ): Hyaline, rather broad. R 2+3 very short, fused with costa near midpoint of total wing length and slightly closer to termination of R 1 than R 4+5. R 4+5 nearly straight, very slightly arched toward M 1 apically. M 1 gradually arched far anteriorly on apical half of wing, lying alongside and nearly parallel to R 4+5 on apical third of wing. Length of distal section of vein CuA 1 about 3 times longer than crossvein dm-cu. CuA 1 slightly arched and fading apically, usually not reaching wing margin. Vein A 1 absent. Halter knob bright yellow; stem brownish. Calypter very small, brown, without evident setae. Abdomen: Cylindrical, gradually but only slightly tapered, arched downward on approximately apical half; dark brown with sparse gray-silver pruinosity; tergites with very short, sparse stiff black setae. Hypopygium ( Figs 9, 10 View FIGURES 9–10 ) bulbous, borne on broad peduncle formed by segment 7; dark brown to nearly black, shiny, with rather coarse sparse gray pruinosity. Hypopygial foramen at left at very base. Epandrium ventrally divided into two lateral lobes, asymmetrical basally, with base of right lobe projected into abdomen beneath tergite 7, and base of left lobe evenly rounded; each side with single large finger-like epandrial lobe near 1/ 2 bearing one large seta near base and one large seta at apex. Hypandrium nearly symmetrical, hood-like and nearly surrounding phallus, bifurcate apically into right and left lobes; fused basally with epandrium. Surstylus shiny, dark brown, large, complex and loosely attached to epandrium, with many lobes and processes including medial sclerotized hook with rounded spiny lobe at base; 3 large blade-like setae directed medially; without obvious lateroapical membranous flange; phallus rather wide, arched and projected ventrally. Cercus dark brown-gray, elongate oval with narrowed apex in lateral view, covered with small hairs and several longer setae, especially along margin. Hypoproct arising between cerci, hyaline and subquadrate in lateral view. Female. Body length 0.9– 1.2 mm; wing 1.1–1.2 mm x 0.4–0.5 mm (width). Similar to male except: face slightly wider; abdomen dorsoventrally flattened and usually arched ventrally, tergite 6 with short ventral setae along apical margin.

Etymology. The epithet is derived from the Latin salinus meaning “of salt” and is in reference to the salty and alkali habitats where this species occurs ( Figs 15–20 View FIGURES 15–20 ).

Type material. HOLOTYPE ♂, labelled: “ MONTANA: Golden Valley Co. | alkali area/ Deadman’s Basin | N46°20.528′; W109°22.937′ | 04July2017, J.B. Runyon ” [USNM, type number USNMENT01519228]. PARATYPES: USA: Idaho: Bonneville Co., Fall Creek mineral springs, 43°25.48′N 111°24.86′W, 20.vii.2018, J.B. Runyon (5 ♂, 1 ♀) GoogleMaps . Montana: same data as holotype (6 ♂, 2 ♀) ; same data as holotype, except 7.vii.2016 (1 ♀) ; Jefferson Co., Piedmont Pond , 1325 m, 45°50.634′N 112°06.848′W, 10.vii.2017, J.B. Runyon, sweeping ground with scattered grasses, a little moisture, and a little crusted salt (6 ♂, 2 ♀) GoogleMaps ; Carbon Co., Pryor Mountains, Gyp Springs , 1410 m, 45°00.36′N 108°25.801′W, 4–5.vii.2018, J.B. Runyon (6 ♂, 2 ♀) GoogleMaps . Wyoming: Lincoln Co., Salt Creek , 2020 m, 42°28.00′N 110°58.07′W, 9.vii.2018, J.B. Runyon (10 ♂) GoogleMaps . Paratype specimens deposited in CNC, MTEC, USNM .

Remarks. Specimens of Hurleyella salina sp. nov. have been collected at five localities, three in Montana and one each in Idaho and Wyoming ( Fig. 21 View FIGURE 21 ), all with at least some crusted salt and/or other minerals on the soil surface. The type locality, Deadman’s Basin in central Montana, has large areas of salt ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 15–20 ) and H. salina sp. nov. was found there sweeping nearly bare soil with scattered grasses; most specimens were taken from areas with mud cracks and at least some signs of a little moisture ( Fig. 16 View FIGURES 15–20 ). Specimens were collected at the Piedmont Pond site in southwestern Montana from similar habitat but with more grasses and less salt on the soil surface ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 15–20 ). The Gyp Springs site in southcentral Montana is part of the Chugwater Formation of red sandstone, and specimens were found on bare soil at the bottom sides of a small canyon where moisture evaporated and left a line of crusted salt ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 15–20 ). In west central Wyoming, H. salina sp. nov. was found sweeping bare, moist areas of side pools along Salt Creek with large amounts of crusted salt on the soil surface ( Fig. 19 View FIGURES 15–20 ). Lastly, in southeastern Idaho, adults were found on the dry, crumbling surface of a sloping travertine mound composed of low-magnesian calcite and formed by a cold spring ( Chafetz & Folk 1984; Fig. 20 View FIGURES 15–20 ).

Hurleyella salina sp. nov. is distinct, in a number of respects, from the other three species of Hurleyella . For example, the head of H. salina sp. nov. is relatively short and broad ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 5–6 ). Several characteristics of the hypopygium ( Figs 9, 10 View FIGURES 9–10 ) of H. salina sp. nov. are unlike the other species, including lacking an obvious flange at apex of the surstylus, lacking a strongly sclerotized apical epandrial margin, having a nearly symmetrical hypandrium, and the epandrium almost wholly divided ventrally into left and right lobes.


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


Montana State Entomology Collection


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History