Zagrammosoma melinum Gordh

Perry, Ryan K. & Heraty, John M., 2021, Read between the lineata: A revision of the tattooed wasps, Zagrammosoma Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), with descriptions of eleven new species, Zootaxa 4916 (1), pp. 1-108 : 71-74

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Zagrammosoma melinum Gordh


Zagrammosoma melinum Gordh  

( Fig. 30 View FIGURE 30 )

Zagrammosoma melinum Gordh, 1978: 350–352   . Holotype ♀ [examined]. Locality: USA, California, Coalinga, viii.1939, coll. F. P. Roullard, host: Bucculatrix   sp. ( Lepidoptera   : Bucculatricidae   ), host plant: Populus   sp. (Cottonwood). Depository: USNM type no. 75665.

Diagnosis. This species is characterized by an overall reduction in black color patterns on the body when compared to most other species of Zagrammosoma   . The patterns of Z. melinum   are most similar to Z. americanum   and Z. occidentale   , however, the wing patterns are unique to each species ( Fig. 30C View FIGURE 30 versus 4C & 36C). In addition, the dark, transverse stripe on the anterior margin of the mesoscutum is absent or does not project posteriorly as it does in Z. americanum   ( Fig. 4D View FIGURE 4 ). The prepectus is all yellow and the second funicular is wider than long in Z. occidentale   , whereas in Z. melinum   there is a small, dark stripe on the dorsal margin of the prepectus and the second funicular is longer than wide.

Description. Female - body length 1.58–1.97 mm. Metallic luster on body absent. Scape yellow with black stripe dorsally. Lower face with median stripe absent. Vertex with 2 stripes above compound eye. Gena posteriorly with dark stripes below compound eye. Occiput yellow with 2 dark, vertical stripes. Pronotum with median stripe complete or incomplete; laterally with 2 black stripes. Prepectus yellow with dark stripe along dorsal margin. Mesoscutum with median stripe absent, complete, or incomplete. Mesoscutellum all yellow with no black stripes, or yellow with two or three dark stripes. Propodeum yellow with black median carina, anterior and posterior margins, and laterally with spot or stripe. Procoxa and mesocoxa yellow. Metacoxa yellow with black stripe basally. Profemur and mesofemur yellow. Metafemur with uninterrupted or interrupted stripe dorsally. Fore wing: basal and cubital bands absent; parastigmal band present, at junction of parastigmal and marginal veins only, or with perpendicular extension less than or greater than that of stigmal apex; stigmal band present, with perpendicular extension less than or greater than that of stigmal apex; postmarginal band absent or present with perpendicular extension less than or greater than that of stigmal apex; connections from parastigmal band to stigmal band, and from stigmal band to postmarginal band absent. Hind wing hyaline. Gaster yellow or yellow with median stripe and transverse stripes present.

Upper ocular sulcus present but very faint. Pedicel longer than wide. Funiculars symmetrical: first longer than wide (w:l = 0.61–0.68); second longer than wide (w:l = 0.86–0.88).

Pronotum, in dorsal view, more than twice as wide as long (w:l = 2.09–2.42); 4 pairs of setae along posterior margin. Mesoscutum reticulate; small, scattered setae present; intermediate setae absent. Mesoscutellum wider than long (w:l = 1.15–1.34); submedian grooves present. Hind tibial spur distinctly shorter than basitarsus. Hind basitarsus subequal or shorter than second tarsomere (bst:2 nd = 0.9–1.0).

Fore wing l:w = 2.23–3.38. Submarginal vein with 5–8 setae dorsally. Basal fold setae present, but only one to three setae. Cubital fold setose. Admarginal setae present. Uncus originating on stigma by more than own length from stigmal apex.

Male - as female, except: body length 1.4–1.6 mm; vertex with 1–2 stripes above compound eye; mesoscutellum yellow or yellow with three dark stripes; postmarginal band absent or present with perpendicular extension less than that of stigmal apex; gaster all yellow or yellow with faint median and transverse stripes.

Remarks. Zagrammosoma melinum   can be difficult to identify, as it shows the most color pattern variation of any species of Zagrammosoma   . Gordh (1978) mentions this extreme variation when describing the species, and the molecular analysis supports both monophyly and extensive variation based on the specimens included. Generally, the species lacks a complete, median stripe on the mesosoma, and the mesoscutellum has only two dark stripes ( Fig. 30D View FIGURE 30 ). The median stripe on the mesoscutellum, if present, extends posteriorly by varying degrees ( Fig. 30F, E View FIGURE 30 ). The dark patterns on the female gaster appear different at first but are the same with varying degrees of intensity.

Hosts. Reared from lepidopteran leaf miners. See Table 3. Lepidoptera   : Bucculatricidae   , Gelechiidae   , Gracillariidae   .

Distribution. Nearctic: Canada (AB, BC, NB, SK, YK), USA (AK, AZ, CA, MT, NV, TX, UT) ( Fig. 31 View FIGURE 31 ).

Etymology. Melinus is Latin, describing the honey-yellow body.

Type material examined: Paratypes: USA: California: Fresno Co., Coalinga, 200m, 36°08’35”N, 120°21’5”W, viii.1939, F. P. Roullard, Lot. No. 39 13005, host: Bucculatrix   sp., host plant: Populus   sp. Cottonwood [6♀ 1?, USNM: UCRCENT471552–58].

Additional material examined: CANADA: Alberta: Edmonton, Emily Murphy Park, 630m, 53°32’2”N, 113°32’12”W, 12.viii.1993, BPLM 4, host: Phyllonorycter nipigon   [1♀, CNC: CNC508846 View Materials ]. GoogleMaps   Edmonton, Emily Murphy Park, 630m, 53°32’2”N, 113°32’12”W, 12.viii.1993, BPLM 6, host: Phyllonorycter nipigon   [1♀, CNC: CNC508847 View Materials ]. GoogleMaps   British Columbia: Balfour, 545m, 49°37’28”N, 116°57’50”W, 3.viii.1949, D.B. Waddell, WL, host: leaf miner, host plant: Salix   sp. [1♁, CNC: UCRCENT508844 View Materials ]. GoogleMaps   Cawston, 403m, 49°11’7”N, 119°45’51”W, 17.viii.1998, J. Cossentine, Lowe C-918 [1♀, CNC: CNC508848 View Materials ]. GoogleMaps   New Brunswick: Gloucester Co., Nepisiguit River, 216m, 47°27’3”N, 65°42’24”W, 16.iii.1955, F.I. Survey 54-1891-01, host: Phyllonorycter salicifoliella   [1♀, BMNH: NHMUK10370125 ]. GoogleMaps   Northumberland Co. , mi. 38 Nepisiguit Motor Rd , 216m, 47°22’51”N, 66°04’25”W, 21.iii.1956, F.I. Survey 55-0898-01, host: Phyllonorycter salicifoliella   [2♀, BMNH: NHMUK10370142 , CNC: CNC508845 View Materials ]. GoogleMaps   Saskatchewan: Big River , 53°49’48”N, 107°02’0”W, 2.iv.1967, 67-82, host: Phyllonorycter   sp [1♀, CNC: CNC508850 View Materials ]. GoogleMaps   Yukon: Champagne, 60°47’14”N, 136°26’9”W, 8.vii.2006, Goulet & Boudreault, plants along road, swp, #5 [1♀, CNC: CNC508665 View Materials (D5895)] GoogleMaps   . USA: Alaska: Denali Borough, Anderson, Hwy 3, 235m, 64°17’41”N, 149°05’4”W, 18.vii.2009, Goulet & Boudreault, fallow field on side of road, swp [4♀ 1?, CNC: CNC508670 View Materials (D5898), 509022, 509023, 509080, 509081]. GoogleMaps   Cantwell, Denali Hwy. Rt 8 mi. 85–130, 701– 915m, 63°02’59”N, 145°55’51”W, 24.vii.1984, S. & J. Peck, Car Net [1♀, CNC: CNC508849 View Materials ]. GoogleMaps   Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Sutton on Glen Highway, 188m, 61°42’39”N, 148°54’36”W, 22.vii.2009, Goulet & Boudreault, fallow field, swp [1♁ 1♀, CNC: CNC508666 View Materials (D5896), 508667 (D5897)]. GoogleMaps   Arizona: Cochise Co., Foothills Rd , 1420m, 31°55’1”N, 109°07’41”W,, J. Heraty, Chilopsis   , swp, H15-062 [1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT499455 View Materials ]. GoogleMaps   Ghost Town Trail , 1454m, 31°43’30”N, 109°48’42”W, 10.viii.2009, J. Mottern, dry wash, sweep, M09-037 [1♁ 2♀, UCRC: UCRCENT323379 View Materials , 499460 View Materials , 499461 View Materials (D5932)]. GoogleMaps   California: Imperial Co. , Hwy 98, nr. Sunrise Butte , 103m, 32°40’21”N, 115°50’57”W, 18.iii.2010, J. Mottern, desert scrub, sweep, M10-002 [1♁, UCRC: UCRCENT499459 View Materials ]. GoogleMaps   Inyo Co. , Panamint Valley , 1.5 mi. S. Indian Ranch, 36°07’28”N, 117°12’49”W, 20.v.1991, J. D. Pinto, Prosopis   & Aremopsis   , swp [1♀, CNC: CNC508671 View Materials (D5899)]. GoogleMaps   west side Eureka Valley 13km se Deep Springs , 1135m, 37°16’49”N, 117°54’10”W, 24.v.1994, S. L. Heydon [3♁ 2♀, UCDC: UCRCENT415803–07 View Materials ]. GoogleMaps   Riverside Co. , Terwilliger Rd. S. of Anza , 1269m, 33°27’32”N, 116°38’10”W, 31.viii–7.ix.2008, G. Pratt, malaise trap [1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT357518 View Materials ]. GoogleMaps   San Bernardino Co. , Running Springs , Snow Valley ( San Bernardino Mts. ), 2050m, 34°13’23”N, 117°02’34”W,, R. Luck, host: Coleotechnites   sp., host plant: Pinus jeffreyi   [1♁, UCRC: UCRCENT499276 View Materials ]. GoogleMaps   Montana: Gallatin Co. , Bozeman , 1532m, 45°38’7”N, 111°01’56”W, 2–5.viii.2001, R. Wharton, host: leaf miner ( Gracillariidae   ?), host plant: Populus trichocarpa   [2♀, TAMU: UCRCENT473171 (D5915), 473172 (D5916)]. GoogleMaps   Nevada: Clark Co. , Valley of Fire State Park , 1 mi. W. West entrance, 36°24’41”N, 114°32’58”W, 30.iii.1989, J. D. Pinto, swp [1♀, CNC: CNC508675 View Materials ]. GoogleMaps   Texas: Reeves Co. , Balmorhea Lake , 970m, 30°58’27”N, 103°43’14”W,, J. Heraty, flowers, swp, H15-059 [1♁ 1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT499456 View Materials (D5919), 499457 (D5920)]. GoogleMaps   Utah: Washington Co., Zion National Park , 1344m, 37°16’48”N, 112°56’48”W, vii–viii.1941, Hopk. No. 33608A, host plant: Populus fremontii   [1♁ 2♀, USNM: UCRCENT471559 View Materials , 471560 View Materials , 471611 View Materials ] GoogleMaps   .


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


University of California, Riverside


R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology














Zagrammosoma melinum Gordh

Perry, Ryan K. & Heraty, John M. 2021

Zagrammosoma melinum

Gordh, G. 1978: 352