Zagrammosoma flavolineatum Crawford

Perry, Ryan K. & Heraty, John M., 2021, Read between the lineata: A revision of the tattooed wasps, Zagrammosoma Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), with descriptions of eleven new species, Zootaxa 4916 (1), pp. 1-108 : 49-51

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Zagrammosoma flavolineatum Crawford


Zagrammosoma flavolineatum Crawford  

( Fig. 16 View FIGURE 16 )

Zagrammosoma flavolineata Crawford, 1913: 255   . Holotype ♀ [examined]. Locality: USA, Colorado. Depository : USNM type no. 15390.

Zagrammosoma flavolineatum   ; justified emendation by Peck, 1951: 459.

Zagrammosoma mira Girault, 1916b: 119   . Holotype ♀ [examined]. Locality : USA, California, Claremont. Depository: USNM type no. 20089. n. syn.

Zagrammosoma mirum   ; justified emendation by Peck, 1951: 459.

Cirrospilus mirus   ; incorrect combination by Herting, 1975: 29.

Diagnosis. Zagrammosoma flavolineatum   is characterized by a wide yellow band, extending from the center of the pronotum through the mesoscutellum ( Fig. 16D, E View FIGURE 16 ) in an otherwise almost entirely black dorsum. On the pronotum, a median dark band within the broad yellow band tapers to a point at the posterior margin. Zagrammosoma buselus   is similarly colored ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 ), however, the median dark band extends onto the mesoscutum, and the mesoscutellum is completely yellow, as opposed to yellow flanked by black in Z. flavolineatum   . The wing patterns also differ between the species ( Fig. 5C View FIGURE 5 versus 16C).

Description. Female - body length 1.18–2.12 mm. Metallic luster on body absent. Scape yellow with black stripe dorsally. Lower face with median stripe present. Vertex with 2 stripes above compound eye. Gena posteriorly with dark stripes below compound eye. Occiput yellow with one wide dark, band vertically. Pronotum with median stripe complete; laterally with 2 black stripes. Prepectus yellow with dark stripe along dorsal margin. Mesoscutum with median stripe absent. Mesoscutellum black with yellow, median band. Propodeum all black. Procoxa and mesocoxa yellow. Metacoxa yellow, basally black. Profemur and mesofemur yellow. Metafemur with black banding encircling femur. Fore wing: basal band absent; cubital band present; parastigmal, stigmal, and postmarginal bands present, with perpendicular extension greater than that of stigmal apex; connection from parastigmal band to stigmal band absent or present; connection from stigmal band to postmarginal band absent. Hind wing hyaline. Gaster all black.

Upper ocular sulcus present. Pedicel longer than wide. Funiculars symmetrical: first longer than wide (w:l = 0.8–0.93); second subequal or wider than long (w:l = 1.0–1.53).

Pronotum, in dorsal view, bell-shaped (w:l = 1.28–1.5); 3–6 pairs of setae along posterior margin. Mesoscutum reticulate; small, scattered setae absent; intermediate setae present. Mesoscutellum wider than long (w:l = 1.053–1.11); submedian grooves absent. Hind tibial spur distinctly shorter than basitarsus. Hind basitarsus shorter than second tarsomere (bst:2 nd = 0.75–0.93).

Fore wing l:w = 2.07–2.55. Submarginal vein with 5–7 setae dorsally. Basal fold setose. Cubital fold setose. Admarginal setae present. Uncus originating on stigma by more than own length from stigmal apex.

Male - as female, except: body length 0.72–0.97 mm; occiput with 2 dark, vertical stripes; propodeum all back, or with faint yellow markings; metafemur with uninterrupted stripe dorsally, or with black banding encircling femur; uncus originating on stigma by length of uncus or less from stigmal apex; gaster yellow, with large dark spot dorsoapically on Gt 3 – Gt 6.

Remarks. Crawford (1913) described Z. flavolineatum   based on one female specimen from Colorado. Gordh (1978) mentions the degree of similarity between Z. flavolineatum   and Z. mirum   , and personal examination of the holotypes reveals that the only difference is that Z. flavolineatum   has a pale propodeal callus, whereas Z. mirum   has a completely dark propodeum including the callus. The colors on the propodeum can be variable within species in other species of Zagrammosoma   and related genera ( Perry & Heraty, 2019), and I see no reason to separate the two species. The majority of examined specimens were identified as Z. mirum   , which is understandable as the differences are slight.

Hosts. Reared from lepidopteran and dipteran leaf miners. See Table 3. Diptera   : Agromyzidae   . Lepidoptera   : Gelechiidae   , Gracillariidae   , Tischeriidae   .

Distribution. Nearctic: USA (CA, CO, WA). Oceania: USA (HI) ( Fig. 17 View FIGURE 17 ).

Etymology. Flavolineatum is Latin for “yellow lined,” describing the wide, yellow band dorsally on the mesosoma.

Material examined. USA: California: Contra Costa Co., 2.5 mi. SE Brentwood, 17m, 37°53’47”N, 121°39’53”W, 23.iii.1987,L.Varela[1♀, USNM:UCRCENT471549]. ElDoradoCo.,nr.Auburn, 446m, 38°52’58”N, 121°01’36”W, 3.ix.1982, D. L. Wagner, JAP No. 82J11, host: Tischeria   sp. [1♀, USNM: UCRCENT471551]. Fresno Co., 5 mi. SE Clovis, 36°45’53”N, 119°38’29”W, 15.viii.1986, L. Varela [2♀, EMEC: EMEC 84283, USNM: UCRCENT471548]. Los Angeles Co., Alhambra, 145m, 34°05’34”N, 118°07’29”W, ix.1921, M. Campbell [1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT485729]. Pasadena, 255m, 34°09’13”N, 118°09’45”W, viii.1913, J. E. Graf, Chittenden No. 22300, host: Phthorimaea operculella   [1♁ 1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT312370, 471550]. Shinn Rd. at Lower San Antonio USFS Sta. Angeles National Forest, 760m, 34°10’44”N, 117°40’32”W, 31.xii.1977, D. Bramlet [1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT312371]. Mendocino Co., Ukiah, 39°08’54”N, 123°12’32”W, 3.x.1960, L.W. Shainberg, host: Liriomyza munda   [2♀, UCDC: UCRCENT477956, 477957]. Nevada Co., 17 mi. N. Truckee, 39°31’55”N, 120°18’19”W, 23.vii.1970, E. E. Grissell [1♀, UCDC: UCRCENT477954]. Boca, 1692m, 39°23’10”N, 120°05’39”W, 22.vii.1970, E. E. Grissell, Great Basin Desert [2♀, FSCA: UCRCENT424530, UCRC: UCRCENT477963]. Sagehen Crk, 1990m, 39°25’28”N, 120°14’34”W, 22.vii.1970, R. M. Bohart [1♀, UCDC: UCRCENT477919]. Sagehen Crk, 1990m, 39°25’28”N, 120°14’34”W,, E. E. Grissell [2♀, UCDC: UCRCENT477920, 477921]. Orange Co., Santa Ana, 34m, 33°44’38”N, 117°51’59”W, 13.viii.1936, J. C. Elmore & A. F. Howland, host plant: tomato [4♀, UCRC: UCRCENT312285–88]. Placer Co., Auburn, 38°53’56”N, 121°04’54”W, viii.1952, K.S. Hagen, host: Phyllonorycter crataegella   [8♀, EMEC: EMEC 84284–84291]. Auburn, 400m, 38°53’56”N, 121°04’54”W, viii.1952, H. K. Madsen, host: Phyllonorycter crataegella   [1♁ 2♀, USNM: UCRCENT471544–471546]. Ophir, 223m, 38°53’28”N, 121°07’25”W, 26.viii.1952, W. H. Lange, host: Phyllonorycter crataegella   [1♁ 4♀, USNM: UCRCENT471539–471543]. Riverside Co., Bautista Canyon, 855m, 33°39’0”N, 116°48’42”W, 10.x.1989, J. Hazen [3♀, ANIC: UCRCENT238600–02]. Corona, 229m, 33°52’10”N, 117°33’45”W, 31.x.1931, A. J. Barnig, host: Keiferia lycopersicella   [1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT312293]. Corona, 231m, 33°52’10”N, 117°33’41”W, 23.x.1932, A. J. Basinger, host: Keiferia lycopersicella   [1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT312368]. Hwy 74, Garner Vly., Fobes Ranch Rd., 1372m, 33°38’41”N, 116°37’34”W,, R. K. Perry, Sweep, RP14/010 [1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT312350 (D4111)]. Lake Skinner, NE (Met B11), 482m, 33°36’7”N, 117°02’5”W, 7–21.v.1996, J. D. Pinto, burned coastal sage scrub, malaise trap [1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT312316]. Lake Skinner, NE end, 487m, 33°36’7”N, 117°02’5”W, 21.v–, J. D. Pinto, coastal sage scrub, malaise trap, MET B11 BURNED [2♀, UCRC: UCRCENT312289, 312290]. Santa Rosa Plat. Res., 590m, 33°31’0”N, 117°14’0”W, 18.vii.2001, sweep, Quercus   sp. [1♁, UCRC: UCRCENT56360]. Terwilliger Rd. S. of Anza, 1269m, 33°27’32”N, 116°38’10”W, 31.viii–7.ix.2008, G. Pratt, malaise trap [1♁ 1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT357526 (D3668), 395941]. Whitewater Canyon Rd., 546m, 33°57’30”N, 116°38’50”W,, J. Mottern, sweep, M13-025 [1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT410536 (D3840)]. Sacramento Co., Sacramento, 4m, 38°34’11”N, 121°30’6”W, 13.viii.1951, W. H. Lange, host: Tischeria   sp. [1♁ 1♀, USNM: UCRCENT471535, 471536]. Sacramento, 4m, 38°34’11”N, 121°30’6”W, 18.viii.1951, W. H. Lange, host: Tischeria   sp. [1♀, BMNH: NHMUK10370161]. Sacramento, 4m, 38°34’11”N, 121°30’6”W, 23.viii.1951, W. H. Lange, frequenting strawberries [3♀, USNM: UCRCENT471532–471534]. Sacramento, 4m, 38°34’11”N, 121°30’6”W, 5.viii.1951, W. H. Lange, host: Tischeria   sp. [1♁, USNM: UCRCENT471538]. Sacramento, 4m, 38°34’11”N, 121°30’6”W, 6.viii.1951, W. H. Lange, host: Tischeria   sp. [1♁, USNM: UCRCENT471537]. San Bernardino Co., 6 mi. NW Fawnsksin, 2086m, 34°19’9”N, 117°00’36”W, 16.v.1997, M. Gates, LM97-3006, host: upper blotch mine, host plant: Ceanothus greggii   [1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT312291]. Ironwood Cpgrd., 2130m, 34°18’15”N, 117°00’44”W, 22.vii.1999, M. Gates [1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT102517]. Lytle Ck. Rd., 835m, 34°13’52”N, 117°28’58”W, 11.v.2015, D. Yanega [1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT485247]. Mill Creek Canyon, Hwy 38, 996m, 34°05’59”N, 117°01’59”W, 23.xi.2008, A. J. Ballman, EW08/021 [1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT183659]. Mill Creek Canyon, Hwy 38, 996m, 34°05’59”N, 117°01’59”W, 27.ix.2008, A. J. Ballman, EW08/003 [1♁, UCRC: UCRCENT183573]. Mill Creek Hwy 38, 970m, 34°06’2”N, 117°01’28”W, 30.ix.2012, J. Herreid [1♁, UCRC: UCRCENT498899]. Mill Creek, Hwy 38, 962m, 34°10’14”N, 117°02’43”W, 30.ix.2012, E. Gordon [3♁ 2♀, UCRC: UCRCENT498894–498898]. Mill Creek, 1220m, 34°05’50”N, 116°58’57”W, 12.viii.1945, Timberlake [1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT312367]. Mill Creek, Hwy 138, 970m, 34°06’2”N, 117°01’28”W, 30.ix.2012, R. K. Perry [1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT498900]. Mojave River Forks ~ 9 mi. S. Hesperia, 966m, 34°19’51”N, 117°15’48”W, 2.v.1985, J. D. Pinto [1♀, ANIC: UCRCENT238211]. Oak Glen, 1462m, 34°02’59”N, 116°56’53”W, 20.iv.1986, M. Smith [1♀, UCDC: UCRCENT477958]. S. Bern. Mtns. Barton Flat Radford Camp Rd at Santa Ana Riv., 1649m, 34°11’7”N, 116°54’13”W, 3.vii.1984, J. LaSalle [1♀, ANIC: UCRCENT238212]. San Diego Co., Torrey Pines State Park, 105m, 32°55’8”N, 117°14’57”W,, M. Gates & D. Hawks, host: Nealyda   sp., host plant: Abronia maritima   [1♁, UCRC: UCRCENT498884]. Santa Barbara Co., Sedgwick Reserve, 45km NW. Santa Barbara, 34°44’28”N, 120°01’18”W, 28.v.1997, E. Schlinger, Malaise Trap [1♁, UCDC: UCRCENT477962]. Shasta Co., 10km N. Lakehead, 353m, 40°54’19”N, 122°22’40”W, 6.ix.1995, L.A. Baptiste, Solidago, sweep [3♁, UCDC: UCRCENT477959–477961]. Solano Co., Cold Canyon Reserve, 11 km W. Winters, 98m, 38°30’28”N, 122°05’49”W, 25.iv.1993, S. L. Heydon, off Eriodictyon   sp. [1♀, UCDC: UCRCENT477955]. Sonoma Co., Cloverdale, 110m, 38°48’9”N, 123°01’22”W, 15.viii.1926, D. H. [1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT312292]. Tulare Co., 398m, 36°34’21”N, 119°11’45”W, 19.xi.2009, S. Kharrat, host: Phyllocnistis citrella   , host plant: Pummelo [1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT292445]. Carson Ave/1/ 4 mile Rd 228, 511m, 36°21’49”N, 119°03’18”W, 3.xii.2009, S. Kharrat, Kaffir lime, host: Marmara gulosa   , host plant: Citrus   [1♁, UCRC: UCRCENT237326]. Ventura Co., 7 mi. W. of Ojai, 34°25’15”N, 119°20’28”W, host plant: mallow [1♀, UCRC: UCRCENT312369]. Yolo Co., Coyote Gulch Exper. Ecosystem, 2km SW Davis, 17m, 38°31’38”N, 121°46’59”W, 24.ix–7.x.2001, MT [1♀, UCDC: UCRCENT477918]. Colorado: Chaffee Co., Big Bend State Wildlife area, 38°34’20”N, 106°03’57”W, 8.vii.2015, C. S. Eiseman, CSE 1852, host: Liriomyza   sp., host plant: Astragalus laxmannii   [1♁, UCRC: UCRCENT485248]. Nathrop, Mesa Antero, 2511m, 38°40’38”N, 106°06’34”W, 7.vii.2015, C. S. Eiseman, CSE 1769, host: Lepidoptera   leaf miner, host plant: Thermopsis   sp. [1♁ 2♀, UCRC: UCRCENT485244–485246]. Hawaii: Honolulu Co., Eva Beach, 2m, 21°18’55”N, 158°00’7”W, ii.1960, J.W. Beardsley, T. H. light trap [2♀, ANIC: UCRCENT238213, 238214]. Washington: Chelan Co., Wenatchee, 47°25’27”N, 120°18’50”W, vi.1985, B. Barrett, host: Phyllonorycter elmaella   [1♀, USNM: UCRCENT471547].


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Essig Museum of Entomology


University of California, Riverside


R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


Australian National Insect Collection














Zagrammosoma flavolineatum Crawford

Perry, Ryan K. & Heraty, John M. 2021

Cirrospilus mirus

Herting, B. 1975: 29

Zagrammosoma flavolineatum

Peck, O. 1951: 459

Zagrammosoma mirum

Peck, O. 1951: 459

Zagrammosoma mira

Girault, A. A. 1916: 119

Zagrammosoma flavolineata

Crawford, J. C. 1913: 255