Orthobula Simon, 1897

Haddad, Charles R., Jin, Chi & Platnick, Norman I., 2022, A revision of the spider genus Orthobula Simon, 1897 (Araneae: Trachelidae) in the Afrotropical Region. I. Continental species, Zootaxa 5133 (3), pp. 355-382 : 358

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https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.5133.3.3

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Orthobula Simon, 1897


Genus Orthobula Simon, 1897 View in CoL View at ENA

Orthobula Simon, 1897a: 152 View in CoL ; Deeleman-Reinhold 2001: 431 View Cited Treatment .

Type species. Orthobula impressa Simon, 1897 View in CoL , by original designation.

Diagnosis. Orthobula shares with Capobula the large number of paired ventral spines on the anterior tibiae and metatarsi, and the absence of ventral cusps in both sexes. In somatic morphology, Afrotropical species of Orthobula have pits across the entire carapace surface, including along the midline ( Figs 13–16 View FIGURES 13–21 ), while absent along the midline in Capobula ( Haddad et al. 2021: figs 11, 14) and some Asian species of Orthobula . Female Orthobula can be distinguished by the posteriorly positioned spermathecae (as opposed to laterally positioned in Capobula ), while male Orthobula can be recognized by the considerably inflated palpal tegulum (only as wide as cymbium in Capobula ), the narrow, finely coiled embolus (longer, uncoiled and retrolaterally directed in Capobula ), and the absence of a patellar apophysis (present in Capobula ).

Description. Small spiders, 1.30–2.70mm in length; carapace orange-brown to wine-red, frequently with mottled black markings ( Figs 1–12 View FIGURES 1–12 ); carapace oval, broadest at coxae II, eye region narrow; fovea absent, only a short shallow depression ( Fig. 13 View FIGURES 13–21 ); posterior margin slightly concave; carapace surface finely wrinkled, with series of deep pits forming striate patterns over entire surface ( Figs 13–16 View FIGURES 13–21 ), each pit with central pore, often plugged with unknown exudate ( Fig. 14 View FIGURES 13–21 ); surface sparsely covered with scattered fine curved setae, particularly in eye region ( Figs 13–16 View FIGURES 13–21 ). All eyes surrounded by black rings, weakly developed around PME ( Figs 1–12 View FIGURES 1–12 ); AER procurved in anterior view, recurved in dorsal view ( Figs 15, 16 View FIGURES 13–21 ); AME very slightly larger than ALE; AME separated by approximately ½ their diameter, nearly touching ALE ( Figs 15, 16 View FIGURES 13–21 ); PER recurved in dorsal view, PME oval, PLE round; PME and PLE similar in diameter; median ocular quadrangle narrower anteriorly than posteriorly, length and posterior width approximately equal. Chilum indistinct, a tiny transverse sclerite; cheliceral promargin with three teeth, separated by approximately their basal width, proximal tooth smallest, median tooth slightly larger than distal; retromargin with two subequal teeth, set close together; cheliceral escort seta present ( Figs 17, 18 View FIGURES 13–21 ); fang with distinct serrula; endites convergent, notched laterally ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 13–21 ), with distinct serrula comprising sharp, ventrally curved denticles ( Fig. 19 View FIGURES 13–21 ); dense maxillar hair tuft on mesal margins ( Figs 17–19 View FIGURES 13–21 ); labium trapezoidal, slightly wider than long. Pleural bars sclerotised, isolated; sternum shield-shaped, longer than broad, surface smooth with deep pits without pores, sparsely covered in long straight setae ( Figs 20, 21 View FIGURES 13–21 ); precoxal triangles present, intercoxal sclerites present between all coxal pairs. Leg formula 4123, legs I and IV often very similar in length; sparsely covered in long fine setae; femora I with mesal convex curvature, all femora strongly constricted proximally, with ventral setal bases tuberculate ( Fig. 22 View FIGURES 22–30 ); patellar indentation on retrolateral side narrow, with lyriform organ at proximal end; anterior legs with strong paired ventral spines, chemosensory setae and trichobothria on tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi ( Figs 23–33 View FIGURES 22–30 View FIGURES 31–39 ); metatarsi with single long distal trichobothrium ( Fig. 29 View FIGURES 22–30 ) and dorsal stopper ( Fig. 30 View FIGURES 22–30 ), metatarsi III and IV with ventral preening comb at distal end; tarsi usually with single or pair of short trichobothria at 1/3 their length and long pair at 2/3 their length ( Figs 31, 32, 38 View FIGURES 31–39 ); trichobothria with sunken distal plate, distal margin of hood overlapping plate, hood with two curved ridges, roughly concentric ( Fig. 28 View FIGURES 22–30 ); tarsal organ oval, very slightly elevated from integument, surface finely wrinkled, opening oval and distally placed ( Fig. 39 View FIGURES 31–39 ); paired tarsal claws short, with four intermediate teeth and moderately dense tenant setae forming claw tufts in between ( Figs 34–37 View FIGURES 31–39 ); palpal claw simple, sharply curved distally. Abdomen oval, clearly larger in females than males, with dorsal scutum in males only; dorsum with very sparse fine setae and two pairs of sigilla, prominent in females, barely distinguishable on scutum in males ( Figs 1–12 View FIGURES 1–12 ); abdominal markings variable, predominantly composed of cream markings forming a X on dark grey or black background ( Figs 1–12 View FIGURES 1–12 ), sometimes reduced in O. calceata and O. marusiki sp. nov. ( Figs 70–81 View FIGURES 70–81 ); venter without post-epigastric sclerites, with large ventral sclerite in males that is wider than long, absent in females; small, weakly sclerotised inframamillary sclerite present in females, indistinct in males. Spinnerets (details observed in O. radiata only): female ( Figs 40, 42–44 View FIGURES 40–44 ): ALS of female with one major ampullate gland spigot and nine piriform gland spigots; PMS of female with one small minor ampullate gland spigot anteriorly and five large cylindrical gland spigots; PLS of female with two large cylindrical gland spigots anteriorly and four aciniform gland spigots posteriorly; male spinnerets ( Fig. 41 View FIGURES 40–44 ) similarly short and stout, but spigots retracted and not examined in detail. Female epigyne with small paired CO positioned anterolaterally in epigyne ( Fig. 45 View FIGURES 45–53 ), usually in sclerotised anterior ridges, with CD directed posteriorly towards midline (e.g. Figs 54 View FIGURES 54–58 , 59 View FIGURES 59–63 , 65 View FIGURES 65–69 ); CD passing round, sclerotised bases of BU centrally; BU large, membranous, oval or teardrop-shaped, directed anterolaterally, each with small an teromesal accessory gland; short ducts connecting base of BU to transversely oval posterior ST I; fertilization ducts originating on posteromedian surface of ST I (e.g. Figs 55 View FIGURES 54–58 , 60 View FIGURES 59–63 ). Male palpal femur with small, finger-like RFA, with single (e.g. Fig. 63 View FIGURES 59–63 ) or bifid (e.g. Figs 46, 47 View FIGURES 45–53 , 58 View FIGURES 54–58 ) tip; palpal patella without apophysis, but with retrolateral lyriform organ ( Figs 49, 50 View FIGURES 45–53 ); palpal tibia with small triangular RTA ( Figs 48, 51 View FIGURES 45–53 ); tegulum subtriangular, greatly expanded proximally on prolateral side, tapering distally, base nearly twice as broad as cymbium, with sperm duct running down retrolateral side of tegulum in ventral view, with single proximal loop (e.g. Fig. 57 View FIGURES 54–58 ); embolus with broad transverse ridge at base, spike-like, with fine coils along its length ( Fig. 52 View FIGURES 45–53 ); tegulum without any other structures.












Orthobula Simon, 1897

Haddad, Charles R., Jin, Chi & Platnick, Norman I. 2022


Deeleman-Reinhold, C. L. 2001: 431
Simon, E. 1897: 152
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