Phrynus operculatus Pocock, 1902

Joya, Daniel Chirivi, 2021, Four new species of Phrynus, Lamarck (Arachnida: Amblypygi) from Mexico, Zootaxa 4948 (2), pp. 151-183: 153-157

publication ID

publication LSID


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Phrynus operculatus Pocock, 1902


Phrynus operculatus Pocock, 1902  

Figures. 1–3 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 , 17–18 View FIGURE 17 View FIGURE 18 . Table. 1, 6.

Phalangium palmatum Herbst   , in Lichtenstein & Herbst 1797: 82–84, plate IV fig. 2.

Phrynus palmatus (Herbst)   : Latreille 1804: 136–137; Gervais 1844: 6; Wood 1863: unnumbered fig. on p. 680; Butler 1873: 118, plate 6 fig. 5; Butler 1879: 314, 315; Mello-Leit„o 1931: 42–4.

Admetus palmatus (Herbst)   : C.L. Koch 1850: 81; Hansen 1893: 161.

Neophrynus palmatus (Herbst)   : Kraepelin 1895: 30–34, figs 3, 12, 15, 19, 25, 27–28, 30.

Tarantula palmata (Herbst)   : Pereyaslawzewa 1897a: 319; Pereyaslawzewa 1897b: 377; Kraepelin 1901: 264; Börner 1902a: fig. 6; Börner 1902b: 214; Börner 1904: 5, figs 6, 18, 23, 26, 32, 57, 102–114, figs 10–11, 38, 46, 64, 85; Comstock 1913: 20, fig. 19; Petrunkevitch 1925: 60; Kästner 1932: figs 8, 23, 28, 31, 73–74, 81; Werner 1935: 475, figs 25, 34–35, 40, 47, 56, 59, 72–73, 100, 110, 113, 141a–b, 182b; Speijer 1936: 260–261, figs 12–15; Millot 1949a: figs 68, 71; Millot 1949b: figs 326, 328, 333, 344; Petrunkevitch 1949, fig. 17; Caporiacco 1951: 36; Zakhvatkin 1952: fig. 28b; Weygoldt 1977: 273–275, figs 1a–c, 3a.

Phrynus operculatus Pocock, 1902: 52   , plate 10 figs 8, 8a–c; Franganillo 1926: 66–67 (probable misid); Franganillo 1931: 120; Mello-Leit„o 1931: 42; Franganillo 1936: 149; Quintero 1981: 155–157, figs 102–108, 154–155, 157, 162, map; Coddington et al. 1990: 11; Vázquez-Rojas 1995: 30 (as Phrynus opercularis   [sic]); Vázquez-Rojas 1996: 72; Ávila-Calvo & Armas 1997: 32; Armas 1999: 29 (synonymized with Phalangium palmatum   by Quintero (1981), but treated as senior synonym); Armas & Víquez 2001: 15; Armas & Pérez 2001: 48; Jiménez & Gutierrez 2004: 863; Harvey, 2003: Order Amblypygi   , 28–29; Armas & Gadar 2004: 134–136, fig. 8; Víquez & Armas 2006: 307–3016, figs. 9, 13; Armas 2006a: 232; Armas 2006b: 345–358, fig. 18, Table 1; Chirivi & Armas 2012: 396; Armas et al. 2013: 25–30; Armas 2014: 30–35; Armas et al. 2014: 3–6, fig. 3; Guzmán et al. 2015: 478.

Not Phrynus palmatus (Herbst)   : Koch 1840: 13–15, fig. 601 (see Phrynus gervaisii (Pocock))   .

Type locality: Guatemala   .

Revised material: (4 females, 1 male): MEXICO. Chiapas: Arriaga (16.235833, -93.899722): 10 km at north, 305 masl, 23 August 1972, C. Mullinex, K. Lucas, female ( CASENT 9060540) GoogleMaps   ; 10 km at north, 305 masl, 23 August 1972, C. Mullinex, K. Lucas, female ( CASENT 9060527)   ; 10 km at north, 305 masl, 23 August 1972, C. Mullinex, K. Lucas, male ( CASENT 9060512)   . Tonalá (16.089722, -93.754722): 13 miles South, slope of Cerro Vernal , 610 masl, 5 October 1974, D.E. Breedlove, J.A. Breedlove, female ( CASENT 9060511) GoogleMaps   . Federal highway 190, near to Santa Isabel (16.494444, -94.081944): 805 masl, 1 September 2005, O. Francke, M. Jaimes, A. Valdez, H. Montaño, female (CNAN-Am000407) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. BELIZE. GUATEMALA. MEXICO: States of Chiapas, Colima, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Sinaloa. UNITET STATES OF AMERICA: Texas. Many of these records are not supported with deposited material in collections and have no specific localities ( Quintero, 1981; Armas 2006b; Armas et al., 2014). ( Fig. 18 View FIGURE 18 ).

Diagnosis. Phrynus operculatus   can be distinguished from other species of the genus by the presence of the following set of characters: only one conspicuous tooth in the ectal row of the base of chelicerae, with an acuminated apex ( Fig. 1F View FIGURE 1 ), does not present an inconspicuous spine in the dorsomedial area of the pedipalp tarsus, Pd2 is smaller than Pd4, Fv3 smaller than Fv5, Td1 is very small but longer than Td4 ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ). Female genitalia have tubular and elongated gonopod bases, with claw-like sclerites of the gonopod, curved at the apical region ( Fig. 17A View FIGURE 17 ). In the male genitalia, the ornamentations over LoL 1 and 2 are tubular and long, and LoD is very thick and pronounced ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ). Almost the wide of the base of LoL 1 ( Table 6).

Species comparisons: Phrynus operculatus   is morphologically similar to P. jalisco   , however, the female genitalia are different, in P. jalisco   the gonopod bases are more elongated, the sclerites are thicker and have a pronounced inward curvature ( Fig. 17F View FIGURE 17 ). Phrynus operculatus   is also similar to P. aliciae   sp. nov., however, in this species the base of the sclerites of the female genitalia are straighter and surrounds the lateral margin of the base ( Fig. 17C View FIGURE 17 ) whereas in P. operculatus   the base is smaller. Is also similar to P. alfonsoi   sp. nov., but in this species, the sclerite of female gonopod is bigger with a more pronounced curvature in the apical region (17B). In the male genitalia, the projections on LoL 2 are completely tubular ( Fig. 3B View FIGURE 3 ) whereas in P. alfonsoi   sp. nov. the projections bases are wider ( Fig. 6B View FIGURE 6 ). The LoD in P. operculatus   is thicker than in the other species compared ( Fig. 3C View FIGURE 3 , Table 6).

The spine Pd1 is conspicuous (a quarter of the size of Pd2) ( Fig. 2D View FIGURE 2 ) similar to P. alfonsoi   sp. nov., P. jalisco   , and P. aliciae   sp. nov.; Tv1 is shorter than Tv3 ( Fig. 2E View FIGURE 2 ) similar to P. tresmarias   sp. nov. and P. aliciae   sp. nov. ( Fig. 8E View FIGURE 8 , 14E View FIGURE 14 ) whereas, in P. alfonsoi   sp. nov. Tv1 is longer ( Fig. 5E View FIGURE 5 ) and, in P. giseae   sp. nov. and P. jalisco   , are subequal ( Fig. 11E View FIGURE 11 ). Td1 is a quarter of size Td2, so it differs from other species here compared ( Fig. 2F View FIGURE 2 ).

Complementary description. Female (CNAN-Am000407): Total length 16 mm. Carapace and opisthosoma color brown, pedipalps and legs are brown with red tonalities. Dimensions of prosoma, opisthosoma, pedipalps segments, and all leg femora are provided in Table 1.

Carapace. The frontal margin is almost straight. Carapace presents a group of granules widely spaced; anterior, lateral, and posterior margins with a white border, posterior margin concave. Lateral and anteromedial eyes clearly visible, ocular tubercle black ( Fig. 1A View FIGURE 1 ).

Sternum. Tri-segmented, all segments poorly sclerotized, the area around segments is slightly less sclerotized. Tritosternum projected anteriorly, elongated, conical, with eight setae on the basal region, four on the medial region, and two more in the apex. Second segment (tetrasternum) oval, with two setae on the medial region. Third segment (pentasternum) oval, slightly smaller than the second segment, with two setae on the medial region. Metasternum longitudinally divided, with two setae on the posterior margin of each half ( Fig. 1B View FIGURE 1 ).

Abdomen. Oblong, color dark brown. Presents patches of light coloration on both sides of each tergite. The carapace is wider than the abdomen ( Fig. 1C View FIGURE 1 ).

Chelicera. The mesal row of the basal segment of chelicerae with three teeth, the first is bilobed, placed in the proximal portion, lobe 1b bigger than 1a, followed by one tooth shorter in medial portion, and the third, bigger than the others, placed in the distal region ( Fig. 1D View FIGURE 1 ). The ectal row with one conspicuous tooth (tooth 2) with an acuminated apex, placed in the medial region. There is a small keel on the most proximal region (tooth 1) ( Fig. 1F View FIGURE 1 ). The mobile segment of chelicerae with four teeth, the first one is the biggest, followed by the third, and the fourth is the smallest.

Pedipalp. Trochanter: Prolateral face with four spines; spines Tr1 and Tr3 placed in medial region, Tr2 placed near ventral margin. Tr3 and Tr4 subequal in length. Spine lengths: Tr2>Tr1>Tr4ŻTr3. Dorsal oblique series of five setiferous tubercles. Dorsomedial area without spines but with one big tubercle ( Fig. 1E View FIGURE 1 ). Femur: Ventral face with five major spines, Fv4, Fv3a, Fv5a, and Fv7 are small. Spine lengths: Fv1>Fv2>Fv5>Fv3>Fv6>Fv4>Fv7>F v5a>Fv3a ( Fig. 2A View FIGURE 2 ). Dorsal face with five major spines; Fd4 small, with the spines Fd5a, Fd7, and Fd8 present as tubercles; Fd1 and Fd2 share the same base, Fd3 is separated from Fd2. Spine lengths: Fd2>Fd3>Fd5>Fd1>Fd6>Fd 4=Fd5a>Fd7>Fd8 ( Fig. 2B View FIGURE 2 ). Patella: Ventral   face with five major spines; with conspicuous spines Pv1-a and Pv1a, and one small spine between Pv2–Pv3, Pv4–Pv5, and Pv5–Pv6. Spine lengths: Pv2>Pv5>Pv1>Pv4>Pv6>Pv7>Pv1- a=Pv1a>Pv3 ( Fig. 2C View FIGURE 2 ). Dorsal face with seven major spines, proximal to Pd1 there are two tubercles, Pd8 is small. Spine lengths: Pd5>Pd3>Pd4>Pd2>Pd6>Pd7>Pd1>Pd8 ( Fig. 2D View FIGURE 2 ). Tibia: Ventral face with three major spines; has one tubercle and one small spine between Tv2–Tv3. Spine lengths: Tv2>Tv3>Tv1 ( Fig. 2E View FIGURE 2 ). Dorsal face with three major spines, one tubercle between Td2–Td3, two conspicuous spines over Td3, distal to Td3 there are two small spines, the most distal spine is a little bigger and is here named Td4; Td1 is almost a half of Td3 length. Spine lengths: Td2>Td3>Td1>Td4 ( Fig. 2F View FIGURE 2 ). Tarsus-metatarsus: Internal face with two lines of dorsomedial bristles; suture between the tarsus and metatarsus is not visible. Tarsus without an inconspicuous spine on the proximal end of the dorsomedial surface.

Legs. Femora brown. Femora lengths: I>III>II>IV ( Table 1). Leg I: Tibia with 29 segments and tarsus with 62 segments in both legs. Leg IV: Basitibia with three segments. Basitibia-distitibia lengths: BT1>DT>BT3>BT2. Basitarsus and Telotarsus subequal in size. Tarsus tetramerous.

Female genitalia. Genital operculum pentagonal, it extends to the second segment of the opisthosoma; gonopod bases tubular, dorsal surface poorly sclerotized; on the most proximal area, there is a strongly sclerotized line joining both gonopod bases, coloration brown on the most proximal region, and white over entire the dorsal surface. Sclerites of the gonopods claw-like, the base is more than two times wider than medial and apical regions, apex slightly curved. Sclerite coloration brown ( Fig. 17A View FIGURE 17 , Table 6).

Variation. Measurements and the number of segments in the basitibia IV, Tibia I, and tarsus I, are summarized in Table 1. Sternum: Setae over all segments of the sternum are variable in number and position. Pedipalp: Trochanter: line of dorsal tubercles varies between four and six tubercles. Femur: Ventral face: tubercles are constant in most individuals, however, the size is variable, as well as the size of spines Fv4, Fv3a, Fv4a, and Fv5a, which are always smaller than major spines, but the relative sizes between them are variable. Dorsal face: the size and presence of tubercles mentioned in the complementary description are variable. Patella: Ventral   face: Tubercles and small spines are more conspicuous in larger individuals. Dorsal face: tubercles can be more conspicuous, in some individuals the tubercles can be present between each spine, in larger specimens a small spine Pd8 can be present. Tibia: Ventral face: between Tv2–Tv3, two or three small spines can be present. Dorsal face: tubercles between spines can be more conspicuous. Legs. The number of segments of the tibia and tarsus of leg I, was variable among the individuals, the number of tibial segments varies between 29 and 42, and the tarsal segments between 62 and 69. In specimens studied, the number of segments did not depend on sex, frequently there are more tarsal segments in larger specimens ( Table 1).

Male. Males are similar in size to females ( Table 1) spination pattern as in females, genital operculum with the posterior margin oval, and covering part of the third segment of the opisthosoma.

Male genitalia. (CASENT 9060512): LaM longer than Pi. LoL 1 a little longer than LoL 2, both densely covered with minute projections, in LoL 1, projections are tubular, thin, and elongated, placed close together, the insertion base is not visible; in LoL 2 projections are similar to LoL 1, the insertion base is also not visible. In dorsal view, the LoD is thick and elongated with a similar size to LoL1 ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 , Table 6).














Phrynus operculatus Pocock, 1902

Joya, Daniel Chirivi 2021

Phrynus operculatus

Guzman, A. & Chirivi, D. & Francke, O. 2015: 478
Armas, L. F. & Guzman, A. & Francke, O. 2014: 3
Armas, L. F. & Viquez, C. & Trujillo, R. 2013: 25
Chirivi, D. & Armas, L. F. 2012: 396
Viquez, C. & Armas, L. F. 2006: 307
Armas, L. F. 2006: 232
Armas, L. F. 2006: 345
Armas, L. F. & Gadar, Y. 2004: 134
Armas, L. F. & Viquez, C. 2001: 15
Armas, L. F. & Perez, A. 2001: 48
Armas, L. F. 1999: 29
Avila-Calvo, A. F. & Armas, L. F. de 1997: 32
Vazquez-Rojas, I. 1996: 72
Vazquez-Rojas, I. 1995: 30
Coddington, J. A. & Larcher, S. F. & Cokendolpher, J. C. 1990: 11
Quintero, D. 1981: 155
Franganillo, P. 1936: 149
Franganillo, P. 1931: 120
Franganillo, P. 1926: 66
Pocock, R. I. 1902: 52

Tarantula palmata (Herbst)

Weygoldt, P. 1977: 273
Caporiacco, L. di 1951: 36
Speijer, E. A. M. 1936: 260
Werner, F. 1935: 475
Petrunkevitch, A. 1925: 60
Comstock, J. H. 1913: 20
Borner, C. 1904: 5
Borner, C. 1902: 214
Kraepelin, K. 1901: 264
Pereyaslawzewa, S. 1897: 319
Pereyaslawzewa, S. 1897: 377

Neophrynus palmatus (Herbst)

Kraepelin, K. 1895: 30

Admetus palmatus (Herbst)

Hansen, H. J. 1893: 161
Koch, C. L. 1850: 81

Phrynus palmatus

Koch, C. L. 1840: 13

Phrynus palmatus (Herbst)

Butler, A. G. 1879: 314
Butler, A. G. 1873: 118
Gervais, P. 1844: 6
Latreille, P. A. 1804: 136

Phalangium palmatum

Lichtenstein, A. A. H. & Herbst, J. F. W. 1797: 82