Phrynus tresmarias, Joya, 2021

Joya, Daniel Chirivi, 2021, Four new species of Phrynus, Lamarck (Arachnida: Amblypygi) from Mexico, Zootaxa 4948 (2), pp. 151-183: 172-177

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Phrynus tresmarias

sp. nov.

Phrynus tresmarias   sp. nov.

Figures. 13–15 View FIGURE 13 View FIGURE 14 View FIGURE 15 , 17–18 View FIGURE 17 View FIGURE 18 . Table. 5, 6.

Holotype (female): MEXICO. Nayarit: Las Tres Marías, Magdalena Island (21.4631, -106.4232): 19–20 May 1925, H.H. Keifer, female ( CASENT 9060565). GoogleMaps  

Paratypes (5 females, 1 male): MEXICO. Nayarit: Las Tres Marías, Magdalena Island : 19–20 May 1925, H.H. Keifer, female ( CASENT 9060565)   . Maria Madre Island (21.629444, -106.580833): 15, 20, 23 May 1925, H.H. Keifer, three females, one male ( CASENT 9060515) GoogleMaps   ; 15, 20, 23 May 1925, H.H. Keifer, male ( CASENT 9060536)   .

Distribution. MEXICO: State of Nayarit, Tres Marías Islands ( Fig. 18 View FIGURE 18 ).

Etymology. The name of this species refers to the type locality, Tres Marías Islands, as a way to promote the appropriation of the local fauna. A name in apposition.

Diagnosis. Phrynus tresmarias   sp. nov. has one conspicuous tooth in the ectal row of the base of chelicerae, with an acuminated apex ( Fig. 13F View FIGURE 13 ). Without an inconspicuous spine in the dorsomedial area of the tarsus. Pd2 is smaller than Pd4, Td1 is very small, just a little larger than Td4, Tv1 has half of the size of Tv3 ( Fig. 14 View FIGURE 14 ). The female genitalia have rounded gonopod bases, with a semi-straight apex. The sclerites of the gonopods claw-like, with a curvature at the apex, and inserted in the distal portion of the gonopod bases; the tissue of the gonopod bases surrounds the proximal region of the sclerites ( Fig. 17E View FIGURE 17 ). In the male genitalia, the LoL 1 presents short and thick tubular projections, and in LoL2, projections are tubular and long, the LoD is pronounced and thin ( Fig. 15 View FIGURE 15 ).

Species comparisons: Phrynus tresmarias   sp. nov. has the female genitalia similar to P. jalisco   , however, P. jalisco   has gonopod bases elongated, longer than the sclerites ( Fig. 17F View FIGURE 17 ) whereas in P. tresmarias   sp. nov. the sclerites and gonopod bases have a subequal length ( Fig. 17E View FIGURE 17 , Table 6). Also, in P. jalisco   the sclerites are strongly inward curved at the apex, whereas in P. tresmarias   sp. nov. there is just a gentle curvature. The species P. operculatus   can also look similar, however, in P. operculatus   the sclerites of the gonopods are thinner and placed on the medial portion of the base ( Fig. 17A View FIGURE 17 ). Phrynus tresmarias   sp. nov. differs from other species in the ornamentation of the LoL1 and 2. The LoD is thicker in P. jalisco   and P. operculatus   , and the LaM is so much elongated in P. jalisco   ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 , 15 View FIGURE 15 , 16 View FIGURE 16 , Table 6).

The spine Pd1 is small, and Pd1a and Pd1-a are absent or as tubercles ( Fig. 14D View FIGURE 14 ) similar to P. giseae   sp. nov. and small specimens of P. operculatus   . Tv1 is shorter than Tv3 ( Fig. 14E View FIGURE 14 ) similar to P. operculatus   and P. aliciae   sp. nov., whereas in P. giseae   sp. nov. and P. jalisco   , are subequal ( Fig. 11E View FIGURE 11 ). Td1 is small ( Fig. 14F View FIGURE 14 ) differing from P. operculatus   .

Description. Female (CASENT 9060565): Total length 13.2 mm. Carapace and opisthosoma color brown, pedipalps and legs brown with red tonalities. Dimensions of prosoma, opisthosoma, pedipalps segments, and all leg femora are provided in Table 5.

Carapace. The frontal margin is almost straight, with one slightly pronounced lobe at each side, lobes are not joined in the middle area. Presents a group of granules widely spaced; lateral and posterior margins with white patches, posterior margin concave. Lateral and anteromedial eyes clearly visible, ocular tubercle black ( Fig. 13A View FIGURE 13 ).

Sternum. Tri-segmented, second, and third segment sclerotized but not more sclerotized than the area around the segments. Tritosternum projected anteriorly, elongated, conical, with four setae on the basal region, one on the medial region, two on the distal region, and two more on the apex. Second segment (tetrasternum) oval, with two setae on the medial region. Third segment (pentasternum) oval, slightly smaller than the second segment, without setae. Metasternum longitudinally divided ( Fig. 13B View FIGURE 13 ).

Abdomen. Oblong, color dark brown. Presents patches of light coloration on both sides of each tergite. The carapace is a little wider than the abdomen ( Fig. 13C View FIGURE 13 ).

Chelicera. The mesal row of the basal segment of chelicerae with three teeth, the first is bilobed, placed in the proximal portion, lobe 1b bigger than 1a, followed by one shorter tooth in medial portion, and the third, bigger than the others, placed in the distal region ( Fig. 13D View FIGURE 13 ). The ectal row with one conspicuous tooth (tooth 2) with an acuminated apex, placed in the medial region. There is a small keel proximally (tooth 1) ( Fig. 13F View FIGURE 13 ). The mobile segment of chelicerae with four teeth, first and third are the biggest.

Pedipalp. Trochanter: Prolateral face with four spines; spines Tr1 and Tr3 placed in medial region, Tr2 placed near to the ventral margin. Tr3 and Tr4 subequal in length. Spine lengths: Tr2>Tr1>Tr3ŻTr4. Dorsal oblique series of four setiferous tubercles. Dorsomedial area without spines but with two big tubercles ( Fig. 13E View FIGURE 13 ). Femur: Ventral face with five major spines, spines Fv4, Fv3a, Fv4a, Fv5a are small, between Fv5–Fv5a and Fv6–Fv7 there is a tubercle, Fv7 and Fv8 are small. Spine lengths: Fv1>Fv2>Fv5>Fv3>Fv6>Fv7>Fv8>Fv5a>Fv4a>Fv4=Fv3a ( Fig. 14A View FIGURE 14 ). Dorsal face with five major spines, between Fd2–Fd3 there is a small tubercle, Fd4 is small, with a small spine Fd5a, one tubercle between Fd5a–Fd6, one tubercle between Fd6–Fd7, and one small Fd8 as a tubercle; Fd1 and Fd2 share the same base, Fd3 is separated from Fd2. Spine lengths: Fd2>Fd3>Fd5>Fd1>Fd6>Fd7>Fd4=Fd5a>Fd8 ( Fig. 14B View FIGURE 14 ). Patella: Ventral   face with five major spines, with spines Pv1-a and Pv1a, there is one tubercle at each side of both spines, one small tubercle between Pv2–Pv3, and between Pv5–Pv6 and one distal to Pv7. Spine lengths: Pv2>Pv5>Pv1>Pv4>Pv6>Pv1-a>Pv7>Pv3>Pv1a ( Fig. 14C View FIGURE 14 ). Dorsal face with seven major spines, proximal to Pd1 there is a line of five tubercles, between Pd1–Pd2 there are two small tubercles, between each major spine there is a small tubercle, Pd8 is very small. Spine lengths: Pd5>Pd3>Pd4>Pd2>Pd6>Pd7>Pd1>Pd8 ( Fig. 14D View FIGURE 14 ). Tibia: Ventral face with three major spines, one small tubercle between Tv2–Tv3. Spine lengths: Tv2>Tv3>Tv1 ( Fig.14E View FIGURE 14 ). Dorsal face with two major spines, one tubercle between Td2–Td3 there, one small spine over Td3, distal to Td3 there are two small spines, the distalmost spine is a little bigger and here is named Td4, Td1 has less than a third of the length of Td3, and is placed almost over Td2. Spine lengths: Td2>Td3>Td1=Td4 ( Fig. 14F View FIGURE 14 ). Tarsus-metatarsus: Internal face with two lines of dorsomedial bristles; suture between the tarsus and metatarsus is not visible. Tarsus without an inconspicuous spine on the proximal end of the dorsomedial surface.

Legs. Femora brown. Femora lengths: I>III>II>IV ( Table 5). Leg I: Tibia with 29 segments and tarsus broken but with more than 33 segments in the right leg; the left leg with 29 segments in the tibia, the tarsus is missing. Leg IV: Basitibia with three segments. Basitibia-distitibia lengths: BT1>DT>BT3>BT2. Basitarsus longer than Telotarsus. Tarsus tetramerous.

Female genitalia. Genital operculum pentagonal, it extends to the second segment of the opisthosoma. Gonopod bases rounded, dorsal surface poorly sclerotized, coloration white, apical ending almost straight surrounding the base of sclerite. Sclerites of the gonopods claw-like, the base is more than three times wider than medial and apical regions, apex curved. Sclerite coloration brown, almost as long as the gonopod base ( Fig. 17E View FIGURE 17 , Table 6).

Variation. Type series measurements and the number of segments in the basitibia IV, Tibia I and tarsus I, are summarized in Table 5. Sternum. Setae over all segments of the sternum are variable in number and position. Pedipalp. Femur: Ventral face: the presence of the tubercles is variable. Dorsal face: the size of tubercles described in the holotype is variable in paratypes. Patella: Ventral   face: Tubercles were more conspicuous in larger individuals. Dorsal face: line of tubercles proximal to Pd1 can have more than six tubercles, size of tubercles is variable. Legs. The number of segments of the tibia and tarsus of leg I, was variable among the individuals, the number of tibial segments appears constant at 29, and the tarsal segments vary between 61 and 67 ( Table 5).

Male. Observed males are similar in size to females ( Table 5) spination pattern as in females, genital operculum has the posterior margin oval and covering part of the third segment of the opisthosoma.

Male genitalia. (CASENT 9060536): LaM longer than Pi and covering Pi. LoL 1 bigger than LoL 2, both densely covered with minute projections; on LoL 1, projections are tubular with the proximal portion a little wider than the distal portion, placed close together and fused at the proximal region, the insertion base is not visible; on LoL 2 the projections are tubular and longer than in LoL 1, placed close together, the insertion base is also not visible; LoD long, but not covering LoL 1 in dorsal view ( Fig. 15 View FIGURE 15 , Table 6).