Stenaelurillus modestus, Wesołowska, 2014

Wesołowska, Wanda, 2014, Further notes on the genus Stenaelurillus Simon, 1885 (Araneae, Salticidae) in Africa with descriptions of eight new species, Zoosystema 36 (3), pp. 595-622: 608-612

publication ID 10.5252/z2014n3a3

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scientific name

Stenaelurillus modestus

n. sp.

Stenaelurillus modestus   n. sp.

( Fig. 8 View FIG )

TYPE MATERIAL. — Holotype. South Africa, KwaZulu- Natal , Ndumo Game Reserve, 26°55’S, 32°16’E, leaf litter, broadleaf woodland, 30.VI.2009, leg. C. Haddad, R. Lyle & V. Butler, 1 ♂ (NCA 2012/925). GoogleMaps  

Paratypes. Together with holotype, 3 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀ (NCA 2009/3661); same data, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( MRAC)   ; same locality, 26°53’S, 32°11’E, grass litter in Acacia   savanna, 4.VII.2009, leg. C. Haddad, 1 ♂ (NCA 2009/3662) GoogleMaps   .

DIAGNOSIS. — The male is characterized by the palpal organ structure, its bulb is elongated with large triangular tegular apophysis and thin straight embolus. The female has epigyne with horseshoe-shaped depression, seminal ducts are longer than in congeners, their course characteristic ( Fig. 7E View FIG ).

ETYMOLOGY. — The specific name is Latin, meaning “modest”, arbitrary name.

DISTRIBUTION. — Known only from the type locality.


Measurements (male/female)

Cephalothorax: length 2.0-2.4/2.6-2.7, width 1.5- 1.9/1.8-1.9, height 0.8-1.0/1.0-1.1. Abdomen: length 1.9-2.3/2.6-3.4, width 1.8-1.9/2.2-2.8. Eye field: length 0.9-1.0/0.9-1.0, anterior width 1.2- 1.4/1.4-1.5 posterior width 1.3-1.7/1.5-1.6.


Medium sized spider, carapace black, clothed in dense dark hairs, with pair white streaks starting from anterior eyes and extending almost to the posterior carapace edge, white hairs also on lateral sides.Long dense brown bristles on eye field, among them short thick setae on anterior section. Anterior eyes surrounded by short white hairs, some such hairs on clypeus. Mouth parts and sternum light brown. Abdomen shield-shaped, short and broad with anterior edge almost straight, black with delicate traces of lighter median band, two large light areas anteriorly and pair of small whitish round patches posteriorly, aligned to median band. Abdominal dorsum clothed in hairs correspond to background colour cover, clinging to surface. Long bristles on anterior margin of abdomen. Venter light brown with broad dark triangular patch. Spinnerets long, blackish. Legs brown, their spines and hairs dark. Pedipalps brown.Tibial apophysis pointed ( Fig. 8B, C View FIG ), embolus straight ( Fig. 8A View FIG ).


Slightly larger than male, colouration similar, median band on abdomen broader, posterior patches absent, sides and venter mottled with dark dots. Legs brown with blackish rings formed by dark hairs. Epigyne with shallow central depression ( Fig. 8D View FIG ), ventral structure as in Fig. 8E View FIG , copulatory openings placed laterally, seminal ducts run to mid of epigynal posterior edge, form small lop and next toward on front.

Stenaelurillus nigricaudus Simon, 1886   ( Fig. 9 View FIG )

Stenaelurillus nigricauda Simon, 1886: 351   . — Berland & Millot 1941: 313, fig. 14.

Stenaelurillus nigritarsis Simon, 1886: 351   . — Caporiacco 1936: 79 (synonymized in Szűts & Scharff 2005).

Stenaelurillus nigricaudus   – Szűts & Scharff 2005: 372, figs 7a-c, 8a-d.

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Mali, Ségou Region, Kassarola , 13°18’N, 4°54’W, IX.1969, leg. G. Pierrard, 1 ♂ ( MRAC 136820 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Niger, Niamey, 13°31’N, 2°07’E, Millet Field, leg. J.M. Ritchie, 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀ ( NHM) GoogleMaps   ; Senegal, Dakar, 14°40’N, 17°26’W, VIII.1980, leg W. Settle, 2 ♂♂ ( CAS) GoogleMaps   ; Linguère , 15°24’N, 15°07’W, 22.VII.1991, leg. W. Puławski, 1 ♂ ( CAS) GoogleMaps   ; Ndangange, 45 km SE from Mbour , 14°24’ N, 16°58’W, 26.VI.1991, leg. W.Puławski, 1 ♀ ( CAS) GoogleMaps   .

Holotypes of S. nigricaudus   and S. nigritarsis   kept in MNHN in Paris were lately redescribed and illustrated by Szűts & Scharff (2005).

DIAGNOSIS. — The palpal organ is distinguishable; the base of the embolus is placed in bulb’s recess, and the tip of bulb reaches to the end of embolus from prolateral side. The female is difficult to recognize from some other species, but flanges at copulatory openings are diagnostic.

DISTRIBUTION. — Known from Algeria, Gambia and Senegal; in Niger and Mali recorded for the first time.

REMARKS. — Although female of the species was mentioned by Caporiacco (1936) and Berland & Millot (1941), it has not been formally described. Szűts & Scharff (2005) found females in vials containing holotypes of S. nigricaudus   and S. nigritarsis   (not mentioned in the original descriptions), but in their opinion these females could be wrongly associated with the males.


Measurements (male/female)

Cephalothorax: length 1.9-2.1/2.4-2.7, width 1.5- 1.6/1.8-2.0, height 0.7-0.8/1.0-1.2. Abdomen: length 2.1-2.2/2.3-3.7, width 1.4-1.5/2.0-2.7. Eye field:length 0.7-0.9/0.8-0.9, anterior width 1.1/1.1- 1.3, posterior width 1.2/1.2-1.4.


General appearance as in Fig. 9A View FIG . Carapace pearshaped, with short eye field, moderately high. Eye field black, thoracic part reddish brown, with pair of light stripes composed of white hairs on dorsum, second pair along lateral edges of carapace. Dense grey hairs on eye field, scarce brown bristles among them and on thoracic part, thick rod bristles on eye field anteriorly.Anterior eyes surrounded with small whitish scales. Clypeus low, light brown. Chelicerae with two very small teeth on promargin and single tooth on retromargin. Mouth parts and sternum dark yellow. Abdomen ovoid with straight anterior edge, reddish brown with wide median darker streak. Dorsum of abdomen clothed in clinging to surface hairs correspond to background colour, dense long bristles on anterior abdomen edge, in one specimen abdomen “bald” covered by large scutum, which occupies two thirds of its length. Sides and venter light. Spinnerets long, yellowish, posteriors with black tips. Legs dark yellow to light brown. First pair with blackish stripes along lateral surfaces of tibiae and metatarsi, tarsi black with black scopula. Leg hairs brown, spines long, numerous. Pedipalps dark brown or black, only cymbium light, femur and patella clothed in dense long light hairs (especially dense on prolateral side). Structure of palpal organ as in Fig. 9 View FIG B-E, embolus with blunt tip ( Fig. 9F View FIG ).


Slightly darker than male and lighter coloured. Carapace light brown, traces of white streaks on thoracic part, eye field blackish, covered with short grey hairs, among them numerous long brown bristles. Anterior eyes with rings composed of small whitish scales. Mouth parts as in male. Abdomen swollen, yellowish, with traces of two longitudinal darker streaks. Venter light. Legs dark yellow, with darker rings form by brown hairs. Epigyne with deep pocket at epigastric furrow and two round copulatory openings ( Fig. 9G, H View FIG ). Copulatory openings encircled by delicate sclerotized flanges, seminal ducts short ( Fig. 9I View FIG ).


Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale


California Academy of Sciences














Stenaelurillus modestus

Wesołowska, Wanda 2014

Stenaelurillus nigricaudus

SZUTS T. & SCHARFF N. 2005: 372

Stenaelurillus nigricauda

SIMON E. 1886: 351

Stenaelurillus nigritarsis

SIMON E. 1886: 351