Panorpa parallela, Wang, Ji-Shen & Hua, Bao-Zhen, 2016

Wang, Ji-Shen & Hua, Bao-Zhen, 2016, Two new species of the genus Panorpa Linnaeus (Mecoptera, Panorpidae) from Yunnan, China, ZooKeys 587, pp. 151-162: 155-160

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scientific name

Panorpa parallela

sp. n.

Taxon classification Animalia Mecoptera Panorpidae

Panorpa parallela   sp. n. Figs 4B, 5, 6, 7

Type material.

Holotype: CHINA: Yunnan Province: ♂, Mt. Daxueshan [大雪山] (24°11.27'N, 99°37.35'E), 2000 m, Yongde County [永德县], 21 Aug. 2015, leg. Ji-Shen Wang. Paratypes. 22♂♂32♀♀, same data as the holotype, 21-23 Aug. 2015.


This new species resembles Panorpa reflexa   sp. n. in appearance, but can be readily differentiated from the latter by the following characters: 1) head yellowish brown, with ocellar triangle black (cf. head yellow with two black patterns, one on dorsum and the other one around ocellar triangle); 2) forewing with a faint apical band (cf. apical band absent); 3) hypandrium with elongated basal stalk (cf. basal stalk extremely shortened); 4) parameres in male genitalia simple and protruding caudad, almost parallel (cf. 3-shaped).

Description of male.

Head. Head muddy yellow with ocellar triangle black. Antennal socket light yellow, scape yellowish brown, pedicel dark brown, flagellum black and with 39-42 segments. Rostrum unevenly muddy yellow with genae pale, subgenae brown. Maxillary and labial palps yellowish brown with distal segments darkening toward the apex (Fig. 5C).

Thorax. Pronotum brown, bearing 4-6 stout setae along its anterior margin. Meso- and metanotum light brown with a broad yellowish longitudinal stripe and a faint brown mesal line (Fig. 5D). Pleura pale brown. Legs yellow, with distal tarsi deep brown.

Wings. Forewing length 10.81 ± 0.51 mm, width 2.37 ± 0.10 mm, membrane hyaline, pterostigma reddish brown with dense microtrichia. Pterostigmal band brown, reduced to an irregular spot with acute hind apex, extending to vein R2+3, even to M1 in some individuals. Apical band faint, degenerated as two irregular stripes, very faint in a few individuals. Vein 1A ending almost at the level of the origin of Rs. Hindwing length 9.98 ± 0.40 mm, width 2.19 ± 0.08 mm, similar to forewings but pterostigmal band and apical band more degenerated (Fig. 5A).

Abdomen. Terga I–V sordidly brown, with a yellowish longitudinal mesal stripe, which is weakened and forms several continuous or discontinuous triangular spots at each tergum; pleura pale, sterna light brown. Notal organ on the posterior margin of tergum III slightly developed, covering the acute dorsal process of tergum IV (Fig. 5D). A6 dark brown dorsally and yellowish ventrally, without anal horns. A7 and A8 yellowish orange, with some faint brown textures along lateral surfaces; A7 cylindrical, A8 constricted basally and beveled apically (Fig. 5E).

Male genitalia. Genital bulb yellowish orange, oval (Fig. 6 A–C). Epandrium (tergum IX) extending beyond the apex of gonocoxite, broad basally and tapering toward the apex, with a deep U-shaped terminal emargination (Fig. 6C). Cerci brown. Hypandrium (sternum IX) Y-shaped, with a narrow elongated basal stalk and splitting into paired hypovalves distally, extending to four-fifths of gonocoxite (Fig. 6A). Posteroventral margin of gonocoxite with a flat triangular process. Gonostylus slightly concaved along outer margin, inner margin with a blunt median tooth and an oval subbasal process, a long bristle rising between them (Fig. 6G). Parameres reddish brown, stick-like, extending far beyond the median tooth of gonostylus, approximately parallel, apexes acute and curved convergently, distal third with numerous microtrichia; inner margin with a pointed tooth subbasally, dorsal margin with a flat process next to the subbasal tooth (Fig. 6 D–F). Ventral valves of aedeagus poorly developed, membra nous; dorsal valves sclerotized, separated, with thin neck-like stalks, distal parts swollen and flatiron-shaped (Fig. 6 D–F), extending nearly to the base of gonostylus.

Description of female.

Similar to males in coloration and patterns (Fig. 5B). Forewing length 11.72 ± 0.41 mm, width 2.58 ± 0.15 mm; hindwing length 10.76 ± 0.52 mm, width 2.33 ± 0.15 mm, similar to forewings.

Female genitalia. A9 slightly shorter than A8. Subgenital plate long elliptic (Fig. 7A, B). Genital plate with main plate oblong and intensely constricted at base, posterior margin with a triangular mesal prominence; basal plate slightly wider than axis but narrower than main plate; axis elongated beyond the main plate, anterior third divergent widely, posterior third long elliptic with an acute apex; posterior arms almost half the length as main plate, broad basally and narrowed toward the apex, almost parallel (Fig. 7C).


The specific epithet is derived from the Latin parallel- (parallel), referring to the parallel parameres in male genitalia.


China (Yunnan Province).


Panorpa parallela   sp. n. is similar to Panorpa rufostigma   Westwood, 1842 from Europe in the reddish pterostigma, but can be recognized by its greatly reduced wing markings (cf. wing markings well-developed).

Panorpa parallela   resembles Panorpa chengi   Chou, 1981 from Shaanxi Province, China in body coloration, especially the pale-brown thoracic terga, but can be differentiated from the latter by the reddish pterostigma and the wing pattern (cf. pterostigma indistinct, wings devoid of markings).

The two new species, Panorpa reflexa   and Panorpa parallela   , resemble each other in general appearance at first glance. In living animals, the wings are held in close contact along the mid-line over the abdomen, and in the same plane at repose (Fig. 4). This condition is different for most species of Panorpa   , the wings of which are mostly divergent and kept in a V-shape over the abdomen at repose.


In the type locality, Mount Daxueshan, these two species share the same habitat among several mountain valleys with streams around an elevation of 2000 m. Suitable microhabitats lie mostly in a slope surrounded by evergreen broad-leaved forests and with dense herbaceous groundcover (Fig. 8). In the daytime of August, these valleys are mostly overspread with mist, receiving little direct sunlight, and the temperature ranges approximately from 16 to 22 °C.