Homalium viride (H. Perrier) Appleq., 2022

Applequist, Wendy L., 2022, Recognition of a second species in the Homalium involucratum complex (Salicaceae), Candollea 77 (1), pp. 53-56 : 55

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.15553/c2022v771a4

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scientific name

Homalium viride (H. Perrier) Appleq.

comb. et stat. nov.

Homalium viride (H. Perrier) Appleq. , comb. et stat. nov.

Homalium involucratum f. viride H. Perrier in Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 13: 296. 1940.

Holotypus: MADAGASCAR. Reg. Anosy [Prov. Toliara]: Fort-Dauphin, 1.VII.1926, Decary 4246 (as “ 2446 ”) ( P [ P04677691 ]!) .

= Homalium involucratum var. lucidum Scott Elliot in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 29: 23. 1891 . Homalium involucratum f. lucidum (Scott Elliot) H. Perrier in Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 13: 296. 1940. Holotypus: MADAGASCAR. Reg. Anosy [Prov. Toliara]: Fort-Dauphin, s.d., Scott Elliot 2304 (K [ K000231506 ] image!; iso-: P [ P04677688 ]!).

= Homalium involucratum f. cloiselii H. Perrier in Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 13: 296. 1940. Holotypus: MADAGASCAR. Reg. Anosy [Prov. Toliara]: FortDauphin, s.d., Cloisel 179 (P [ P04677692 ]!).

Distribution, ecology and conservation status. – Using the typology of GAUTIER et al. (2018), Homalium viride (H. Perrier) Appleq. occurs primarily in littoral forests on sand, seldom in lowland moist evergreen forests to at least 200 m, in a small portion of the Anosy Region (formerly part of Toliara Province). It is sometimes evaluated as rare (Randriatafika et al. 63) and sometimes as frequent (Randrianaivo et al. 2047). The Area of Occupancy is estimated as 52 km ² and the Extent of Occurrence as 400 km ² (localities are distributed in a semi-linear curved pattern, since they are all close to the coast). Fewer than ten distinct locations exist. These include the protected areas of Mandena, Petriky, and Andohahela. However, most subpopulations are unprotected, and all unprotected habitat in this area is both fragmented and at ongoing risk of anthropic damage, primarily woodcutting and burning, because the terrain is easily accessible and there are large human populations nearby. Therefore, a preliminary assessment of this species’ conservation status is “Vulnerable” [VU B1ab(iii)+B2ab(iii)].

Vernacular names and uses. – “Hazofotsy” (Ludovic 1544), “Menahihy” (Randriatafika et al. 63), “Ramirisa” (Rajoharison & Tsiatrefy 84, Ramison 204, Randriatafika & Stéphan 394, Service Forestier 5576), “Takinandro” (Service Forestier 7398), “Tsian(ih) ihimposa” (Ludovic 1630, Ramison 204, Randriatafika et al. 483).

Wood of the trunk is used for construction and branches for firewood (Ludovic 1544, 1630). Though the plant is usually described as a small tree or large shrub, it can have a trunk of substantial thickness, and reach at least 15 m height and 25 cm dbh. (Rabevohitra 1782).

Notes. – Homalium viride is distinguished from H. involucratum by several characters (see Table 1). Its leaves usually dry greenish (hence the epithet) and are more strongly coriaceous, with strongly revolute margins. The inflorescences are usually smaller, with fewer nodes and somewhat smaller bracts, and the bracts more commonly dry pale-colored. The bracteoles are more densely pubescent, or sometimes sericeous, and the flowers are sericeous not only on the calyx cup but on portions of the free petals and sepals.

Selected specimens examined. – M ADAGASCAR. Reg. Anosy [Prov. Toliara] : W side of Fort Dauphin , around airport, 10 m, 10. V.1983, D’Arcy & Rakotozafy 15416 ( MO, P); Vinanibe , 10.VII.1932 , Decary 10067 ( MO, P); Mandena Station Forestière, c. 1.5 air-km S of QMM experimental nursery, 24°57 '45"S 47°00'33"E, 5 m, 12.III.1998 GoogleMaps , Lowry et al.5020 ( MO, P); fkt. Manfiafy, Ebakika sud, forêt d’Agnalavinaky , 24°46'25"S 47°08'58"E, 21 m, 5.IX.2012 GoogleMaps , Ludovic 1630 ( MO); NW of village of St. Luce , 24°47'S 47°10'E, 20 m, 16. GoogleMaps I.1990, McPherson et al. 14813 ( MO, P); 5 km S of Manambaro, 23 km W of Fort Dauphin , 25°05'S 46°49'E, 150 m, 30.III.1991 GoogleMaps , Miller & Randrianasolo 6226 ( MO); 44 km N of Fort Dauphin on road to St. Luce , 24°46'45"S 47°10'30"E, 50 m, 22.III.1992 GoogleMaps , Phillipson et al.3957 ( MO, P) ; NE de la rivière Antorendrika avant Bala Venary , 24°52'S 47°07'E, 0–20 m, 22.III.1989 GoogleMaps , Rabevohitra 1782 ( MO, P); fkt. Mandena , forêt de Mandromoromotra, 24°55'16"S 47°01'35"E, 10 m, 4. GoogleMaps VI.2004, Rajoharison & Tsiatrefy 84 ( MO); Ampasy Nahampoana, Ambavarano, forêt d’Ambavarano , 24°57'S 47°02'E, 7 m, 12.II.2007 GoogleMaps , Ramison 204 ( MO); Andohahela , 25°02'S 46°58'E, 200–500 m, 1.II.1993 GoogleMaps , Randriamampionona 110 ( MO, P); fkt. Ambanihazo, village Epapango, forêt d’Analandrasambo , 24°40'55"S 47°11'56"E, 22 m, 22.X.2012 GoogleMaps , Randrianaivo et al.2047 ( MO); forêt de Mandena, Ampasinahampoina , 24°57'08"S 47°00'11"E, 96 m, 12. GoogleMaps VI.1999, Randriatafika et al. 63 ( MO, P); fkt. Mandena , 24°56'30"S 47°00'48"E, 10 m, 15.II.2004 GoogleMaps , Randriatafika & Stéphan 394 ( MO, P); forêt de Petriky , 25°03'23"S 46°52'00"E, 2.III.2004 GoogleMaps , Randriatafika et al. 483 ( MO); Mandena region , c. 10 km NNE of Fort-Dauphin, 24°57'S 47°02'E, 10 m, 11. GoogleMaps VI.1991, Zarucchi et al. 7587 ( MO) .


Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants


Botanische Staatssammlung München


Naturhistorisches Museum Wien


Missouri Botanical Garden


Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History


Nanjing University


University of New England














Homalium viride (H. Perrier) Appleq.

Applequist, Wendy L. 2022

Homalium involucratum f. viride

H. Perrier 1940: 296

Homalium involucratum var. lucidum

H. Perrier 1940: 296
Scott Elliot 1891: 23