Lasioglossum (Dialictus) zephyrum (Smith)

Gibbs, Jason, 2010, Revision of the metallic species of Lasioglossum (Dialictus) in Canada (Hymenoptera, Halictidae, Halictini) 2591, Zootaxa 2591 (1), pp. 1-382: 362-368

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.2591.1.1

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) zephyrum (Smith)


Lasioglossum (Dialictus) zephyrum (Smith)  

( Figures 242A–E, 243A–F)

Halictus zephyrus Smith, 1853: 68   . ♂.

Holotype. ♂ USA, Florida, St.   John’s Bluff [ BMNH: B.M. Type 17a 993]. Examined.  

Halictus (Chloralictus) academicus Sandhouse, 1924: 12   . ♀ [new synonymy]

Holotype. ♀ USA, Colorado, Boulder, 14.v. (I. Bleasdale); [ NMNH: 26402]. Examined.  

Halictus (Chloralictus) vintonensis Sandhouse, 1924: 22   . ♀ [new synonymy]

Holotype. ♀ USA, Iowa, Vinton , (G. Sandhouse); [ NMNH: 26417]. Examined.  

Taxonomy. Robertson, 1895: Halictus zephyrus   ♀, p. 117 (description); Robertson, 1902: Chloralictus zephyrus   , p. 248 (key); Cockerell, 1905: Halictus zephyrus   ♂, p. 352 (redescription); Viereck, 1916: Halictus (Chloralictus) zephyrus   , p. 706 (key); Michener, 1951: Lasioglossum (Chloralictus) academicum   , p. 1111, L. (C.) zephyrus   , p. 1118 (catalogue); Mitchell, 1960: Dialictus zephyrus   ♂, p. 431 (redescription); Krombein, 1967: Lasioglossum (Dialictus) zephyrum   , p. 467 (catalogue); Hurd, 1979: Dialictus academicus   , p. 1963 (catalogue); Dialictus academicus   , p. 1963, D. zephyrus   , p. 1973 (catalogue); Moure & Hurd, 1987: Dialictus academicus   , p. 87, D. zephyrus   , p. 140 (catalogue); Pesenko et al., 2000: Evylaeus zephyrus   , p. 42 (review).

Diagnosis. Females of L. zephyrum   can be recognised by the diagnostic combination of a moderately large size (5.31–7.08 mm), wide head (length/width ratio = 0.94–0.95), lower paraocular area with dense tomentum obscuring surface, gena wider than eye, hypostomal carina parallel, mesoscutum polished due to weak sculpture with fine punctures that are moderately sparse on central disc (i=1–2d), fine mesepisternal punctures that are often obscure ( Fig. 242D), metapostnotal rugae reaching approximately halfway to posterior margin ( Fig. 242E), and polished metasomal terga with faint metallic reflections.

Males of L. zephyrum   are similar to females but can be further distinguished by clypeus sometimes with brownish yellow band on apex of clypeus, denser tomentum on the paraocular area, elongate flagellomeres (length/width ratio = 1.75–1.86) that are bright yellow ventrally, gena narrower than eye, distinct mesepisternal punctures, tarsi and apices and bases of tibiae pale brownish yellow, stronger metapostnotal rugae nearly reaching the rounded posterior margin, and metasomal terga colour variable from brown with greenish reflections to orange-red.

Redescription. FEMALE. Length 5.31–7.08 mm; head length 1.44–1.80 mm; head width 1.54–1.92 mm; forewing length 3.78–5.06 mm.

Colouration. Head and mesosoma pale green with golden reflections to blue. Clypeus with apical half blackish brown. Antenna dark brown, flagellum with ventral surface yellow-brownish to yellow. Tegula reddish translucent amber. Wing membrane subhyaline, venation and pterostigma amber. Legs brown, sometimes tibial bases and apices, and tarsi reddish brown. Metasomal terga faintly blue-green, sterna brown, apical margins translucent brownish yellow.

Pubescence. Dull white. Mostly sparse. Head and mesosoma with moderately dense woolly hairs (1–1.5 OD), longest on genal beard, metanotum and mesopleuron (2–2.5 OD). Clypeus with scattered tomentum basally. Paraocular area with dense tomentum, obscuring surface. Frons with scattered tomentum. Gena with sparse tomentum. Propodeum with moderately dense plumose hairs on lateral and posterior surfaces (2–2.5 OD). Metasomal terga moderately dense, fine setae. T1 acarinarial fan with dorsal opening, equal to, or greater than width of marginal hair bands. T2 basolaterally, T3 basally and T4–T5 entirely with scattered tomentum not obscuring surface. T2 apicolateral and T3–T4 apical margins with very sparse fringes, virtually absent.

Surface sculpture. Face polished, punctation fine and deep. Clypeus with apical half punctation strong (i=2–3d). Supraclypeal area with punctation moderately dense (i=1–1.5d). Lower paraocular and antennocular areas with punctation dense (i≤d). Upper paraocular area and frons densely punctate (i≤0.5d). Ocellocular area punctate (i=1–1.5d). Gena polished, weakly lineolate. Postgena imbricate. Mesoscutum with fine, deep punctures, punctation moderately sparse between parapsidal lines (i=1–2d), closer laterad of parapsidal lines (i≤d), and on anterolateral portions (i≤0.5d). Mesoscutellum similar to mesoscutum, submedial punctation sparse (i=1–3d). Axilla punctate. Metanotum imbricate. Preëpisternum rugulose. Hypoepimeral area imbricate-punctate. Mesepisternum polished, distinctly punctate (i=1–1.5d) especially from low angle, ventral portion more obscurely punctate. Metepisternum with dorsal third rugoso-striate, ventral portion imbricate. Metapostnotum incompletely rugoso-striate, reaching one half to two-thirds the distance to posterior margin, posterior margin weakly imbricate. Propodeum with dorsolateral slope polished to weakly imbricate, lateral and posterior surfaces weakly tessellate. Metasomal terga polished except apical impressed areas weakly coriarious, punctation distinct on basal halves (i=1–2d), more obscure on apical half (i=1–2d).

Structure. Head wide (length/width ratio = 0.94–0.95). Eyes convergent below (UOD/LOD = 1.12–1.18). Clypeus 1/3 below suborbital tangent, apicolateral margins strongly convergent. Antennal sockets close (IAD/ OAD <0.5). Frontal line carinate, ending 2 OD below median ocellus. Gena wider than, or subequal to, eye. Inner metatibial spur pectinate with 3–5 teeth. Metapostnotum moderately elongate (MMR ratio = 1.15–1.23), posterior margin rounded onto posterior surface. Propodeum with oblique carina weak, lateral carina moderately strong nearly reaching dorsal margin.

MALE. Similar to female except for the usual secondary sexual characters and as follows. Length 5.06– 7.10 mm; head length 1.32–1.92 mm; head width 1.32–1.87 mm; forewing length 3.60–5.19 mm.

Colouration. Labrum, distal margin of clypeus, and ventral surface of pedicel sometimes brownish yellow. Mandibles yellowish brown. Tegula pale translucent brownish yellow. Legs brown, tibiae with basal and apical portions, and tarsi pale brownish yellow, tibiae with outer margins sometimes infused with brownish yellow. Metasomal terga faintly metallic, sometimes largely reddish.

Pubescence. Face below level of eye emargination with white tomentum, obscuring surface of lower frons and paraocular area. Clypeus, and supraclypeal area not obscured by sparse tomentum. Lower paraocular area completely obscured. Gena with tomentum near eye. T2–T4 with basolateral tomentum. S3–S5 with weak apicolateral hair tufts.

Surface sculpture. Postgena weakly lineolate. Mesoscutellum medial portion sparsely punctate (i=1– 1.5d). Metanotum minutely punctate. Mesepisternum distinctly punctate (i=1–1.5d). Metapostnotum longitudinally rugoso-striate almost reaching posterior margin, posterior margin imbricate. Propodeum dorsolateral slope, lateral and posterior surfaces of propodeum rugulose.

Structure. Head moderately elongate (length/width ratio = 1.00–1.03). Eyes convergent below (UOD/ LOD ratio = 1.30–1.57). Clypeus 1/2 below suborbital tangent, apicolateral margins subparallel. Antennal sockets distant (IAD/OAD> 1.2). Frontal line carinate, ending 1.5 OD below median ocellus. Pedicel subequal to F1. F2 length 1.9–2.3X F1. F2–F10 elongate (length/width ratio = 1.75–1.86). Metapostnotum elongate (MMR ratio = 1.06–1.17), posterior margin rounded onto posterior surface.

Terminalia   . S7 with median lobe wide, strongly clavate, apex rounded ( Fig. 243F). S8 with apicomedial margin weakly convex ( Fig. 243F). Genitalia as in Fig. 243D–E. Gonobase with ventral arms narrowly separated. Gonostylus small, dorsal setae elongate. Retrorse lobe elongate, weakly attenuated, recurved apically.

Range. Quebec west to Alberta, Oregon, south to Florida, Texas ( Fig. 244).

Additional material examined. CANADA: ALBERTA: 2♂♂ 15 km S Three Hills, Hwy 21, N51.49484 W113.23214, 702 m, 2.ix.2007 (Gibbs & Sheffield); [ PCYU] GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ Edmonton , 25.v.1986 (D. Blades)   ; 2♀ Writing-On-Stone, sand pit, 4.viii.1981 (D.B. McCorquodale); [ PMAE]   ; MANITOBA: 1♀ Eli , ( T. Harcus)   ; 1♀ Willow Bend , ( T. Harcus); [ ROM]   ; ONTARIO: 1♀ Forks of Credit , (P. MacKay)   ; 1♀ Haldimand-Norfolk, Nixon West , N42°13´W080°26´, 22.vii.1995 (L. Packer) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ 2♂♂ Haldimand-Norfolk, Turkey Point Cliff Face , 11,viii,1984 (L. Packer)   ; 3♀ Toronto, Marlee St. , N35.663 W082.479, 30.iv.2006 (J. Genaro) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ York University, Keele Campus, Pond Rd. residences, greenroof, (E. Willis); [ PCYU]   ; QUEBEC: 1♀ Gatineau Pk., Mountain Rd. , 12.vii.1965 (P.S. Corbet); [ PMAE]   ; USA: ALABAMA: 4♀ Clay Co., Clairmont Springs Baptist Ch. , 16S N3691367 E599888, 31.v.2007 (J. Hanula, S. Horn & M. Ulyshen); [ PCYU]   ; DELAWARE: 1♂ New Castle Co., N39.5445 W075.57561, (S.W. Droege) GoogleMaps   ; GEORGIA: 1♀ Liberty Co., St. Catherines Isl., Rd b/w Windmill 2 nd and Gator Pond , 22– (A. Sharkov)   ; ILLINOIS: 1♀ Carlinville , N39.1365 W089.9419, (J. Gibbs) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ Carlinville , N39.2787 W089.8898, (J. Gibbs) GoogleMaps   ; INDIANA: 1♀ Jackson Co., N38.8799 W0.056, 26.vii.2003 (S.W. Droege); [ PCYU] GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ [ ANSP]   ; MAINE: 1♂ Somerset Co., Starks , 13.viii.2006 (M.F. Veit)   ; MARYLAND: 1♀ Anne Arundel Co., N38.7483 W076.5572, 1.vii.2001 (S.W. Droege) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ Garrett Co., N39.3456 W079.4837, 2004 (S.W. Droege) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ Pr. George’s Co., N38.9903 W076.7515, 20.viii.2004 (S. Kolski) GoogleMaps   ; MICHIGAN: 1♀ Allegan Co., N42.5538 W086.0437, 28.viii.2003 (S.W. Droege); [ PCYU] GoogleMaps   ; MISSOURI: 1♀ Williamsville , 15.viii.1969 (J. T. Becker); [ PMAE]   ; MONTANA: 1♀ Blaine Co., 31 mi E Havre , 27.vii.1975 (L. Herman); [ AMNH]   ; NEBRASKA: 1♀ Douglas Co., N41.2796 W095.9073, 10.v.2007 (S.W. Droege) GoogleMaps   ; NEW YORK: 3♀ 1♂ Suffolk Co., 6.ix.2005 (S.W. Droege)   ; 1♂ Suffolk Co., N41.0704 W071.8582, 6.ix.2005 (S.W. Droege) GoogleMaps   ; 9♂♂ Suffolk Co., N41.0371 W071.9248, 7.ix.2005 (S.W. Droege) GoogleMaps   ; ♂ Suffolk Co., N41.1531 W072.2457, 8.ix.2005 (S.W. Droege); [ PCYU] GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ Tompkins Co., Bakers , N Lansing, 6.v.2009 (M.G. Park); [ CUIC]   ; OREGON: 1♂ Farewell Bend SP, N44.30962 W117.22057, 659 m, (Gibbs & Sheffield); [ PCYU] GoogleMaps   ; TENNESSEE: 1♀ Lexington , Natchez Trace S.P., 15– (G. Heinrich); [ PMAE]   ; TEXAS: 1♀ Travis Co., Austin , N31.361 W097.76, 9.iii.2007 (J.L. Neff); [ CTMI] GoogleMaps   ; VERMONT: 1♂ Lamoille Co., Morristown , 4 mi S of Lake Elmore, 10.viii.2006 (M.F. Veit); WEST VIR-   GINIA: 1♂ near Charleston , N38.4121 W081.64776, 15.viii.2006 (J. Gibbs); [ PCYU] GoogleMaps   ; WISCONSIN: 2♀ Dane Co., Westport Drumlin , 11.vii.1996 ( R. A. Henderson); [ IRCW]   .

Floral records. ANACARDIACEAE   : Rhus aromatica   , R. copallinum   , R. glabra   , APIACEAE   : Cryptotaenia canadensis   , Sium suave   , Taenidia integerrima   , Zizia aurea   , APOCYNACEAE   : Apocynum androsaemifolium   , ASCLEPIADACEAE   : Asclepias   , Cynanchum laeve   , ASTERACEAE   : Ageratina altissima   , Antennaria neglecta   , A. plantaginifolia   , Arctium lappa   , Arnoglossum reniforme   , Baccharis   , Cirsium altissimum   , C. arvense   , Conyza canadensis   , Erigeron annuus   , E. strigosus   , Eupatorium altissimum   , E. perfoliatum   , E. serotinum   , Eurybia furcata   , Helenium autumnale   , Helianthus tuberosus   , Leucanthemum vulgare   , Rudbeckia subtomentosa   , R. triloba   , Solidago canadensis   , Symphyotrichum drummondii   , S. lanceolatum   , S. lateriflorum   , S. pilosum   , S. prenanthoides   , Tanacetum vulgare   , BERBERIDACEAE   : Jeffersonia diphylla   , BIGNONIACEAE   : Campsis radicans   , BRASSICACEAE   : Arabis shortii   , Barbarea   , Capsella bursa-pastoris   , Rorippa teres   , R. palustris   , Sibara virginica   , CAPRIFOLIACEAE   : Sambucus nigra canadensis   , Symphoricarpos orbiculatus   , Viburnum   , CELASTRACEAE   : Euonymus atropurpureus   , CORNACEAE   : Cornus florida   , CUCURBITACEAE   : Cucurbita   , EBENACEAE   : Diospyros virginiana   , ERICACEAE   : Vaccinium   , FABACEAE   : Cercis canadensis   , Chamaecrista fasciculata   , Lotus   , Medicago   , Melilotus   , Vicia   , GROSSULA- RIACEAE: Ribes cynosbati   , R. uva-crispa sativum   , R. nigrum   , R. rubrum   , HYDRANGEACEAE   : Hydrangea   , HYDROPHYLLACEAE   : Ellisia nyctelea   , LAMIACEAE   : Blephilia ciliata   , Pycnanthemum verticillatum pilosum   , LAURACEAE   : Sassafras albidum   , LILIACEAE   : Allium cernuum   , A. tricoccum   , Asparagus officinalis   , Maianthemum racemosum   , M. stellatum   , Scilla   , Triantha glutinosa   , MALVACEAE   : Alcea rosea   , Malva pusilla   , NYMPHAEACEAE   : Nymphaea   , ONAGRACEAE   : Ludwigia polycarpa   , PAPAVERACEAE   : Sanguinaria canadensis   , PHYTOLACCACEAE   : Phytolacca americana   , POLYGO- NACEAE: Fagopyrum   , Polygonum persicaria   , P. scandens   , PONTEDERIACEAE   : Pontederia   , PORTU- LACACEAE: Claytonia virginica   , RANUNCULACEAE   : Actaea pachypoda   , Clematis virginiana   , Enemion biternatum   , Myosurus minimus   , Ranunculus abortivus   , R. hispidus   , RHAMNACEAE   : Ceanothus americanus   , Rhamnus lanceolata   , ROSACEAE   : Amelanchier canadensis   , Crataegus   aff. “ coccinea   ”, C. crus-galli   , C. mollis   , Malus pumila   , Photinia   , Prunus americana   , P. serotina   , Rosa   , Rubus   , RUTACEAE   : Zanthoxylum americanum   , SALICACEAE   : Salix amygdaloides   , S. cordata   , S. humilis   , S. interior   , S. nigra   , SAXIFRA- GACEAE: Heuchera americana hispida   , Parnassia caroliniana   , Saxifraga pensylvanica   , SCROPHULARI- ACEAE: Scrophularia marilandica   , Veronica peregrina   , SMILACACEAE   : Smilax tamnoides   , SYMPLOCACEAE   : Symplocos   , THYMELAEACEAE   : Dirca palustris   , Philadelphus inodorus   , TILI- ACEAE: Tilia americana   , VERBENACEAE   : Verbena hastata   .

Biology. Robertson, 1901: (possible parasite, nest site); Rau, 1922: (nest site, guard behaviour); Reinhard 1924: (predator, as sp. near zephyrus   ); Rau, 1926: (nest site, nest architecture, guard behaviour, male behaviour); Robertson, 1926: (possible parasite); Krombein, 1938: (possible parasite, agonistic behaviour toward Pseudomethoca frigida   ); Bohart, 1941: (stylopization); Evans & Lin, 1959: (predators); Michener & Wille, 1961: (possible parasite); LaBerge & Isakson, 1963: (nest site, nest architecture); Lin, 1964: (to mutillid parasitism); Batra, 1964: (behaviour); Batra, 1965: (associated organisms); Batra, 1966: (life cycle, behaviour); Michener & Brothers, 1971: (observation nest); Michener et al. 1971: (interactions within colonies); Bell, 1973: (initiation of vitellogenesis); Woodring, 1973: (mite association); Barrows & Snyder, 1974: (predator); Kamm, 1974: (effects of temperature, day length, and number of adults on cell and offspring size); Michener, 1974, pp. 5, 46, 50, 51, 55, 57, 59, 61, 67, 77, 85, 87, 95, 96, 98, 109, 114, 115, 119, 128, 211, 212, 222, 240, 244, 247, 249, 250, 274, 276, 280, 281, 282, 285: (larval molts, castes, nest aggregations, colony establishment, queen replacement, colony size, cell construction and provisioning, inspection of cells, sex ratio, caste differences, nest defense, seasonal size variation, orphan workers, division of labour among workers, foraging, nest sites, nest architecture, natural history, sociality); Brothers & Michener, 1974: (ethometry of division of labour); Michener & Brothers, 1974: (origin of altruism); Bell et al. 1974: (nest defense); Bell & Hawkins, 1974: (nest defense); Bell, 1974: (intraspecific nest defense); Barrows, 1975: (male response to female odour production); Kumar, 1975: (cell size); Barrows et al. 1975: (individual odour differences and their social functions); Kukuk & May 1985: (genetic variability); Erickson et al. 1976: (meloid parasite); Breed & Gamboa, 1977: (queen-behavioural control of workers); Michener, 1977: (aspects of caste evolution); Breed, 1977: (interactions among individuals, queen replacement); Kukuk et al. 1977: (contributions of kinship and conditioning on nest and nestmate recognition); Michener, 1978: (parasitism by Sphecodes   ); Brothers, 1978: (parasite); Breed et al. 1978: (agonistic behaviour, social interactions, behavioural specialization); Greenberg, 1979: (genetic component of bee odour in kin recognition); Kukuk, 1980: (diurnal activity within nest); Ginevan et al., 1980: (effect of ambient air concentration of sulphur dioxide on male flight activity); Buckle & Greenberg, 1981: (nestmate recognition); Greenberg, 1982: (year-round culturing and activity); Buckle, 1982 a, 1982 b: (queen, nestmate interactions); Getz, 1982: (learned kin recognition); Greenberg, 1982: (male habituation to female odour); Smith, 1983: (female kin recognition by males); Ramberg et al., 1984: (karyotype); Buckle 1984: (queen, forager interactions); Buckle, 1985: (queen-like behaviour in workers); Kukuk, 1985: (aphrodisiac); Smith et al. 1985: (sex pheromone); Kukuk & Decelles, 1986: (dispersion); Crozier et al., 1987: (relatedness, population structure); Smith, 1987: (dominance hierarchy); Smith & Ayasse, 1987: (male mating preferences); Wcislo, 1987: (learning); Greenberg, 1988: (kin recognition); Kukuk & May, 1988: (dominance hierarchy); Smith & Wenzel, 1988: (pheromones, kinship); Kukuk & May, 1990: (diploid males); Kukuk & May, 1991: (colony dynamics); Roulston & Cane, 2002: (effect of protein concentration on body size); Danforth 1999: (phylogeny); Danforth & Ji 2001: (phylogeny); Danforth et al. 2003: (phylogeny).

Comments. Common. The metasoma of the males of this species are variable in colouration ranging from brown with green reflections to partially or completely ferruginous ( Batra 1966). This trait may be misleading when attempting to identify male specimens. Although this species can be found on the west coast, it is far more commonly collected on the eastern portion of its range. The name H. vintonensis   was previously considered a synonym of H. academicus   (see Michener 1951).


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


The Packer Collection at York University


Royal Alberta Museum


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics


Royal Ontario Museum


Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia


American Museum of Natural History


Cornell University Insect Collection


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Madison, University of Wisconsin














Lasioglossum (Dialictus) zephyrum (Smith)

Gibbs, Jason 2010

Halictus (Chloralictus) academicus

Sandhouse, G. A. 1924: 12

Halictus (Chloralictus) vintonensis

Sandhouse, G. A. 1924: 22

Halictus zephyrus

Smith, F. 1853: 68