Xylopia capuronii Cavaco & Keraudren, 1956

Johnson, David M. & Murray, Nancy A., 2020, A revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): the species of Madagascar and the Mascarene islands, Adansonia 42 (1), pp. 1-88 : 51-52

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https://doi.org/ 10.5252/adansonia2020v42a1

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Xylopia capuronii Cavaco & Keraudren


16. Xylopia capuronii Cavaco & Keraudren ( Fig. 18A-D View FIG )

Bulletin de la Société botanique de France 103: 274 (1956). — Type: Madagascar. Prov. Toamasina [“ Domaine de l’Est’ ], forêt orientale, bassin de l’Anketrabe, affluent r. g. de la Rantabe, au N de Sahajinja, vers 700 m d’alt., 6.III.1954 (fl.), Capuron 9110 (holo-, P[P030372]!; iso-, P[P00697845, P030373, P030374, P030375]!, TEF[photo]!, WAG!).

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Madagascar. Prov. Toamasina. Forêt orientale, environs de la baie d’Antongil, bassin de la Fananehana, massif de l’Androrona [c. 15°51’S, 49°30’15”SE], vers 700 m d’altitude, II.1954 (fl. bud, fr.), Capuron 8997 (P[P01986985, P01986986, P01987227, P01987228, P01987229]); Antsinanana, Ambodiriana, Andrantambe, Rendrirendry, Betampona RNI, 17°55’27”S, 49°11’59”E, 414 m, 10.IV.2010 (buds), Razakamalala et al. 5372 (to be distributed to MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps ; forêt Tsikambolozatsy-Mananara, village Ankarany, Canton Antsirabe, Dist. Mandritsara, 13.IV.1956 (st.), sine coll. 107-R-301 (P[P01986987, P01986988]).

DISTRIBUTION, ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION STATUS. — Xylopia capuronii occurs in humid lowland forest at elevations of 414-700 m in northeastern to eastern Madagascar ( Fig. 28 View FIG ). Specimens with flowers or buds have been collected from February to April, and with fruits in February. A preliminary conservation assessment of Critically Endangered is assigned, based on IUCN Criterion D. The species has EOO and AOO values of 3846 km 2 and 16 km 2, respectively. The type locality appears to fall within the boundaries of the Makira Natural Park, but the species has not been re-collected there since 1956; the more recent collection from the Betampona Reserve both extends the known distribution of X. capuronii significantly southward and indicates another population within a protected area.

LOCAL NAME. — Hazoambomena (Tsimihety, 107-R-301).

DESCRIPTION Tree up to 15 m tall; d.b.h. up to 45 cm.

Twigs densely pubescent with persistent erect dull red hairs, the hairs 0.4-0.6 mm long; nodes with a single axillary branch. Leaves with larger blades 9.8-14.5 cm long, 2.5-4.5 cm wide, coriaceous to subcoriaceous, slightly discolorous, olive gray and shiny adaxially, brownish gray and dull abaxially, narrowly oblong to elliptic, apex acuminate, the acumen 5-9 mm long, base broadly cuneate, not decurrent on petiole, margin revolute, glabrous except for the pubescent midrib adaxially, densely dull red erect-pubescent abaxially, especially pronounced on the midrib and margins in vivo; midrib darkened abaxially; secondary veins weakly brochidodromous, 12-16 per side, diverging at 50-80° from midrib, these and higher-order veins forming a slightly raised reticulum on both surfaces; petiole 5-10 mm long, canaliculate, slightly wrinkled, densely dull red erect-pubescent.

Inflorescences axillary, 1-2-flowered, arising from axils on separate pedicels, densely covered with dull red hairs; pedicels 5-8 mm long, 1.6-2 mm thick; bract 1, subtending the sepals, persistent or caducous, 4.2-4.5 mm long, broadly ovate; buds ovoid, apex obtuse to short-acuminate.

Sepals erect or slightly spreading, c. 1/3-connate, 5-6 mm long, 6-7 mm wide, coriaceous, broadly ovate, apex obtuse, densely dull red-pubescent abaxially.

Petals with color in vivo and position at anthesis unknown; outer petals 11-13 mm long, 6.1-7.2 mm wide at the base, 3.3-4.4 mm wide at midpoint, fleshy, lanceolate, apex acute, covered with short appressed hairs and dense glandular punctations except for the glabrous base adaxially, appressed-pubescent abaxially; inner petals 10-10.5 mm long, 5-6.1 mm wide at base, 1.7-2.2 mm wide at midpoint, fleshy, lanceolate, somewhat subulate, puberulent on both surfaces.

Stamens numerous; staminal cone concealing the lower half of the ovaries.

Carpels c. 18; ovaries c. 1 mm long, narrowly ellipsoid, covered with long sparse white hairs, stigmas loosely connivent, 3 mm long, covered with long white tangled ascending hairs.

Fruit of up to 9 monocarps borne on a pedicel 10-11 mm long, c. 5 mm thick, pubescent; torus c. 10 mm in diameter, c. 7 mm high, irregularly depressed-globose; monocarps with color in vivo unknown, 2.3-3.1 cm long, 1.5-1.9 cm wide, 1.3-1.8 cm thick, oblong, obovoid, or pyriform, sometimes slightly torulose, apex rounded, base sessile but gradually narrowed to point of attachment, obliquely wrinkled, dull, sparsely dull red pubescent; pericarp c. 1.5 mm thick.

Seeds up to 6 per monocarp, in two rows, oblique to nearly perpendicular to long axis, 12.4-14 mm long, 9-10.1 mm wide, 6-6.9 mm thick, flattened-ellipsoid, narrowly elliptic in cross-section, brown or olive-colored, finely pitted, dull or slightly shiny, perichalazal ring visible but not raised; presence of sarcotesta undetermined; aril absent.


Xylopia capuronii may be separated from other Madagascar species by the conspicuous dull red indument on all parts, as well as the coriaceous to subcoriaceous narrowly oblong to elliptic leaves with revolute margins. In the short broad petals, and the shortstipitate to sessile and slightly compressed monocarps it is most similar to X. lokobensis , sp. nov., which has thinner leaves with flat margins, and a yellowish brown rather than dull red indument.


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Xylopia capuronii Cavaco & Keraudren

Johnson, David M. & Murray, Nancy A. 2020

Xylopia capuronii

Xylopia capuronii Cavaco & Keraudren ( Fig. 18A-D ) Bulletin de la Société botanique de France 103: 274 (1956). — Type: Madagascar . Prov. Toamasina [“ Domaine de l’Est’ ], forêt orientale, bassin de l’Anketrabe, affluent r. g. de la Rantabe, au N de Sahajinja, vers 700 m d’alt., 6.III.1954 (fl.), Capuron 9110 (holo-, P[P030372]!; iso-, P[P00697845, P030373, P030374, P030375]!, TEF[photo]!, WAG!).