Yoyetta spectabilis, Emery & Emery & Popple, 2019
Emery, David L., Emery, Nathan J. & Popple, Lindsay W., 2019, A Revision of the Yoyetta abdominalis (Distant) Species Group of Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettinae), Introducing Eight New Species, Records of the Australian Museum 71 (7), pp. 277-347 : 308-313
treatment provided by
Yoyetta spectabilis sp. nov.
Figs 2D View Figure 2 , 3D View Figure 3 , 22–25 View Figure 22 View Figure 23 View Figure 24 View Figure 25 , 52D, 53K View Figure 53
Holotype ♂, Wises Track , Royal National Park, NSW, 34°06'51"S 151°03'30"E, 9.i.2005, S. N. & D. Emery ( AM K.536052) GoogleMaps . Paratypes NEW SOUTH WALES: 1♂ 1♀, Australia NSW, Morton NP, Malaise on edge between open field & woodland Leptospermum understorey, off Touga Rd , 1–8.xii.2009 , C. Manchester, D.Yeates, B. Lessard,ANIC Bulk Sample No. 3381, 35°02'35"S 150°08'31"E GPS; 2♂♂, Australia NSW, Clyde Mountain (near top of highway pass), 28.xii.1994 GoogleMaps ; A. Sundholm & R. De Keyzer; 1♂, Blue Mtns 1899, W. W. Froggatt collection ( ANIC); 1♀, Park Rd, Waitara , NSW, 33°42'31"S 151°06'27"E, 17.xii.1996 GoogleMaps , M. S. Moulds; 1♀, Knapsack St, Glenbrook , NSW, 33°45'46"S 150°38'17"E, 10.xi.1997 GoogleMaps , D. Emery; 1♂ 1♀, Barren Ground Nature Reserve , NSW, 34°42'43"S 150°42'21"E, 15.i.1999 GoogleMaps , S., N. & D. Emery; 3♂♂ 2♀♀ same location, 15.i.2000 GoogleMaps , S. & D. Emery; 6♂♂ same location, 1.i.2004 GoogleMaps , S. & D. Emery; 2♂♂, same location, 29.xii, 2005, N. & D. Emery; 2♂♂, Clarence , NSW, 6.xii.2000 GoogleMaps , R. Chin; 2♂♂ 1♀, Blackheath , NSW, 33°36'44"S 150°19'28"E, 23.xi.2002 GoogleMaps , D. Emery & L. Popple; 1♂, same location, 14.xii.2002 GoogleMaps , D. Emery; 2♂♂, same location, 22.xii.2002 GoogleMaps , N. & D. Emery; 2♂♂, 20 km SW Nowra, NSW, 35°01'35"S 150°28'37"E, 1.i.15, S., N., C. & D. Emery; 1♂, Berrara , 17.x.2015 GoogleMaps , N. Emery; 2♂♂, Medway, NSW, 34°29'25"S 150°16'27"E, 6.i.17, S., N. & D. Emery & T. Corbin; 3♂♂, Dolphin Point , NSW, 36°25'41"S 150°26'40"E, 19–28.i.2018 GoogleMaps , J. Poyitt ( DE); 2♂♂, same location, 19–28.i.2018 GoogleMaps , J. Poyitt; 1♂, same location, 2.i.2014 GoogleMaps , J. Poyitt ( JP); 1♂, Bendalong , NSW, 26.xii.1968 , G. Daniels; 1♀, Royal National Park , NSW, 7.ii.1986 , C. N. Smithers; 1♂, “ Tuglo ”, 60 km N Singleton, NSW, 13.xi.1983 , B. Day & K. Kloo; 2♂♂, Macquarie Pass , NSW, 28.xii.1992 , T. M. S. Hanlon; 6♂♂, Barren Ground Picnic Area , NSW, 10.i.2006 , D.Britton ( AM); 2♂♂, Blackheath , 23.xi.2002 , L. Popple, D.Emery, 513-0001, 513-0002; 1♀, Barren Grounds , 31.xi.2003 , L. Popple, D. Emery; 3♂♂, Burradoo via Jambaroo , 31.xi.2003 , L.Popple, D. Emery, 513-0004 to 513-0006, 1♂, Genitalia prep. 513-01; 2♂♂, Kanangra Walls, 33°59'19"S 150°05'32"E, S12588 View Materials , Heathland , 9.i.2010 GoogleMaps , Popple & Emery, 513-0008, 513-0009; 1♂, Kanangra-Boyd National Park , 33°53'10"S 150°45'23"E, S12588 View Materials , 9.i.2010 GoogleMaps , Popple & Emery, 513-0007; 1♂, Blackheath , i.2010 , D. Emery, 513 ( LWP); 1♂, Ulladulla , 23.xii.1994 , M. S. & B. J. Moulds; 5♂♂, Hat Hill, Blue Mountain Nat. Pk , 5.xii.1971 , G. Daniels; 1♂ 1♀, same data, 30.xi.1975 ; 3♂♂, Kanangra Walls , 23.xii.1973 , G. Daniels; 1♂, Wentworth Falls, Blue Mountains , xii.1990 , Keith Chambers; 3♂♂ 1♀, Hat Hill, Blackheath , 24.xi.1973 , G. Daniels; 1♂, Cudmirrah Faunal Reserve , 24.xii.1974 , G. Daniels; 1♂, Mt Leighton Bailey, Royal Nat. Pk , 2.ii.1978 , G. Daniels; 1♂, 8 km E Robertson , 12.xii.1976 , G. Daniels; 1♂, George Boyd Lookout, nr Ulladulla , 12.xii.1990 , A. Sundholm; 1♂, Bobbin Head, Ku-Ring-Gai Chase National Park , 16.ii.1970 , J. Barratt; 1♂, Budderoo Fire Trail , approx. 18 km SE Robertson, 18.xi.1984 , G. Williams, ex. woodland; 1♂, Currarong , 24.i.1993 , T. M. S. Hanlon; 7♂♂, Hat Hill, Blackheath, Blue Mts , 11.xii.1971 , J. V. Peters; 1♂, Mt Wilson, Blue Mountains , 30.xi.1975 , G. Daniels; 1♂ 1♀, Jenolan Caves , 30.xii.1991 , R. Eastwood; 2♂♂, Clyde Mt , 28.xii.1994 , R. de Keyzer & A. Sundholm; 1♀, Tinderry Rg , 10.xii.1961 , L. A. Greenup; 1♂, Jct Rawson Pde and Mt Hay Rd, N. of Leura , 33°42.215'S 150°20.308'E, 980 m [elev.], 14.i.2011 GoogleMaps ,
(a) viewed laterally from the left; (b) viewed ventrally; (c) aedeagus; and (d) apex of theca.
Characters as depicted in Fig. 4 View Figure 4 . Specimen from Barren Grounds (34°41'S 150°44'E).
K. Hill, D. Marshall,AU.NS.MHA, C. Simon lab voucher, Yoyetta “zizzer”, legs in ETOH, 11.AU.NS.MHA.03; ( MSM); 1♀, Tubrabucca, Barrington Tops , NSW, 31°52'S 151°25'E, 17.i.1948 ( HEM2218 ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Barrington , NSW, 31°59'S 151°55'E, 17.xii.1921 ( HEM2219 ); ( MMV) GoogleMaps . AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY: 2♂♂, Jervis Bay , ACT, 33°45'24"S 150°44'55"E, 12.xii.10, N. & D. Emery ( DE) GoogleMaps . VICTORIA: 1♂, Shady Ck V., 7 km N. Yarragon , 7.i.1983, D. F. Crosby ; 1♂ 1♀, N. Walkerville, 28.xii.1988, H. Abbott ( MSM) ; 2♂♂, Tyers River, Moondarra Vic , 28.xii.1976, W. N. B. Quick ( ANIC) ; 1♂, Yinnar, Vic , 38°19'S 146°19'E, 5.i.1952 ( HEM2237 ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂, same location, 16.xii.1948 ( HEM2238 ) ( MMV) GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Narre Warren, 21.i.62; 2♀♀, Upper B’field, 13.i.1998 ( QM) ; 1♂, Berwick, Victoria, G. J. Hall, 13.i.1924, Melampsalta abdominalis Dist. , det. G. J. Hall after Nat. Mus. Vict., SAMA Database no. 20-014466 ( SAM) .
Other material. NEW SOUTH WALES: 4♂♂, Hat Hill Rd., Blackheath , NSW, 33°36'59"S 150°18'29"E, 19.xii.2007, C. & D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 1♀, same location, 10.i.2006, D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Wises Track, Royal National Park , NSW, 34°06'51"S 151°03'30"E, 9–13.i.2005, S. N. & D.Emery GoogleMaps ; 4♂♂, same location, 22.i.2007, S., N. &, D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 5♂♂ 1♀, Budaroo National Park , NSW, 34°36'44"S 150°42'05"E, 30.xi.2003, S. & D. Emery & L. Popple GoogleMaps ; 11♂♂ 7♀♀, same location, 27.i.2007, S. & D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 8♂♂, same location, 1.i.2004, S. N. & D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 2♂♂ 1♀, Anvil Rock , NSW, 33°35'44"S 150°20'00"E, 6.xii.2009, D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 3♂♂ 1♀, same location, 9.xii.2009, D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Kuringai Chase National Park , NSW, 33°40'34"S 151°12'52"E, 14.xii.2009, D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 2♂♂, St. Ives Showground , NSW, 33°42'22"S 151°11'21"E, 5–6.i.2010, D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Kanangra Walls ,NSW, 33°59'18"S 150°02'25"E, 8.i.2010, D. Emery & L. Popple GoogleMaps ; 6♂♂ 1♀, Kangaroo Track, Barren Ground Reserve , NSW, 34°41'40"S 150°44'19"E, 28.xii.2010, T., S., N., C. & D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 3♂♂, Lockley’s Pylon Track, Leura , NSW, 33°36'05"S 150°20'00"E, 20.xii.2012, N. & D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 5♂♂, same location, 7.xii.13, A. Greenville & N. Emery GoogleMaps ; 1♂ 1♀, same location, 2.xii.14, T., S., N., C. & D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 1♂, same location, 2.xii.14, A. Schreiber GoogleMaps ; 1♂, same location, 12.xii.14, N. Emery GoogleMaps ; 1♀, Bundanoon , NSW, 19.i.2012, G. Bellis ( DE) . VICTORIA: 1♂, [labels in handwriting of J. H. Ashton] M. abdominalis Dist. Vic., K 30137 [typed], genitalia preparation [handwritten] Y029, AM K.307108 (donated in 1911) .
Distribution, habitat and seasonality. Highland locations from Barrington Tops south to the Southern Highlands of New South Wales. Specimens have been found in coastal locations from northern Sydney, south to eastern Victoria, close the Melbourne ( Fig. 18 View Figure 18 ). Adults occur mainly on small heath shrubs and sometimes on eucalypts. Males constantly
move between singing stations that are usually <3 m high. Females are located close to ground level. Since their song is somewhat similar to that of Y. regalis sp. nov., the location of Y. spectabilis sp. nov. on the heathland shrubs contrasts with the distinct preference of the former species for smooth-barked eucalypts when the two species cohabit open woodland. This species can be encountered from late November to January.
Male ( Figs 2D View Figure 2 , 3D View Figure 3 , 22A,B,F View Figure 22 , 52D). Head almost as wide as mesonotum, black in mountain specimens, with a small, triangular brown fascia posterior to ocelli, reducing anteriorly, and a small to large ochraceous spot on posterior margin between ocelli and eye; covered with black pubescence. In coastal specimens, including the holotype, pale brown to ochraceous posteriorly, extending halfway around eye, black surrounding ocelli, black spot medial to eye; ocelli pink; postclypeus dorsally dark brown to black with yellowish triangular median fascia, apex directed anteriorly, ventral surface black with black transverse grooves, midline with ochraceous line over anterior half in some specimens, lateral and posterior borders ochraceous, tending reddish; anteclypeus black, rostrum black at base, dark brown centrally, black at apex, reaching anterior edge of hind coxae; lora ochraceous anteriorly, variably black on medial and posterior sections; eyes variably dull black to dark brown; antennae black, supraantennal plates black, coastal specimens with central brown spot on anterior margin extending laterally above pedicel.
Thorax predominantly dull black on mountain specimens, brown on coastal cicadas. Pronotum black with distinct ochraceous marking over central third of midline, variably bordered by black, fissures variably black, tending brown on raised areas; pronotal collar brown centrally, variably tending black laterally, lateral angles black, paranota black on posterior and lateral margins, becoming brown elsewhere. Mesonotum black on mountain cicadas, coastal specimens brown with sigilla, scutal depressions and surrounds black; cruciform elevation arms black, lateral depressions brown. Metanotum black.
Legs. Coxae mainly black and ochraceous, fore coxae with anterior black markings ranging from proximal spot to a longitudinal stripe, mid and hind coxae black, variably ochraceous laterally, membranes red; meracantha small, narrow, reddish, black at base, pointed, overlapping onequarter of opercula; trochanters red with black medial stripe; femora red laterally, black medially; femoral spines erect, reddish to black at base tending dark brown at tips; fore tibia black, tending brown distally, browner on coastal specimens; mid tibiae ochraceous with proximal black stripe, hind tibiae pale brown with variable, small black marking on medial aspect of proximal segment; tarsi on coastal specimens reddish tending black at distal joints, fore tarsi brown on mountain specimens becoming black towards claws, mid tarsi light red with black at claws, hind tarsi red with brown at claws; claws dark brown, black at tips.
Wings with fore wing costal veins orange-red, proximal margin black posteriorly; pterostigma mottled red; basal cell hyaline with black anterior border; basal membranes bright orange-red, other veins dark brown to black, with eight apical cells; hind wing plagas white over entire anal cell 3 and thin along vein 2A, some reddish stippling at base, with six apical cells.
Opercula ( Fig. 3D View Figure 3 ) small, spatulate, following body axis ventrolaterally, depressed centrally, variably black at base, orange-red across remainder, clearly separated.
Timbals ( Fig. 2D View Figure 2 ) with five distinct long ribs; long ribs 1–3 extending across surrounding membrane and fused dorsally along basal spur; long rib 4 discontinuous at proximal third; long rib 5 independent of basal spur, comparatively shorter, extending ventrally across half of membrane; large ridged dome on posterior timbal plate extending across two-thirds of timbal; apodeme pit oval-shaped and conspicuous.
Abdomen. Tergite 1 black with red lateral membranes; tergites 2–3 black with diffuse dark brown shading on some coastal specimens, intersegmental membranes orange; tergites 4–7 black with thin orange posterior margins, an increasing area of lateral orange coloration posteriorly forming a triangular shape with base on tergite 7, extending to lateral border and to epipleurite 7; tergite 8 shiny black, with orange-red posteriorly and extending laterally in some specimens. Epipleurites with variable black medial markings, fiery red laterally and posteriorly. Sternite II mainly black; sternite III black centrally, orange-red laterally; sternites IV–VI orange, posterior halves becoming red, black midline markings over anterior two-thirds of each sternite, decreasing posteriorly, sternite VIII fiery red, with yellowish pubescence ( Fig. 51D View Figure 51 ).
Genitalia ( Fig. 23 View Figure 23 ). Pygofer black, dorsal beak black, anal styles bright red; upper lobe black; basal lobe black. Uncus reddish-brown, orange-brown laterally; in lateral view beak-like; lobes in ventral view narrow, with rounded lateral termination; claspers clearly divided, short, with apices tapering laterally. Aedeagus with pseudoparameres extending around three-quarters the length of theca; theca recurved ventrally around 180° towards apex, with transparent flange along dorsal margin of distal half of recurvature, broadly smooth, equal to width of theca; apex short, knob-like, with 6–8 prominent cornuti.
Female ( Fig. 22 View Figure 22 C–E). Head and thorax similar to male, and with patterns of black and brown markings within the range described for coastal and mountain male specimens.
Abdomen similar to coastal and mountain male specimens for the range of markings on tergites and sternites; sternites III–VII becoming more orange-red posteriorly, with midline black marking also reducing progressively from sternite III to sternite VII; abdominal segment 9 black dorsally with orange longitudinal stripes either side of midline, curving anteriorly and becoming orange to red laterally and ventrally; dorsal beak black. Ovipositor brown, black at tip, not extending beyond apex of abdominal segment 9. Anal styles bright red; ovipositor sheath dark brown to black.
Measurements (in mm; range with mean in parentheses: 12 males, 12 females). Body length: male 19.6–22.7 (21.0); female 21.4–26.5 (22.6). Fore wing length: male 23.4–26.7 (24.8); female 26.3–28.4 (26.9). Head width: male 6.0–6.8 (6.5); female 6.9–7.3 (7.1). Pronotum width: male 6.0–6.7 (6.3); female 6.3–7.3 (6.8). Abdomen width: male 5.8–6.5 (6.4); female 6.0–7.3 (6.7). Ovipositor length 6.1– 6.8 (6.5).
Etymology. “ Spectabilis ” (Latin) depicts the impressive coloration and markings that range from orange-red to enamel black in this species.
Distinguishing features. Yoyetta spectabilis sp. nov. is readily distinguished from Y. denisoni , Y. timothyi sp.
nov., Y. kershawi stat. rev., comb. nov., Y. regalis sp. nov., Y. grandis sp. nov., Y. subalpina sp. nov., Y. grandis sp. nov. and Y. verrens sp. nov. by the following combination of characters: (1) smaller size with body length <23 mm, (2) presence of symmetrical, orange triangular patterns on tergites 4–7, and (3) ovipositor sheaths of females not extending beyond the apex of abdominal segment 9. It differs from Y. hunterorum , which has the opercula and sternite 8 dull brown, the female abdominal segment 9 without red markings and the female ovipositor sheath extending> 1.5 mm beyond the apex of the abdomen. The orange triangular patterning on the tergites of Y. spectabilis sp. nov. is distinct from the annular banding on Y. electrica sp. nov. which is also smaller (BL <18 mm).
Specimens of Y. spectabilis sp. nov. can be difficult to distinguish from Y. serrata sp. nov. and some specimens of Y. abdominalis , which have a similar range of shapes, sizes and markings. While the calling songs are quite distinctive, Y. spectabilis sp. nov. can also be distinguished from Y. abdominalis and Y. serrata sp. nov. by the following combination of characters: (1) lack of longitudinal central fascia on the pronotum in male specimens; (2), the colouration of the male opercula, which is predominantly red (cf. dull reddish-brown in Y. serrata sp. nov. and black to pale brown in Y. abdominalis ); (3), the forewing costa and basal membrane is bright orange-red; (4) epipleurites boldly red and black.
Calling song ( Figs 24 View Figure 24 , 25 View Figure 25 , 53K View Figure 53 ). The male calling song of Y. spectabilis sp. nov. consists of a series of “whirling” amplitude modulations and produced at rest. Close examination reveals that these are organized into long echemes. The calling song commences with an introductory echeme with rapidly-emitted and regular amplitude modulations (“round whirling”; Fig. 24 View Figure 24 A–C). Towards the end of the echeme, the rate of modulation decreases, with each modulation commencing abruptly and fading (“abrupt whirling”; Fig. 24A,D,E View Figure 24 ). Each echeme ends with a sharp terminal modulation equivalent to a macrosyllable ( Fig. 24F View Figure 24 ). The first echeme is the longest, lasting about 5–8 s. The second echeme sometimes has the same form, though with a shorter round whirling section. The typical echemes following these introductory echeme(s) are simplified, losing the round whirling altogether and only exhibiting the abrupt whirling and sharp terminal modulation. A comparison between the typical echemes recorded at multiple sites in provided in Fig. 24 View Figure 24 . These typical echemes are around 2 s duration.
The highest frequency plateau for the 513 calling song ranges between 8.9–13.0 kHz, with a dominant frequency between 9.5–12.1 kHz ( Fig. 24 View Figure 24 ).
Within the genus Yoyetta , the calling song of Y. spectabilis sp. nov. most closely resembles that of Y. regalis sp. nov. The song of Y. spectabilis sp. nov. differs most noticeably in the slower modulation rate and the presence of both round whirling and abrupt whirling types of amplitude modulation (cf. one type of rapidly emitted amplitude modulation in Y. regalis sp. nov.). Yoyetta spectabilis sp. nov. also does not produce intervening short chirps between bouts of echemes, which is a feature of the song of Y. regalis sp. nov.
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