Dinoponera lucida Emery, 1901

Dias, Amanda Martins & Lattke, John Edwin, 2021, Large ants are not easy - the taxonomy of Dinoponera Roger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae), European Journal of Taxonomy 784 (1), pp. 1-66 : 38-44

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2021.784.1603

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:80B6E154-A9A3-49E3-AAF0-3FD2BEBF82D2

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5799556

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/096C6310-A130-FFE5-FDA2-A540FC26F38E

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Dinoponera lucida Emery, 1901
status

 

Dinoponera lucida Emery, 1901  

Figs 21–22 View Fig View Fig , 29A View Fig

Dinoponera grandis lucida Emery, 1901: 48   (☿).

Dinoponera lucida   – Kempf 1971: 376: figs 1–2 (raised to species). — Lenhart, Dash & Mackay 2013: 146 View Cited Treatment , fig. 1h (redescription, key, male genitals). — Escárraga et al. 2017 (male description). — Tozetto & Lattke 2020: 5, figs 2–3, 6 (male genitals).

Diagnosis

Female

Malar area with longitudinal to oblique striae that always reach entire anterior ocular margin and extend to gena until at least half of eye length. Anteroventral corner of pronotum in lateral view with tooth or

acute angle. Dorsum of pronotum and abdominal tergite III smooth, with bluish iridescence.Anterodorsal corner of petiolar node in lateral view lower than posterodorsal corner.

Male

Antenna with stiff decumbent hairs shorter than maximum scape diameter. Gastral tergites with long hairs. Abdominal tergite VIII triangular, with a very sharp apex. Penisvalva ending in a rounded ventral lobe.

Material examined

Non-type specimens (324 ☿☿, 26 ♂♂)

BRAZIL – Bahia • 1 ☿; Barrolândia ; 16–23 Jul. 1994; S. Lacau leg.; CPDC   2 ♂♂; same locality as for preceding; 4 Aug. 2004; J.R.M. Santos leg.; CPDC   1 ☿; Faz. Amaralina , Guaratinga ; 27 Aug. 1993; O.S.A. Paula leg.; 4675c; CPDC   1☿; Fazenda Limeira , Itapebi ; 25 Apr. 1988; J. Raimundos leg.; 4369; CPDC   2 ♂♂; Ibirapuã ; 5 Jul. 2004; J.R.M. Santos leg.; CPDC   1 ☿; Itamaraju, Faz. Pau Brasil ; 10 May 1969; Ventocilla leg.; 2744; INPA   2 ♂♂; Itamaraju ; 8 Jul. 2004; J.R.M. Santos leg.; CPDC   1 ☿; Itanhem ; 12 Nov. 2009; Jonathas leg.; 5580; CPDC   1 ☿; Jacobina ; 1996; J. Jardim leg.; CPDC   5 ☿☿; Jequié ; 15 Nov. 1964; C. and T. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ♂; Lajedão ; 6 Jul. 2004; J.R.M. Santos leg.; CPDC   1 ☿; same locality as for preceding; 21 Jul. 1967; K. Brown leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; Monte Pascoal ; 20 Jan. 1994; J.C. Nascimento leg.; 4795; CPDC   1 ☿; Mucuri ; 1–10 Mar. 1971; C. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; Pau Brasil ; 14 Jan. 1998; L.A. Matos Silva leg.; 5220; CPDC   1 ☿; Porto Seguro ; 13 Dec. 1992; A.B. Casimiro leg.; 4600b; CPDC   1 ☿; Porto Seguro, E.E. Pau Brazil ; 16°23′17″ S, 39°10′55″ W; 13 Nov. 2014; DZUP GoogleMaps   8 ☿☿; Prado ; 5 Mar. 1971; C. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; R. [Rio] Mucuri Sul ; 23 Jul. 1967; K. Brown leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; T [Teixeira] de Freitas , zona rural; 30 Jul.–3 Aug. 2007; F.B. Fraga leg.; UFES 55843   . – Espírito Santo • 1 ☿; Alfredo Chaves ; 20°27′53″ S, 40°42′35″ W; alt. 714 m; 15 Oct. 2007; C.O. Azevedo and team leg.; UFES 39348 GoogleMaps   1 ♂; Alfredo Chaves, Matilde , RPPN Oiutrem ; 20°33′ S, 40°48′ W; 14–21 Oct. 2009; C.O. Azevedo and team leg.; Malaise 600–800 m; UFES GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; UFES 74864 GoogleMaps   1 ☿; Aracruz, Faz. Rio Verde ; 23 Jan. 1994; Delabie leg.; 4788; CPDC   3 ☿☿; Baixo Guandu ; 17 May 1970; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   7 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 24–31 Aug. 1970; Tadeu and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   12 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 25 Apr. 1970; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   2 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 29 Jun. 1970; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   3 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 7–13 May 1970; Tadeu and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   5 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 1 Jun. 1970; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; same locality as for preceding; 10–16 Aug. 1970; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   4 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 16–22 Sep. 1971; C. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; same locality as for preceding; 17–22 Aug. 1970; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   4 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 1–8 Aug. 1970; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; same locality as for preceding; 22 Jun. 1970; Claudionor Elias leg.; DZUP   5 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 23–30 Apr. 1970; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   23 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 23–30 Sep. 1970; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; same collection data as for preceding; DZUP 549807   1 ☿; same locality as for preceding; 26–30 Apr. 1970; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   4 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 29 Apr.–6 May 1970; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   2 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 6 Jul. 1970; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   4 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 8 Jun. 1970; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; Buenos Aires , 10 km W of Guarapari; alt. 500 m; 6 Jan. 1996; G.A.R. Melo leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; Cariacica, Res. Biol. De Duas Bocas ; 16 Sep. 2006; R. Kawada and team leg.; UFES 124428   1 ♂; same locality as for preceding; 28 Feb. 2004; R. Kawada leg.; UFES 132366   2 ☿☿; Colatina ; Jan. 1962; C. Elias leg.; DZUP   5 ☿☿; Conc [Conceição] da Barra ; 1 Nov. 1969; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   5 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 11 Oct. 1969; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   1☿; same locality as for preceding; 15 Nov. 1968; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; same collection data as for preceding; DZUP 548835   2 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 1–6 Jul. 1968; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   2 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 16–22 Jan. 1970; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; same locality as for preceding; 16–22 Mar. 1969; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; same locality as for preceding; 16–23 Apr. 1969; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   5 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 17 Sep. 1969; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   3 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 17–22 Mar. 1969; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   24 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 18 Aug. 1969; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; same collection data as for preceding; DZUP 548824   4 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 18 Oct. 1969; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; same locality as for preceding; 19 Jun. 1969; C.T. and C. Elias leg; DZUP   4 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 20 Dec. 1969; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; same collection data as for preceding; DZUP 548826   1 ☿; same collection data as for preceding; DZUP 548827   1 ☿; same collection data as for preceding; DZUP 548828   1 ☿; same collection data as for preceding; DZUP 548829   1 ☿; same collection data as for preceding; DZUP 548830   8 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 25 Sep. 1969; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   1☿; same locality as for preceding; 26 May 1968; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   4 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 27 Mar. 1969; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   18 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 27 Dec. 1969; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   3 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 29 Nov. 1969; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; same collection data as for preceding; DZUP 548833   1 ☿; same locality as for preceding; 4 Jul. 1969; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP 548825   5☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 4 Aug. 1969; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; same collection data as for preceding; DZUP 548821   1 ☿; same collection data as for preceding; DZUP 548822   1 ☿; same collection data as for preceding; DZUP 548823   2 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 4–8 Apr. 1969; Tadeu and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; same locality as for preceding; 5 May 1968; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP 548834   4☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 6 Dec. 1969; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; same collection data as for preceding; DZUP 548831   1 ☿; same collection data as for preceding; DZUP 548832   1 ☿; same locality as for preceding; 6–22 Jan. 1970; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   2 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 8 Nov. 1969; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   2 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 9–15 Apr. 1969; C. and C.T. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ♂; Domingos Martins, Mata do Pico do Eldorado ; 20°22′17″ S, 40°39′29″ W; 26 Nov.–3 Dec. 2004; M.T. Tavares and team leg.; Malaise T 1; UFES 107891 GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same locality as for preceding; 3–10 Dec. 2004; M.T. Tavares and team leg.; Malaise T1; UFES 106427 GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; Malaise B4; UFES 104604 GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; Malaise T7; UFES 64441 GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; Malaise B 4; UFES 104603 GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; Malaise T1; UFES 106426 GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; Malaise T1; UFES 106425 GoogleMaps   5 ☿☿; Domingos Martins ; Jan. 1962; Claudionor Elias leg.; DZUP   2 ☿☿; Itaguaçu ; 19 Mar. 1970; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ♂; Itagauçu, Alto Lajinha, Fazenda Binda ; 22–29 Sep. 2008; M.T. Tavares and team leg.; Malaise; UFES 82143   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; UFES 82138   1 ☿; Laranja da Terra, Joatuba, Faz. Betzel ; 19°50′25″ S, 40°49′40″ W; 5–12 Oct. 2012; Tavares and team leg.; UFES137307 GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; Malaise B-1; UFES 135693 GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; Malaise B-4; UFES 135132 GoogleMaps   1 ♂; Santa Leopoldina, Suíça , mata ; 20.08183° S, 40.59413° W; alt. 361 m; 05–12 Nov. 2007; C.O. Azevedo and team leg.; Malaise; UFES 68910 GoogleMaps   1 ☿; Linhares ; 19 Oct. 1967; Kloss leg.; Coleção Diniz; DZUP   1 ☿; same locality as for preceding; 24–31 Jul. 1972; C. Elias leg.; DZUP   17 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 8–14 Aug. 1972; Claudionor Elias leg.; DZUP   15 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 8–14 Dec. 1972; Claudionor Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; same locality as for preceding; 20 Sep. 1983; M.A. Penha leg.; UFES 39355   1 ☿; same locality as for preceding; 10 Oct. 1993; Ademar Luz leg.; 1392; CPDC   1 ♂; Linhares , Fz. Goitacazes; 20 Oct. 1967; Vantocilla leg.; 1865; CPDC   1 ☿; Linhares, Res. Vale Rio Doce ; 19.2461° S, 39.9611° W; alt. 12 m; 5–6 May 2007; J.A. Rafael and F.F. Xavier F. leg.; manual; INPA GoogleMaps   1 ☿; Res. de Linhares ; 20 Oct. 1999; C. Villemant leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; Morro Mestre Alvaro, Serra ; 16 Apr. 1987; A.P. Aguiar leg.; UFES 39363   1 ♂; Pancas, Faz. Juliberto Stur ; 19.21958° S, 40.77327°W; 24–31 Jan. 2003; Tavares, Azevedo and team leg.; Malaise T4; UFES 99293 GoogleMaps   1 ☿; Piúma , ilha ; 6 Nov. 2007; R.S. Ferreira leg.; CPDC   1 ☿; Regência ; 23 Jan. 1994; J.C. Nascimento leg.; 4794; CPDC   1 ☿; Sta. Tereza [Santa Teresa] ; 13 Jan. 1970; C.T. and C. Elias leg.; DZUP   16 ☿☿; same locality as for preceding; 7 Dec. 1964; C. Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; Santa Teresa, Est. Biológica de Santa Lúcia ; 20–24 Oct. 2007; M.T. Tavares and team leg.; UFES 70534   1 ☿; same collection data as for preceding; UFES 70535   1 ♂; same locality as for preceding; 17–23 Oct. 2011; M.T. Tavares and team leg.; Malaise; UFES 118173   1 ☿; Serra Mestre Alvaro ; 27 Jul. 2002; T.S. Soares leg.; UFES 39347   1 ☿; Soretama, Reserva Natural Vale ; 19.1333° S, 40.0500° W; Feb. 2015; T. Vargas leg.; UFV LabEcol 43 GoogleMaps   1 ☿; same collection data as for preceding; UFV LabEcol 432 GoogleMaps   1 ☿; Vila Valério, Sítio Benincá ; 18°58′ S, 40°27′ W; 14–28 Sep. 2011; C.O. Azevedo and team leg.; UFES 119467 GoogleMaps   1 ☿; Vitória, Fradinhos ; 18 Sep. 1986; R.P. Moure leg.; UFES 38457   1 ☿; Vitória, Maruípe ; 14 Aug. 2002; Silva, A.S. leg.; UFES 21962   1 ☿; Vitória , Morro TV Gazeta ; 6 Oct. 1993; H. José leg.; UFES 39362   1 ☿; Parque Fonte Grande ; 25 Apr. 1987; R.B. Frigeri leg.; UFES 39529   1 ☿; Vitória, Pq. Estadual Fonte Grande ; alt. 290 m; 20.3091° S, 40.3413° W; 3 May 2007; J.A. Rafael and F.F. Xavier F. leg.; light; INPA GoogleMaps   . – Minas Gerais • 2 ☿☿; Aimorés ; 1–7 Apr. 1970; C. and Tadeu Elias leg.; DZUP   1 ☿; Ataleia ; 27 Jan. 1994; I. Cardoso leg.; 4772; CPDC   1 ☿; Ponto dos Volantes , margem BR 116; 10 Jul. 2009; Isac H. Cordeiro leg.; 5563; CPDC   1 ☿; Salto da Divisa ; 10 Feb. 2004; Andre Amorim leg.; 160142653955172; CPDC   1 ☿; Serra dos Amorés ; 7 Jul. 2004; J.R.M. Santos leg.; CPDC   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; CPDC   . – São Paulo • 1 ☿; Cruzeiro ; 26 Sep. 1933; Pedro S. de Myra leg.; MZSP   . – Rio de Janeiro • 1 ☿; Rio das Ostras; Jan.1989; M.L. Rets leg.; DZUP   .

Redescription

Female

MEASUREMENTS. Non-types (n = 34): HL 4.9–5.71; HW 4.5–5.33; MDL 3.8–4.33; SL 5.15–5.58; MSL 7.2–8.13; HFL 6.78–7.62; HBL 6–7.2; PL 2.13–2.96; PH 2.91–3.35; PW 1.55–1.98; ATS 6.88–8.7; BL 25.7–29.46 (mm); CI 0.87–1; SI 1.01–1.16; DPI 0.61–0.81.

HEAD. Malar area with longitudinal to oblique striae that always reach entire anterior eye margin, striae extend to gena until at least half of eye length. Gena weakly microareolate and silky, usually without rugulae. Longitudinal to oblique striae and brownish appressed pubescence present between eye and frontal lobe, pubescence extends posteriorly to frons. Frons slightly microareolate and silky; with flexuous, brownish, suberect hairs, longer than scape diameter. Occipital corner slightly microareolate and silky. Antennal scape microareolate and silky, antenna with long suberect hairs, except for 4–5 apical segments. Ventral surface of head microareolate with arched strigulae that may cover entire surface or just anterior half. Hypostomal tooth with longitudinal strigulae. Labrum with weak transverse rugulae, without median longitudinal sulcus. Mandibular dorsum longitudinally strigulate, irregularly impressed along inner margin, gradually fading apicad.

MESOSOMA. Dorsal margin of pronotum in lateral view sharply convex, usually with very pronounced dorsoposterior swelling; anteroventral corner of pronotum toothed or forming acute angle. Pronotal dorsum smooth, with bluish iridescence. Metapleural-propodeal suture weak and sinuous, with at least one curve ventral to position of propodeal spiracle.

METASOMA. Petiolar node in lateral view elongate (usually DPI <0.8), anterodorsal corner lower than posterodorsal corner; anterior margin straight to slightly concave and forming blunt angle with dorsal margin, dorsal and posterior margins broadly convex to straight and forming blunt angle. Node lateral face slightly microareolate and silky. Node anterior margin in dorsal view convex, posterior margin broadly convex to straight, lateral margins broadly convex, slightly converging anterodorsally. Abdominal tergite III mostly smooth with bluish iridescence, usually with anterior rugulosity; punctulae denser laterally than dorsally; densely covered by brownish, flexuous, suberect hairs on entire surface; decumbent pubescence very sparse on dorsum, denser laterally.

Male

MEASUREMENTS. Non-types (n = 5): HL 1.85–2; HW1 2.21–2.32; MDL 0.53–0.6; SL 0.62–0.7; EL 1.17– 1.26; MOD 0.38–0.41; LOD 0.36–0.38; MSL 5.87–6.25; HFL 4.56–4.87; PL1 1.57–1.58; PH 1.23– 1.38; PW 0.92–1.08; ASL 4–4.05; BL1 14.04–14.35 (mm); CI1 1.1–1.21; SEI 1.7–1.92; SI1 0.28–0.3.

HEAD. Frontal carina forming a longitudinal line. Lateral ocellus clearly surpassing posterior head margin in full-face view. Head punctulate, very slightly microareolate and shining; with yellowish suberect

pubescence and long suberect to erect hairs, longer than ocellus height in full-face view. Antenna with appressed pubescence and stiff decumbent hairs shorter than maximum scape diameter. Ventral surface of head punctulate and slightly microareolate with silky sheen.

MESOSOMA. Mesoscutum without notaulus. Mesopleural sulcus usually scrobiculate. Scutoscutellar sulcus scrobiculate. Mesoscutellum longitudinally strigulate laterally. Metapleural-propodeal suture usually slightly scrobiculate. Mesosoma mostly smooth and shining, becoming coarsely punctate on declivitous surface of propodeum; with decumbent to suberect pubescence and suberect hairs, distance between each hair usually less than half its length. Legs densely covered by suberect pubescence; with sparse suberect long hairs, greater than femur diameter, ranging from coxa to tibia. Protibial apex without a stout seta.

METASOMA. Petiolar node smooth and shining; with sparse suberect pubescence and abundant suberect hairs. Abdominal tergite VIII triangular, with a very sharp apex; mostly smooth and shining. Tergites with sparse suberect pubescence and abundant suberect hairs.

GENITALIA. Basal ring in dorsal view with lateral margins slightly convex, anteriorly narrower than posteriorly; maximum diameter of fenestra longitudinally directed; median invagination V-shaped; in lateral view, dorsal margin broadly concave and extending anteriorly to form a lobe; anteroventral process subquadrate to rounded. Gonostylus broad and rounded. In lateral view, dorsal margin of volsella anteriorly convex and posteriorly slightly concave; anteroventral corner projecting anteriorly as a rounded to subquadrate lobe; posteroventral margin concave, sometimes forming a posterior subtriangular lobe; digitus volsellaris usually with posterior margin broadly convex. In lateral view, penisvalva with continuous dorsal and posterior margins, ending in a rounded ventral lobe; ventral margin uneven and serrated, with a short median spine placed in a concavity; anteroventral corner rounded to subquadrate.

COLOR. Body mostly chestnut brown.

Remarks

Females of Dinoponera lucida   are distinct from other Dinoponera   by having the anterodorsal corner of the petiolar node in lateral view lower than the posterodorsal corner. Additionally, D. lucida   also has longitudinal to oblique striae on the malar area that reach the entire anterior ocular margin, extending on to the gena until at least half of eye length. Rarely, D. grandis   may exhibit a similar node shape, but the anterodorsal corner is not as low as in D. lucida   . Dinoponera lucida   may also be separated from D. grandis   by the bluish iridescence of the dorsum of abdominal tergite III, with no visible microsculpturing. Besides that, D. lucida   and D. grandis   are allopatric. Dinoponera mutica   may have the anterodorsal node corner slightly lower than the posterodorsal corner, but it does not have wellmarked striae on the malar area that reach the entire anterior ocular margin and no anteroventral pronotal tooth. Dinoponera lucida   is currently considered endangered according to the red book of threatened Brazilian fauna (ICMBio 2018).

Escárraga et al. (2017) described the male of D. lucida   . It differs from D. gigantea   and D. quadriceps   mainly by not having long antennal hairs. Besides that, in these two species and in Dinoponera   morphospecies 1, the dorsal margin of the genital basal ring in lateral view does not form an anterior lobe as in D. lucida   . D. longipes   may be similar to D. lucida   , but they can be separated by the penisvalva shape, which forms a ventral rounded lobe only in D. lucida   . In D. grandis   and D. snellingi   , the ventral penisvalva lobe is curved laterally and not continuously rounded; neither does the antenna have stiff hairs.

Biology

Dinoponera lucida   occurs mainly in dense ombrophilous forest, characterized by high humidity, medium to large trees, and large numbers of epiphytes ( Campanili & Schaffer 2010). These forests are predominantly hot and humid, with average temperatures varying from 20 to 26°C ( Alvares et al. 2013). Nests of D. lucida   are found always in the soil, usually less than 1 m away from trees and in shaded areas ( Peixoto et al. 2010). Each nest can contain one to four entrances with small sticks, leaves and loose soil all around ( Peixoto et al. 2010). The distribution pattern of the nests is aggregated, with local densities varying from 20 to 52 nests per hectare ( Peixoto et al. 2010). On average, each nest is 35 cm deep, with four to five chambers ( Paiva & Brandão 1995; Peixoto et al. 2010). The number of adult workers per colony can vary from 22 to 106, but rarely exceeds 50 ( Paiva & Brandão 1995; Peixoto et al. 2008, 2010). Peixoto et al. (2010) suggested that the number of workers tends to be higher before and at the beginning of summer, the period before nest fission. The number of males, however, does not seem to have seasonal variation, since a gamergate can be substituted at any time of the year ( Peixoto et al. 2010).

Dinoponera lucida   is omnivorous, feeding mainly on small dead invertebrates or angiosperm seeds ( Peixoto et al. 2010). The workers forage alone during the day, even at warmer hours ( Peixoto et al. 2010). During foraging, a worker may forage up to 20 m from the nest entrance ( Paiva & Brandão 1995; Peixoto et al. 2010). However, the distance traveled may be higher when local nest density is smaller, suggesting intraspecific competition for territory ( Peixoto et al. 2010).

Founding of new colonies occurs by fission, i.e., some workers (among them a newly fertilized one) migrate to a nearby nest probably doing tandem running ( Hölldobler & Wilson 1990; Peixoto et al. 2008, 2010). This process can happen gradually, since the older colony goes through a polydomic stage before the total separation ( Peixoto et al. 2010). Newly founded colonies are monogynous and with age exhibit polyethism, the older ants foraging and younger ones taking care of the brood ( Hölldobler & Wilson 1990; Peixoto et al. 2008, 2010). In contrast to D. quadriceps   , agonistic interactions among workers are uncommon in colonies with gamergates and when they occur the gamergate does not participate in the interactions ( Peixoto et al. 2008). The existence of a dominance hierarchy within the colonies of D. lucida   has not yet been clearly determined by researchers ( Peixoto et al. 2008).

Many arthropods live in D. lucida   nests, including a species of Pheidole Westwood, 1839   which occurs only in this association ( Paiva & Brandão 1995; Peixoto et al. 2010). Buys et al. (2010) recorded a wasp of the genus Kapala Cameron, 1884 (Eucharitidae) parasitizing a pupa of D. lucida   , which had about 70 to 90% of the body consumed.

Distribution ( Fig. 29A View Fig )

Dinoponera lucida   is endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome of eastern Brazil, occurring throughout Espírito Santo State, south of Bahia, the eastern boundary of Minas Gerais and north of São Paulo. The northernmost record for this study is Jacobina, Bahia, and the southernmost is in Cruzeiro, São Paulo dating from 1933. This is the only known record for São Paulo and could imply that D. lucida   had a wider distribution or that this is a labeling error. The state of Rio de Janeiro, which is between the states of São Paulo and Espírito Santo, does not have records of Dinoponera   . A specimen was received with a label from Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro, but it is a probable labeling error for two reasons: (1) no published records of Dinoponera   were found for the state, despite being a heavily collected region for insects in general; and (2) before the fire at the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro, consultation with researchers there found that the collection of ants did not have any Dinoponera   from the state. For these reasons, this record was not included in the distribution map.

CPDC

Brazil, Bahia, Itabuna, Centro de Pesquisas do Cacau

INPA

Brazil, Amazonas, Manaus, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazoonia, Colecao Sistematica da Entomologia

DZUP

Brazil, Parana, Curitiba, Universidade Federal do Parana, Museu de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure

UFES

Brazil, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Biologia, Colecao Entomologica

MZSP

Brazil, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Dinoponera

Loc

Dinoponera lucida Emery, 1901

Dias, Amanda Martins & Lattke, John Edwin 2021
2021
Loc

Dinoponera lucida

Tozetto L. & Lattke J. E. 2020: 5
Lenhart P. A. & Dash S. T. & Mackay W. P. 2013: 146
Kempf W. W. 1971: 376
1971
Loc

Dinoponera grandis lucida

Emery C. 1901: 48
1901