Paracnephia gladiator Moulton & Adler, 2004

Moulton, John K., Adler, Peter H. & Prince, Jane, 2004, An unusual new species of Paracnephia Rubtsov (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Western Australia, Zootaxa 409 (1), pp. 1-12 : 3-10

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.409.1.1

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Paracnephia gladiator Moulton & Adler

new species

Paracnephia gladiator Moulton & Adler , new species

( Figs. 1–6 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 )

? Cnephia “B” Bedo in Rothfels 1979: 522 (brief chromosomal description)

Female. Length: thorax 1.4–1.7 mm; wing 3.4–4.4 mm. Body color orange, with gray pollinosity. Frons gray, with sparse golden pile. Clypeus pale grayish brown, about as long as wide, with proclinate, golden setae. Occiput gray, with black pile dorsally and pale golden pile laterally. Antenna with golden pile; scape and pedicel orange­brown; flagellum orange. Proboscis pale brown, about 1/3 height of head. Mandible with 44–50 teeth along inner margin. Lacinia with 32–36 retrorse teeth. Maxillary palpus ( Fig. 1A View FIGURE 1 ) brown, with brown setae; ratio of palpomeres (III: IV: V) 1.6: 1.0: 1.2; sensory vesicle of palpomere III positioned subcentrally, occupying about 1/5 length of segment; external opening oval, occupying 1/2–2/3 of structure, positioned at end of short neck. Median proximal space of cibarium broadly U­shaped, lacking setae and armature. Postpronotum pale brown, with golden pile. Proepisternum brown, with tuft of golden setae. Scutum orange, with gray pollinosity, golden, decumbent pile anteriorly, golden brown, recumbent setae posteriorly, and 3 silvery gray stripes. Anepisternum and katepisternum brown; membranous areas of thoracic pleuron gray. Mesepimeral tuft golden. Scutellum beige, with long, brown setae recumbent anteriorly and decumbent posteriorly. Metanotum brown, pollinose. Wing translucent; veins pale brown, with dark brown setae. Basalmedial cell present. Basal­radial cell about one­fifth length of wing. Costa with hairlike setae proximal to, and hairlike setae and spinelike setae distal to, midlength of subcosta. Subcosta and Rs with hairs only on ventral surface. Base of radius and R1 with hairlike setae dorsally. Rs with no trace of fork apically. False vein forked apically. M1 and M2 nearly straight, reaching wing margin. CuA1 straight, reaching wing margin. CuA2 sinuous, reaching wing margin. A1 straight, not reaching wing margin. A2 curved, not reaching wing margin. Halter beige, with brown stem. Legs mostly pale yellow, with golden brown, simple setae; femora and tibiae slightly darkened apically. Prothoracic leg with coxa yellowish brown, slightly darker than majority of leg; distal two tarsomeres brown dorsally. Mesothoracic leg differing from prothoracic leg by having brown coxa. Metathoracic leg identical in color to prothoracic leg; calcipala ( Fig. 1B View FIGURE 1 ) rounded and extended 1/4 length of second tarsomere. Claws ( Fig. 1C View FIGURE 1 ) simple, rarely with small, subbasal tooth. Abdomen lacking noticeable sclerites, except for tergite II and sternites II and VII. Membranous areas gray. Abdominal segment I beige, fringed with long, golden setae. Terminalia ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ): Genital fork with stem expanded apically; arms expanded distally, lacking anteriorly projected apodemes. Hypogynial valve broadly rounded; apex curved medially; space between valves widest anteriorly. Spermatheca spherical, brown, lacking external sculpturing, but with internal creases; lacking internal hairs or spicules; junction with spermathecal duct unpigmented. Anal lobe subquadrate, with rounded lobe ventrally. Cercus rounded posteriorly, about twice as long as wide.

Male. Length: Thorax, 1.1–1.2 mm. Wing, 3.1–3.2 mm. Identical to female except as follows: Clypeus reduced to narrow strip, with long, brown pile. Sensory vesicle ( Fig. 1A View FIGURE 1 ) subglobular, 1/5 length of palpomere, with distinct neck. Scutum with variable, but consistently darker pollinosity. Abdominal tergites and sternites brown with brassy sheen; membranous areas gray. Terminalia ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ): Gonocoxite about 3 times longer than greatest width. Gonostylus about 2/3 as long as gonocoxite, with 2 apical spines. Ventral plate about as wide as long, with narrow median carina. Dorsal plate not developed. Median sclerite forked apically, its tines geniculate and directed dorsally. Paramere weakly sclerotized distally, its apex thin, membranous, and armed with series of small spines.

Pupa ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ). Length 3.9–4.6 mm. Head with numerous, barely perceptible, flattened granules ( Fig. 1D View FIGURE 1 ); trichomes arranged as 1 short, slender, seta on each side of cephalic plate, plus 1 pair of elongate, darkly pigmented spinelike seta on each side lateral to cephalic plate and near apex of antennal sheath, with posteriormost member of pair longest. Gill about 1/2 as long as thorax, consisting of 50–60 fine, gray filaments arising from short, knoblike base. Thorax shiny, smooth, generally lacking granules; trichomes in 4 transverse rows, with anteriormost row of 2 elongate, darkly pigmented, spinelike setae; second row of 4 such setae; third row of 2 or 3 slender, hairlike setae, fourth row of 1 hairlike pair and 1 elongate, darkly pigmented pair of setae. Thoracic scutellum and abdominal tergite I with 6–8 slender setae and 1 central pair of short, darkly pigmented spines. Abdominal tergite II with 0–4 fine setae and 10–12 longer, stouter setae along posterior margin; tergites III and IV with 3–4 fine setae and 12–14 stout, anteriorly directed, darkly pigmented hooks; tergite V with 8 fine setae and 8 stout, anteriorly directed, darkly pigmented hooks; tergite VI with 9 or 10 fine setae and 2 anteriorly directed hooks (sometimes set in pleural membrane); tergite VII with 6–8 fine setae; tergite VIII with 10–12 fine setae; tergite IX with 4 elongate, darkly pigmented setae and 1 pair of elongate, darkly pigmented tail hooks; tergites IV–IX with anterior row of variously developed spine combs. Pleural membrane of segments IV–VII with 2 or 3 stout, anteriorly directed, darkly pigmented, hooks per side; pleural membrane of segment VIII with 2 setae per side; pleural membrane of segment IX with cluster of 4 or 5 elongate, darkly pigmented setae per side. Abdominal sternites V and VI with 2–6 fine setae and 6 stout, anteriorly directed, darkly pigmented hooks; sternite VII with 4 stout, anteriorly directed, darkly pigmented hooks; sternite VIII with 2 slender setae. Cocoon a densely woven, amorphous sac, covering most or all of pupa, often retaining larval exuviae.

Larva (final instar). Length 6.4–8.9 mm. Head capsule ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ) brown; head spots indistinct, varying from slightly positive to slightly negative; line over eyespots absent. Antenna brown, subequal in length to labral­fan stalk. Labral fan with 75–85 primary rays; microtrichia of equal length; secondary fan straight. Hypostoma ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 ) with teeth short, blunt, subequal in height; anterior margin concave; lateral serrations absent; 2 or 3 setae per side. Postgenal cleft subequal in length and width, straight or slightly rounded apically, extended about 1/3 distance to hypostomal groove. Maxillary palpus dark brown, unpigmented apically. Mandible with 3 darkly pigmented apical teeth, and 16 paler subapical teeth; inner subapical ridge with 1 large serration. Lateral plate of thoracic proleg moderately sclerotized, subquadrate. Body brown, unbanded; abdomen gradually expanded posteriorly. Integument with minute, subparallel, crenulate ridges dorsally ( Fig. 1E View FIGURE 1 ; visible with phase contrast) and rounded granules ventrally ( Fig. 1F View FIGURE 1 ). Anal sclerite Xshaped; anterodorsal arms about twice as thick and 1/2 as long as posterodorsal arms. Posterior proleg bearing 7–11 hooks in 44–48 rows. Rectal papillae of 3 simple lobes.

Holotype. Male (pinned with pupal exuviae in glycerin vial below), Western Australia, Jarrah Forest, Darling Reserve , Kangaroo Gully , Brookton Hwy. (Rt. 40), 32° 7' S x 116° 9' E, 7 September 1996, coll. J. K. Moulton & J. Prince. GoogleMaps

Paratypes. Same data as holotype – 10 males and 9 females (pinned with pupal exuviae in glycerin vial below), 3 males, 4 females, 60 larvae, 37 pupae (in ethanol). Same data as holotype, except 21 August 1973, J. Prince – 4 larvae, 2 pupae (in ethanol). Quinine Creek, Ashendon Hwy., 32° 9' S x 116° 11' 30” E, 7 September 1996, J.K. Moulton – 10 females (in ethanol) GoogleMaps .

Additional Specimens Examined. Same data as holotype— 152 larvae, 66 pupae, 22 males and 6 females (with exuviae) GoogleMaps . Quinine Creek , Ashendon Hwy., 32° 9' S x 116° 11' 30” E, 7 September 1996, J.K. Moulton & J. Prince — 2 larvae, 13 females GoogleMaps ; 14 September 1996, J.K. Moulton— 2 larvae. Churchman’s Brook , Canning Dam Road, 32° 12' S x 116° 7' E, 8 September 1996, J. K. Moulton — 1 larva GoogleMaps . Goldmine Gully , 32° 24' S x 116° 12' E, 8 September 1996, J.K. Moulton — 1 larva GoogleMaps .

Etymology. The species name is derived from Latin, in reference to the stout, elongate trichomes of the pupal head and thorax, and is used as a noun in apposition.

Diagnosis. The larvae can be distinguished from those of all other species in the family by the following suite of characters: head capsule brown, hypostoma with eight subequally sized teeth, postgenal cleft squared and extended 1/4–1/3 distance to hypostoma, and body dark brown and gradually expanded posteriorly. The pupae are unique in having elongate spinelike trichomes. The females can be distinguished from those of all other species by the orange scutum, maxillary palpomere V shorter than III, and simple tarsal claws. Males can be distinguished by their scutal color and maxillary palp (as in the female, except with a smaller sensory vesicle).

Bionomics. Larvae and pupae were found in riffles in small to medium­sized, wellshaded streams in the Jarrah Forest of the Darling Range of Western Australia. Germlings of the trichomycete fungus Harpella sp. were attached to the peritrophic matrix, and unidentified trichomycetes were found in the hindgut. The species is present during the winter and early spring (approximately June­November) and presumably is univoltine. Females were swept from the heads of JKM and JP at Quinine Creek on 14 September 1996, but none took blood .

Phylogenetic Remarks. Crosskey and Howard (1997) placed all Australian “ Cnephia ” sensu Crosskey (1988) in Paracnephia Rubtsov , a conservative move that we adopt here for convenience. Given our access to higher quality material than was previously available for study, we find several segregates within the Australian Paracnephia to be no less distinctive than are comparable groups in the Nearctic and Neotropical Regions. The chaotic state of knowledge regarding relationships among the “ Cnephia ­grade” taxa precludes us from making more than a passing inference on the possible phylogenetic affinities of this new species. The rather prominent M­shaped median sclerite of the male terminalia, coupled with a large calcipala, possibly align it with the Neotropical genera Araucnephia and Araucnephioides , although the former character also appears in Paraustrosimulium anthracinum (Bigot) and Cnesiamima atroparva Wygodzinsky and Coscaron. Further revisionary and phylogenetic work on a worldwide basis is needed to understand the relationships among Cnephia ­grade taxa.


Phyletisches Museum Jena














Paracnephia gladiator Moulton & Adler

Moulton, John K., Adler, Peter H. & Prince, Jane 2004


Rothfels, K. H. 1979: 522