STENOSMYLINAE Krüger, 1913a, Kruger, 1913

Winterton, Shaun L., Martins, Caleb Califre, Makarkin, Vladimir, Ardila-Camacho, Adrian & Wang, Yongjie, 2019, Lance lacewings of the world (Neuroptera: Archeosmylidae, Osmylidae, Saucrosmylidae): review of living and fossil genera, Zootaxa 4581 (1), pp. 1-99: 70

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STENOSMYLINAE Krüger, 1913a  

Type genus. Stenosmylus McLachlan, 1867: 267   .

Diagnosis: Ocelli present; antennae length variable, often between half and full length of FW; pronotum length longer than width; female forecoxa sometimes with narrow process and/or pedicellate setae; wings with subcostal veinlets simple, rarely occasionally forked; trichosors present around entire margin of both wings; FW with single sc-r crossvein basally; FW RP crossveins dense, semi-regularly arranged, lacking distally with distal RP branches variably sinuous; outer gradate series distinct, inner gradate series absent; FW M vein forked at, or beyond the midlength of wing; medial area between MA-MP not expanded and crossveins not sinuous; CuA with more branches in HW than in FW; HW CuP elongate and pectinately branched; female sometimes with FW veins MP, CuA and/or A1 partially incrassate; male abdominal tergites 8 and 9 partially or completely fused, scent glands absent; gonarcus enlarged, subtriangular with setal pile, entoprocesses broad; parameres absent; female sternite 8 modified into a large concave sclerite that acts as a receptacle for gonapophysis 9; gonapophysis 9 enlarged, complex, variously bilobed, located anteriorly to ventral part of tergite 9, not closely associated with gonocoxite 9; gonocoxite 9 often with dark longitudinal stripe; spermatheca ovoid to spherical. Larvae typically have a pale to cream colouration with light brown sclerites ( Fig. 1B, C View FIGURE 1 ).

Comments. In their phylogenetic analyses Winterton et al. (2017) supported previous contentions (e.g., Krüger 1913a; Esben-Petersen, 1917; Kimmins, 1 940; New, 1986) that Stenosmylinae   are closely related to Kempyninae   , and also Porisminae and Eidoporisminae. In fact, Winterton et al. (2017) could not recover reciprocal monophyly of Stenosmylinae   , Porisminae or Eidoporisminae in their phylogeny, thus calling into question the validity of all three as separate subfamilies. It is plausible that the monotypic Porisminae and Eidoporisminae each simply represent highly derived and autapomorphic forms of Stenosmylinae   . Stenosmylinae   comprise five Australian genera and two genera in South America. No definitive fossil taxa have been discovered, although Jepson et al. (2009) placed Stenosmylina   in the subfamily based on an incomplete forewing; herein we consider this genus better placed in Eidoporisminae (see above). Stenosmylinae   represent a truly southern hemisphere fauna, with connections between the Australian and South American forms likely pre-dating any trans-Antarctic connection during the Late Cretaceous-Early Paleogene ( Winterton et al., 2017). Larval stages are terrestrial, living under bark of trees, in leaf litter and on foliage ( Winterton et al., 2017; Martins et al., 2018).

Included genera. Carinosmylus   New, Euporismus Tillyard   , Isostenosmylus Krüger   , Oedosmylus Krüger   , Phymatosmylus Adams   , Stenolysmus Kimmins   , Stenosmylus McLachlan.