Apopyllus suavis ( Simon, 1893 ),

Azevedo, Guilherme H. F., Ott, Ricardo, Griswold, Charles E. & Santos, Adalberto J., 2016, A taxonomic revision of the ground spiders of the genus Apopyllus (Araneae: Gnaphosidae), Zootaxa 4178 (3), pp. 301-327: 306-309

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Apopyllus suavis ( Simon, 1893 )


Apopyllus suavis ( Simon, 1893) 

Figs 3View FIGURE 3 B, 4B, 5B, 6B, 7B, 8B, 9C –D, 10B, 11B, 12B, 13B, 14B, 16A –C

Herpyllus suavis Simon, 1893: 455  , fig. 25. Female lectotype here designated from Colonia Tovar  , Aragua, Venezuela (10º24’19”N, 67º17’22”W), deposited in MNHN (examined). Paralectotype not conspecific (see A. centralis  below).GoogleMaps 

Apopyllus suavis: Platnick & Shadab 1984: 7  , figs 17–18.

Zelotes pauper Mello-Leitão, 1942: 413  , fig. 39. Female holotype from General Capdevila, Chaco, Argentina  (27º25’18”S, 61º28’37”W), deposited in MLP 15500View Materials (examined through photographs). New synonymy.GoogleMaps 

Zelotes iheringi Mello-Leitão, 1943: 262  . Female holotype from Paraíba, Brazil (36º30’S, 75º15’W), deposited in MNRJ 58361View Materials (examined). New synonymy.GoogleMaps 

Apopyllus pauper: Platnick & Shadab, 1984: 4  , figs 5, 6.

Apopyllus iheringi: Platnick & Shadab, 1984: 5  , figs 11–14.

Diagnosis. Females can be distinguished by the secondary spermatheca with diameter at least two thirds as long as the primary spermatheca, by the TPD curved dorsally, by the curved PDT ( Figs 12View FIGURE 12 B, 13B) and by the short belllike paramedian epigynal pockets ( Figs 10View FIGURE 10 B, 11B). Males can be distinguished by the moderately pointed terminal part of RTA in dorsal and retrobasal view ( Figs 7View FIGURE 7 B, 8B, 9D), by the gently curved dorsal keel of RTA in apical view ( Fig. 9View FIGURE 9 C) and by the rhomboidal shape of RTA in retrobasal view ( Fig. 9View FIGURE 9 D).

Synonymy. Apopyllus suavis  was described based on two syntypes from Venezuela ( Simon 1893). One of the syntypes has morphology similar to the types of A. pauper  and A. iheringi  and the variation observed in the material examined here suggests that A. suavis  should be considered a senior synonym of the other two names. This syntype is here designated as a lectotype of A. suavis  . The paralectotype, on the other hand, is not conspecific with the lectotype, but is actually a member of A. centralis  new sp., which is described below.

Apopyllus pauper  was described as having the “paramedian epigynal ducts expanded anteriorly into bulbous form” ( Platnick & Shadab 1984: p. 5, figs 5–6). This description matches the aspect of the holotype genitalia when examined ventrally, without any preparation. However, the tracts do not look expanded anteriorly into bulbous form when the genitalia are examined under clove oil or methyl salicilate ( Fig. 15AView FIGURE 15. A –B), and the duct aspect does not seem to be different from that observed for A. suavis  neither for Apopyllus iheringi  type material. Other aspects of the morphology of the A. pauper  holotype also seem to be within the variation observed in the A. suavis  . Thus, we do not see evidence that could indicate that A. suavis  and A. pauper  are different species.

Description. Female described by Platnick & Shadab (1984: 4) under A. suavis  , except for genitalia, that is like the diagnosis reported here. Male described by Platnick & Shadab (1984: 5) under A. iheringi  .

Variation. The anterior ridge of the epigynum varies from straight to concave in the posterior and/or anterior margin. The dorsal keel of RTA might be from moderate to strongly curved. RTA simple or with a small basal retrolateral tubercle as in A. silvestrii  . Some specimens might be dark brown to black with a white or silver gray dorsal longitudinal stripe in the opisthosoma and carapace, or with carapace entirely silver gray ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16 A –C). Male carapace length (N = 18) 1.28–3.4. Female carapace length (N = 16) 1.96–3.40.

Material examined. ARGENTINA  : Catamarca: Villavil, 8km E. of Andalgalá , 27º36'16"S, 66º17'16"W, 3♀, 30.XII.1974, F.A. Enders coll. ( USNM)GoogleMaps  ; Córdoba: Los Molinos , 31º50'46"S, 64º22'59"W, 1♀ 1 juvenile, 7.XII.1997, A. Kury coll. ( MNRJ 6663View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; La Pampa: Cuaracó, RN 152, 56 km from Casa de Piedra , 38º8'40"S, 66º29'33"WGoogleMaps  , 295m, 2Ƌ 2 juveniles, 11.X.2014, A.D. Brescovit et al. coll. ( IBSP 167048View Materials, MACN-Ar 34838), Lihué Calel, Parque Nacional Lihué Calel, Cerro de La Sociedad Científica Argentina  , 38º0'25"S, 65º35'47"WGoogleMaps  , 1♀, 11.X.2014, A.D. Brescovit et al. coll. (MACN-Ar 34513), Lihué Calel, PN Lihué Calel, cerro Fortaleza, 38º1'15"S, 65º35'32"W, 419m, 3Ƌ 3 juveniles, 11.X.2014, A.D. Brescovit et al. coll. ( IBSP 167047View Materials, MACN-Ar 34843), Lihué Calel, 1Ƌ 1 juvenile ( IBSP 167049View Materials); La Rioja: Mazan , 29º25'15"S, 66º51'0"WGoogleMaps  , 1♀, 8.XII.1974, F.A. Enders coll. ( USNM); Río Negro: El Cuy, RP 6, 88 km SW from General Roca, 39º42'28"S, 68º9'19"WGoogleMaps  , 617 m, 1Ƌ, 12.X.2014, A.D. Brescovit et al. coll. (MACN-Ar 34844), General Roca, Cinco Saltos, camino a Lago Pellegrini, 38º48'42"S, 68º3'7"WGoogleMaps  , 270m, 1Ƌ 1♀, 16.X.2014, A.D. Brescovit et al. coll. ( IBSP 167054View Materials, MACN-Ar 34545), General Roca , Paso Córdoba, 39º7'37"S, 67º40'6"WGoogleMaps  , 266m, 1Ƌ, 15.X.2014, A.D. Brescovit et al. coll. (MACN-Ar 34839), Valcheta, 1♀ ( IBSP 167050View Materials), Valcheta, RN 23, 36 km SE from Valcheta , 40º51'37"S, 65º48'44"WGoogleMaps  , 208m, 2Ƌ 3♀ 1 juvenile, 13.X.2014, A.D. Brescovit et al. coll. (MACN-Ar 34841). BRAZIL: Bahia: Feira de Santana, Chácara Promenade , 1♀, 4–6.I.2003, T. V. Aguzzoli coll. ( MCN 35061View Materials)  ; Goiás: Catalão, Barragem para Aproveitamento Hidrelétrico Serra do Facão , 17º31'56.09"S, 47º33'36"W, 754m, 1♀, VII.2010GoogleMaps  , R.B. Martines & R.M.C. Silveira coll. (UFMG 4565), 17º52'20.39"S, 47º37'34.89"W, 739m, 1♀, VII.2010, R.B. Martines & R.M.C. Silveira coll. (UFMG 4584), 17º36'26.07"S, 47º37'13.57"W, 811m, 2Ƌ, VII.2010, R.B. Martines & R.M.C. Silveira coll. ( UFMG 4566View Materials); Maranhão: Caxias, Reserva Ecológica Inhamum , 4º49'60"S, 43º20'69"WGoogleMaps  , 5♀, 2–5.X.2007, J.F.B. Lima-Lobato & F. Limeira de Oliveira coll. (IBSP 129017, 129022, 129023), 1Ƌ 4♀, 26–29.IX.2007, J.F.B. Lima-Lobato & F. Limeira de Oliveira coll. ( IBSP 129015, 129024); Mato Grosso: Chapada dos Guimarães, 2Ƌ, 20-29.VII.2000  , C. Strussmann coll. (MCTP 11310), 2Ƌ, 23-30.VIII.2000, C. Strussmann coll. ( MCTP 11327View Materials); Mato Grosso do Sul: Três Lagoas, Horto Barra do Moeda , 20º57'0"S, 51º47'0"W, 1Ƌ 1♀, 8.VIII.2007GoogleMaps  , M. Uehara-Prado coll. (UFMG 5073); Minas Gerais: Belo Horizonte, Estação Ecológica da UFMG, 19º52'38"S, 43º58'16"WGoogleMaps  , 845m, 1Ƌ, 2003 ( UFMG 8328View Materials), Belo Horizonte , Parque Municipal das Mangabeiras, 19º56'38.98"S, 43º54'1.07"WGoogleMaps  , 1♀, 5–12.XII.2008, H.H. Santos et al. coll. ( UFMG 7886View Materials), Cardeal Mota, Serra do Cipó , 19º20'15.84"S, 43º38'18.72"WGoogleMaps  , 805m, 2♀, 17.VII.2012, P.H. Martins et al. coll. (UFMG 12326, 12327), Catas Altas, RPPN Santuário do Caraça, Cachoeira da Bocaina , 20º7'25"S, 43º27'56"W, 1♀, 12.IX.2015GoogleMaps  , G.H.F. Azevedo coll. ( UFMG 18861View Materials), Gouveia, Fazenda Fagundes, Capão , 18º25’35.6”S, 43º454.56”W, 1071m, 1♀, 25.XII.2015  , P.H. Martins coll. ( UFMG 19959View Materials), Leme do Prado, Reserva Estadual de Acauã , 17º7'94.2"S, 42º43'98.1"W, 887m, 2Ƌ 2♀, 18–28.II.2013GoogleMaps  , P.H. Martins coll. (UFMG 12837), 17º9'3.6"S, 42º46'24.1"W, 856m, 4♀, 18–28.II.2013, P.H. Martins coll. ( UFMG 12982View Materials), Manga, Parque Estadual da Mata Seca , 14º50'54"S, 43º59'17"WGoogleMaps  , 1♀, IX.2010, 14 º50'58"S, 44º0'28"W, 2Ƌ, IX.2011, 14 º50'54"S, 43º59'17"W, 2Ƌ, IX.2011, R.N.S.L. Garro et al. coll. (UFMG 14775–14777), Santo Antônio do Itambé, Parque Estadual do Pico de Itambé, 18º27'58"S, 43º18'27"W, 757m, 1♀, 16–17.II.2013, P.H. Martins coll. ( UFMG 12981View Materials), São Gonçalo do Rio Abaixo, Estação de Preservação e Desenvolvimento Ambiental de Peti , 19º58'23"S, 43º29'57"WGoogleMaps  , 820m, 1♀, 8–9.XII.2012, G.H.F. Azevedo et al. coll. ( UFMG 12653View Materials); Pernambuco: Serra Talhada, Fazenda Saco, Mata da Pimenteira , 7º53'S, 38º18'WGoogleMaps  , 1♀, 17.X.2010, M. Carvalho coll. (UFMG 4492); Piauí: Piracuruca, Parque Nacional Sete Cidades, 4º05'56.2''S, 41º43'12.9''W, 1Ƌ, no data, no col. ( MPEG 7904View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Rio Grande do Sul: Santana do Livramento , Faz. Bela Vista do Ibirapuitã, 1Ƌ, 14.XI.2012, Equipe PELD / MCN coll. ( MCN 52297View Materials); Santana do Livramento, APA do Ibirapuitã, Faz. D. Laura, Rincão Bonito  , 1♀, 12.XI.2012; R. Ott coll. (MCN 52309), APA do Ibirapuitã Faz. Bela Vista, 1f, 14.XI.2012; Eq. PELD / MCN coll ( MCN 52310View Materials). Roraima: Amajari, Vila Tepequém, prox. Da Pousada PSJ, 3º47'10.4"N, 61º43'15.3"WGoogleMaps  , 640m, 1Ƌ, 17.VII.2014, L.S. Carvalho et al. coll. ( UFMG 17107View Materials); Tocantins  : Santa Fé do Araguaia, 6º43'41.6"S, 48º48'8"W, 1Ƌ, 19.IV.2009, U. Oliveira & M.DGoogleMaps  . Miranda coll. (UFMG 5736). PERU: Apurimac: Chincheros , 13º31'3"S, 73º42'24"W, 2Ƌ 3♀ 1 juvenile, 12.XII.1980, C. Gold coll. (CASENT 9057334).GoogleMaps 

Distribution. Northern Argentina  to southern Peru and to northern and northeastern Brazil ( Fig. 14View FIGURE 14 B).


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Museo de La Plata


Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo


McNeese State University


Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais


Museu de Ciencias


Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi














Apopyllus suavis ( Simon, 1893 )

Azevedo, Guilherme H. F., Ott, Ricardo, Griswold, Charles E. & Santos, Adalberto J. 2016

Apopyllus suavis:

Platnick 1984: 7

Apopyllus pauper:

Platnick 1984: 4

Apopyllus iheringi:

Platnick 1984: 5

Zelotes iheringi Mello-Leitão, 1943 : 262

Mello-Leitao 1943: 262

Zelotes pauper Mello-Leitão, 1942 : 413

Mello-Leitao 1942: 413

Herpyllus suavis

Simon 1893: 455