Paraba tata Bolonhezi, Lago-Barcia & Carbayo, 2020

Oliveira, Karine Gobetti de, Bolonhezi, Laura Bianco, Almeida, Ana Laura, Lago-Barcia, Domingo & Carbayo, Fernando, 2020, Three new Neotropical species and a new genus of land flatworms (Platyhelminthes, Geoplaninae), European Journal of Taxonomy 705, pp. 1-21 : 9-14

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Paraba tata Bolonhezi, Lago-Barcia & Carbayo

sp. nov.

Paraba tata Bolonhezi, Lago-Barcia & Carbayo sp. nov.

Figs 6–9 View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig


A species of Paraba , with a dark orange-brown dorsum, a median narrow clear grey stripe and orange body margins; the prostatic vesicle horizontal with an inconspicuous bifurcate portion; the copulatory apparatus relatively long; the penis papilla as long as the male atrium; the female genital duct projected from the postero-dorsal section of the female atrium.


The name ' tata ' (tatá) is a Tupi (indigenous Brazilian language) word meaning ' fire ' ( Tibiriçá 1984). It refers to the color of the dorsum.

Material examined


BRAZIL • 1 adult; State of São Paulo, Brazil, Ribeirão Grande , Parque Estadual de Intervales ; 24.269387° S, 48.405467° W; 24 Jul. 2008; F. Carbayo et al. leg.; transverse sections of cephalic region on 12 slides; horizontal sections of portion behind cephalic region on 7 slides, sagittal sections of pharynx and copulatory apparatus on 9 slides; field number F2637; MZUSP PL2184 . GoogleMaps


BRAZIL • 1 adult; same collection data as for holotype; transverse sections of cephalic region on 16 slides, horizontal sections of portion behind cephalic region on 9 slides, sagittal sections of pharynx and copulatory apparatus on 16 slides; field number F3151; MZUSP PL2185 GoogleMaps 1 adult; same collection data as for preceding; transverse sections of cephalic region on 18 slides, horizontal sections of portion behind cephalic region on 8 slides, sagittal sections of pharynx on 22 slides, sagittal sections of copulatory apparatus on 15 slides; field number F3768; MZUSP PL2186 GoogleMaps .

Type locality

Parque Estadual de Intervales, Ribeirão Grande, State of São Paulo, Brazil.


MEASUREMENTS. The preserved paratype F3768 is 22.5 mm long and 4 mm wide.

BODY. Margins are parallel; the anterior extremity is pointed; the posterior, rounded ( Fig. 6A View Fig ). The dorsum is slightly convex; the ventral side flattened ( Fig. 6B View Fig ). The dorsum is dark orange-brown; the body margins are orange. A narrow clear grey stripe extends along the entire body length, except for the very anterior and posterior body tips. The ventral side is ivory in color.

EYES. Monolobate and 45 µm in diameter. They contour the anterior extremity of the body ( Fig. 6C View Fig ) and are located dorsomarginally along the whole body, except for the very posterior extremity, where they are absent. The sensory pits are 37.5 µm deep (F3151) and are arranged in a single row that contours the anterior extremity of the body ( Fig. 6D View Fig ) and behind, they extend backwards to at least a length equal to 18% of the body length. The relative distance mouth to body length is 74% and the relative distance of the gonopore is 84% of the body length.

Through the dorsal epidermis (25–30 µm thick, F2637), parechymal rhabditogen cells (25 µm) discharge their content, as well as two types of cells producing erythrophil and xanthophil granules, respectively. The epidermis produces rhabdites as well. The ventral epidermis (20–27.5 µm thick, F3151) is ciliated on the creeping sole (~100% of body width) only. This epidermis is pierced by necks of abundant cyanophil glands, scarce xanthophil and cyanophil granulous glands and scarce rhabditogen cells. A glandular margin is absent.

CUTANEOUS MUSCULATURE. Composed of three layers: a very thin subepithelial circular muscle, followed by a thin diagonal with decussate bundles (both layers with a height of 7.5 µm ventraly, dorsally 12.5 µm) and a thick longitudinal muscle (dorsally 87.5 µm thick, ventrally 37.5 µm) of fibers arranged in compact bundles ( Fig. 6D View Fig ). The cutaneous musculature thickness relative to body height is 18%. Three parenchymal muscle layers are present: a dorsal layer (18 µm thick) with decussate diagonal

fibers, a supra-intestinal layer (50 µm thick) with transverse fibers and a sub-intestinal layer (62 µm thick) with transverse fibers.

MOUTH. Relative position mouth pharyngeal pouch length is 64%. The pharynx is cylindrical, with its dorsal insertion shifted backwards.A very short esophagus is present, 4% of the pharynx length ( Fig. 7A View Fig ). The outer pharyngeal epithelium is underlain by a longitudinal muscle (3 µm thick), and followed by a circular muscle (5 µm thick). The inner pharyngeal epithelium is underlain by a subepithelial circular muscle (3 μm thick) followed by a longitudinal muscle (50 µm thick) with some fibers interspersed with the circular one (paratype F3151).

DORSAL TESTES. Located between the supraintestinal parenchymal muscle layer and the intestine. These testes extend from 1 mm behind the ovaries (28% of body length) to shortly before the root of the pharynx. The sperm ducts run ventrally and curve medially to communicate with the respective lateral short branches of the extrabulbar prostatic vesicle ( Figs 7B View Fig , 8 View Fig ). The prostatic vesicle is 320 µm long, pear-shaped and horizontal; it is attached to the pharyngeal pouch. This vesicle is lined with a columnar, ciliated epithelium, which is pierced by necks of glands producing fine erythrophilic granules. The epithelium is surrounded by a tightly packed muscle (150 µm thick) of fibers variously oriented. The ejaculatory duct is straight and runs through the penis papilla to open at its tip. This duct is lined with a cuboidal, ciliated epithelium, and is underlain by a circular muscle (7 µm).

PENIS PAPILLA. Cylindrical, somewhat irregular, with conical tip and dorsal insertion slightly anterior to the ventral one. It projects horizontally from the anterior wall of the male atrium ( Figs 7B View Fig , 9A View Fig ) and its posterior portion is slightly directed to the dorsal side. The penis papilla is lined with a cuboidal epithelium 11 µm high. The subepithelial musculature of the penis papilla consists of a 7 µm thick circular layer, followed by a longitudinal muscle 7 µm thick. The epithelium of the penis papilla is pierced by necks of glands producing erythrophil granules. These glands are absent in the tip of the papilla; instead, necks of glands producing cyanophil granules pierce the epithelium of the tip. Additionally, necks of glands producing a dark reddish secretion pierce the entire papillar epithelium.

MALE ATRIUM. Exhibits a few dorsal folds. It is lined by a cuboidal, non-ciliated epithelium, which is underlain by a 7.5 µm thick circular muscle, followed in its distal half by a 5 µm thick longitudinal muscle. The dorso-anterior section of the male atrium receives necks of abundant glands producing fine cyanophil granules.

OVARIES. Ovoid, with a maximum diameter of 300 µm ( Fig. 9B View Fig ). They are located between the subintestinal parenchymal muscle layer and the nerve plate, and lie at a distance from the anterior tip of the body equal to 23% of the body length (F3768). The ovovitelline ducts arise from the mid-dorsal region of the ovaries. Before the level of the gonopore, these ducts ascend to join dorsally to the anterior section of the female atrium, subsequently forming a 500 μm long common glandular ovovitelline duct (paratype F2637) located above the female atrium ( Fig. 8 View Fig ). The very distal ascending portion of the ovovitelline ducts receives shell glands ( Fig. 8B View Fig ). The long common glandular ovovitelline duct runs first postero-dorsally and subsequently ventrally to communicate with the female genital duct. This duct is a projection of the dorso-posterior wall of the female atrium.

FEMALE ATRIUM. Ovoid, with its anterior region narrowed ( Fig. 8B View Fig ). This atrium is occupied by an epithelium with a multilayered aspect with the exception of a narrow central passage. Two types of glands, producing cyanophil and erythrophil, respectively, discharge their contents into the female atrium. The female: male atrial length is approximately 2:1. The female atrium is underlain by a 75 µm thick circular muscle.


The new species fits the genus Paraba Carbayo et al., 2013 , since it presents all of the diagnostic characters of the genus, except for some folds of the male atrium, which are present in the dorsal section of this species. However, other species of the genus also bear some folds in the male atrium, such as P. phocaica ( Marcus, 1951) , P. preta (Riester, 1938) and P. tingauna (Kishimoto & Carbayo, 2012) (see Almeida et al. 2012). Folds may appear as a consequence of a contraction of the body at the time of fixation ( Negrete et al. 2015). This might be the case, since the penis papilla of the species is also bent.

In its external aspect, Paraba tata sp. nov. resembles P. goettei (Schirch, 1929) , P. franciscana (Leal- Zanchet & Carbayo, 2001) and P. incognita (Riester, 1938) in having a dark dorsum with a thin light midline. However, they differ in the details: the dorsum of P. goettei is a light brown color with pinkreddish body margins and a pink-reddish median line (vs dorsum dark orange-brown, orange body margins and a grey midstripe in the new species). Furthermore, P. goettei is 100 mm long (vs 22.5 mm in the new species) and its eyes are organised in two or more rows in the anterior portion of the body (vs one row in the new species). In turn, P. franciscana differs from P. tata sp. nov. in the dark gray color of the dorsum with a white median longitudinal stripe. Finally, P. incognita is different in the clear blue dorsal midline bordered by grayish blue paramedian stripes.

A similar general color pattern, dark dorsum with a thin light midline, can be found in two species of Pseudogeoplana , namely Ps. bonita (Schirch, 1929) and Ps. ehlersi (Graff, 1899) . Nonetheless, they differ in the details as follows: the thin median line of Ps. bonita is yellowish with bottle green body margins (vs clear gray median stripe and orange body margins in the new species). Furthermore, the body margins of Ps. ehlersi do not differ from the dark general color of the dorsum and are not orange as in P. tata sp. nov.

In relation with the internal anatomy, eight species of the genus share with the new species the horizontal orientation of the prostatic vesicle and the female genital duct projected from the posterodorsal section of the female atrium, namely P. caapora (Froehlich, 1957) , P. franciscana , P. gaucha (Froehlich, 1959) , P. incognita , P. multicolor (Graff, 1899) , P. rubidolineata (Baptista & Leal-Zanchet, 2005) , P. suva (Froehlich, 1959) and P. tingauna . Notwithstanding this, they differ in the details: in P. gaucha , P. rubidolineata , P. suva and P. tingauna the penis papilla is shorter than the male atrium (vs as long as the male atrium in the new species); in P. caapora , P. gaucha and P. multicolor the prostatic vesicle displays a conspicuous bifurcate portion (vs inconspicuous); in P. incognita and P. multicolor the copulatory apparatus is compact (vs relatively long); and in P. franciscana the posterior section of the female atrium is bent dorso-anteriorly (vs not bent).


Only known from the type locality.


Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo