Loureiro, Marcelo, Sá, Rafael de, Serra, Sebastián W., Alonso, Felipe, Lanés, Luis Esteban Krause, Volcan, Matheus Vieira, Calviño, Pablo, Nielsen, Dalton, Duarte, Alejandro & Garcia, Graciela, 2018, Review of the family Rivulidae (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheiloidei) and a molecular and morphological phylogeny of the annual fish genus Austrolebias Costa 1998, Neotropical Ichthyology 16 (3), pp. 1-20: 8-9

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Cynolebiasini  . This tribe is diagnosed by twelve synapomorphies ( Costa, 1998): a broad posteroventral process of dentary; concave anterodorsal margin of opercle; anterior position of anal-fin origin in males; elongated filamentous rays on dorsal and anal fins of males; sexual dimorphism in number of dorsal- and anal fin rays; numerous anal-fin rays in males (19–32); elongated dorsal portion of cleithrum ( Fig. 8c View Fig ); absence of posteroventral flange of cleithrum ( Fig. 8c View Fig ); ventral tip of cleithrum ventrally directed ( Fig. 8c View Fig ); broad anteroventral tip of coracoids; numerous supraorbital neuromasts (12–25); and spawning within substrate ( Costa, 1998). Its monophyly is supported also by molecular analyses ( Costa et al., 2017a; Furness et al., 2015).

The tribe is composed of eight genera, with small to large adult body sizes (30 to 150 mm SL): Nematolebias Costa   , with three medium-sized species (max. 80 mm SL) distributed in coastal basin of southeastern Brazil; Xenurolebias Costa   , with four species with small sizes (max. 30 mm SL) endemic to the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil; Ophthalmolebias Costa   , with six species with small sizes (max. 65 mm SL) distributed in eastern Brazil (Costa, 2010); Simpsonichthys   , with nine small-sized species (max. 55 mm SL) distributed in the central Brazil Plateau (Costa, 2010); Spectrolebias Costa & Nielsen   , with nine small-sized species (max. 32 mm SL) distributed in the Paraguay, Guaporé, Xingu, Araguaia, and Tocantins river basins (Costa, 2010); Hypsolebias   , with fortynine medium-sized species (max. 80 mm SL) distributed in Jequitinhonha, São Francisco, and Urucuia river basins (Costa, 2010); Cynolebias   , with twenty two medium to large-sized species (50–120 mm SL) distributed in the São Francisco and Urucuia river basins (Costa, 2010); Austrolebias   , with fortyeight small to large-sized species (35–150 mm SL) distributed in the La Plata, Patos-Merin, and southwestern Amazon basins ( Loureiro, de Sá, 2016; Costa et al., 2017a; Volcan et al., 2017; Alonso et al., 2018).

According to a recent molecular phylogenetic analysis ( Costa et al., 2017a), Nematolebias   + Xenurolebias   are the sister clade of the remaining genera, which relate to each other as follows: Spectrolebias   , ((( Austrolebias   , (( Simpsonichthys   , Cynolebias   ), (Opthalmolebias, Hypsolebias   ))). However, Ponzetto et al. (2016), in a phylogenetic analysis based on one mitochondrial marker, had recently challenged the monophyly of Hypsolebias   , with some species more closely related to Ophtlamolebias than to other Hypsolebias   .