Paralecanium hainanense Takahashi

Chris J. Hodgson & Douglas J. Williams, 2018, Revision of the soft scale genus Paralecanium (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) with the introduction of three new genera and twenty new species, Zootaxa 4443 (1), pp. 1-162: 99-101

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4443.1.1

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Paralecanium hainanense Takahashi


Paralecanium hainanense Takahashi  

( Figs 40 View FIGURE 40 and 41 View FIGURE 41 )

Paralecanium hainanense Takahashi, 1942b   , 500. Type data: CHINA: Hainan Island, host-plant not indicated   . Syntypes, female. Type depository: TARI, Wu-feng , Taichung, Taiwan   .

Paralecanium hainanensis   ; Tang, 1991, 129. Misspelling of species epithet.

Paralecanium hainanensis   ; Tao, 1999, 62. Misspelling of species epithet.

Material examined. Lectotype f and paralectotype ff (here designated): CHINA: top label: lectotype in red on

narrow label; bottom label: Paralecanium   / hainanense   / Takah. / xi.1940 / Hainan / M. Chujo coll (TARI): 1/4adff (g – also with 2 round red labels on underside of slide. Lectotype bottom righthand specimen, clearly labelled). China: bottom label: Paralecanium   / hainanense   / Takah. / xi.1940 / Hainan / M. Chujo coll (TARI): 1/13adff (mainly g, without a red label).

Other Material: CHINA, Christian College, Canton (Guangzhou), no host, Nov. 1919, C.W. Howard #124 ( USNM): 1/1adf (g, young). As previous but on Myrica rubra   , #125 ( USNM): 1/1adf (p, older specimen, missing venter). Hong Kong, Tai Tam Country Park, on Syzygium hancei along midribs, 8.x.2009, Lee Chi Ling ( BMNH): 2/9adff (fg) + 1 second-instar m.

Note. The description data were taken from all four syntype specimens on the slide with a round red label. Data in […] brackets refer to non-type material from Guangzhou where different.

Slide-mounted adult female. Body basically oval and rounded at both ends but showing strong asymmetry, particularly ventrally. Length 2.1–2.6 [1.75–2.13] mm, width 1.6–2.0 [1.5–1.85] mm.

Dorsum. Derm of mature specimen with areolations present throughout, larger near margin, each areolation up to about 25 µm at its widest; scarcer more medially, with a pale central band; with a slightly denser group on either side of anal plates; derm with abundant minute pale spots throughout, each about 1.0–1.5 µm wide (also present in each areolation). Marginal radial lines short, sometimes very clear on younger specimens, present as follows: with 11 lines on head, each side with 3 between stigmatic clefts and 11 on abdomen. Clear areas obscure or absent; when present, with 4 pairs of submedial clear areas on abdomen but absent from prothorax. Dorsal setae setose, each about 6–8 µm long, most frequent in a broad submarginal band, probably in a sparse polygonal pattern; absent medially. Large dorsal pores, each 6–7 µm wide with a cribriform surface, present in broad submedial bands of about 15–20 on each side extending anterolaterally from anal plates to head. Simple pores, each about 2–3 µm wide, sparse, probably also in a polygonal pattern but absent medially. Anal plates together rather rounded, each with a rounded outer angle, and with anterior margin subequal in length to posterior margin; with 1 seta medially on each plate and another near apex on outer margin; also with 1 small pore medially; plates 91–106 µm long, combined width 75–85 µm. Anogenital fold with 1 pair of small setae along anterior margin, each lateral margin with 1 seta anteriorly and another medially; posterior seta not found [present]; some older specimens with a sclerotised yoke joining anal plate apodemes anteriorly.

Margin. Marginal ornamentation: with shallow sclerotised triangles, without short radial lines or ridges but each on a slightly raised area of derm, numbering 2–4 between 2 setae. Marginal setae fan-shaped and strongly oval; width of each fan 25–43 µm wide and 16–24 µm long; with 56–70 setae anteriorly between anterior stigmatic clefts, each side with 18–26 setae between stigmatic clefts, and 52–68 along abdominal margin. Stigmatic clefts quite deep, each with a sclerotised inner margin and 3 slightly clavate stigmatic spines; median spine longer than lateral spines, each 25–30 µm long; lateral spines each 15–23 µm long. Eyespots: each with greatest width of socket 33–66 µm, diameter of lens 16–23 µm.

Venter. With a broad dark border 43–145 µm wide, with darker radial “fingers” (absent on young specimen); border extends up anal cleft and becomes dense beneath posterior apex of anal plates. Multilocular disc-pores present around genital opening and in preceding two segments, each side with 5–10 on abdominal segment VII, 10–18 [13–24] on segment VI and 0–2 on segment V. Spiracular disc-pores present in a narrow band between margin and each spiracle, with 6–18 pores in each band. Ventral microducts present, but distribution uncertain. Ventral setae: with 2 pairs of interantennal setae; 1 pair of long setae medially on abdominal segment VII, each seta about 75 µm long, and pairs of shorter setae in segments VI –II; also with 1 long seta associated with each coxa; submarginal setae few and small; other setae sparse. Antennae normal, each with 6 segments; total length 165–215 µm; length of apical segment about 40–45 µm; apical seta about 15 µm; setal distribution typical of family, with setose setae present in segments IV and V. Clypeolabral shield 90–95 [100–105] µm long. Spiracles small, width of each peritreme 16–20 µm. Legs fairly well developed, with trochanterofemoral segmentation (but no long trochanteral seta on ventral surface) and with tibio-tarsal segmentation; dimensions of hind leg (µm): coxa about 66–75 [58–70], trochanter + femur 90–100 [95–103], tibia 50–56 [60], tarsus 53–58 [45–55], claw 10. Tarsal digitules slightly longer than claw digitules with small capitate apices; claw digitules with one slightly narrower than other, particularly narrower towards base; claw without a denticle. Setal distribution: coxa 4 or 5; trochanter 0; femur 1; tibia 2 and tarsus 3.

Comments. The absence of a long seta on the trochanter is very unusual on species with fully-developed legs, otherwise only known on P. elongatum   within the genus Paralecanium   . Adult female P. hainanense   are also characterised by: (i) venter seemingly always asymmetrical; (ii) short, curved, setose dorsal setae; (iii) large dorsal pores in broad submedial bands; (iv) few (0–2) multilocular disc-pores in abdominal segment V; (v) generally rather club-shaped stigmatic spines; (vi) marginal ornamentation in the form of small thorn-like sclerotised triangles, and (vii) each anal plate with a small seta situated centrally.

Paralecanium hainanense   is very similar to P. neomaritimum   ; the differences are discussed under the latter species. Other Paralecanium   species that have somewhat similar adult females are: P. elongatum   , P. machili   and P. marginatum   .

Host-plants. Myrica rubra   ( Myricaceae   ); Syzygium hancei ( Myrtaceae   ).


Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Paralecanium hainanense Takahashi

Chris J. Hodgson & Douglas J. Williams 2018

Paralecanium hainanense

Takahashi 1942