Vampyrodes caraccioli (Thomas, 1889)

Don E. Wilson & Russell A. Mittermeier, 2019, Phyllostomidae, Handbook of the Mammals of the World – Volume 9 Bats, Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, pp. 444-583 : 560

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Vampyrodes caraccioli


163. View Plate 42: Phyllostomidae

Caracciolo’s Stripe-faced Bat

Vampyrodes caraccioli

French: Vampyrode de Caracciolo / German: Caracciolo-Streifengesichtfledermaus / Spanish: Vampirode de Caracciolo

Taxonomy. Vampyrops caracciolae Thomas, 1889 ,

“ Trinidad.”

Vampyrodes caraccioli usually included V. major as a subspecies, but P. M. Velazco and N. B. Simmons in 2011 proved their distinction as valid species. Vampyrodes ornatus (northern Peru) is a junior synonym. Monotypic.

Distribution. N & E Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil, E Ecuador, E Peru, and N Bolivia; also Trinidad and TobagoIs. View Figure

Descriptive notes. Head-body 73-79 mm (tailless), ear 19-25 mm, hindfoot 12-19 mm, forearm 47-3-56 mm; weight 29-56 g. Caracciolo’s Stripe-faced Bat is rather large, with bright facial and dorsal stripes. Dorsal fur is pale brown to dark brown. Dorsal hairs are bicolored, with pale bases and dark tips. Wide, brilliant, white median dorsal stripe extends from between ears to rump. Ventral pelage is brownish; hairs are tricolored, with basal pale brownish band (70-80% of hair length), short dark brown subterminal band, and tiny pale brownish terminal band. Head has conspicuous white supraocular and subocular stripes, with entirely white individual hairs. Ears have yellowish bases and margins, and distal one-half is brown. Tragus is small, c¢.25% of ear length, and yellowish. Noseleafis simple, brown, and yellowish on edges of horseshoe and base of spear. Uropatagium is short (5-9 mm wide), with inverted U-shaped posterior margin and fringed with dense short hairs along trailing edge. Tail is absent. Rostrum is broad and slender. Notch on nasal region is small or absent. Postorbital processes are prominent. Palate is short, relatively narrow, and V-shaped at end. Sagittal crest is well developed. Weakly developed groove occurs between occipital condyle and paracondylar process. Mandible has prominent angular and coronoid processes. Mandibular condyle is well above tooth row. Dental formula species of Vampyrodes is 12/2,C1/1,P2/2,M 2/3 (x2) = 30. I' are buccolingually compressed but broad and convergent, usually contacting at tip. No diastema occurs between maxillary and mandibular post-canine teeth. Cusp of P, is subequalin height with that of C,. M,is small, less than one-half the mesiodistal length of M, and M,. Chromosomal complement has 2n = 30 and FN = 56, with ten pairs of metacentric or submetacentric and four pairs of subtelocentric autosomes. X-chromosome is subtelocentric, and Y-chromosome is submetacentric.

Habitat. Humid lowland forests along northern and western margins of the Amazon Basin at elevations of 300-1000 m. In Venezuela, Caracciolo’s Stripe-faced Bat was caught predominantly in tropical and subtropical humid forest habitats, usually at elevations of less than 500 m but occasionally as high as 1000 m. In Eastern Brazil, it occurs in humid forests of the Atlantic rainforest. It is strongly associated with tropical evergreen forests with multiple strata and also is found in plantations and gardens.

Food and Feeding. Caracciolo’s Stripe-faced Batis frugivorous and reportedly feeds on at leastsix plant species representing three genera in two families: Spondias mombin ( Anacardiaceae ) and Ficus insipida, F. obtusifolia, F. yoponensis, Ficus sp., and Poulsenia armata (all Moraceae ). It also eats pollen and nectar.

Breeding. Reproductive data from Caracciolo’s Stripe-faced Bat suggest possible seasonal polyestry; pregnant females have been captured in July and September—January. Lactating females have been captured in October. One young is born per pregnancy.

Activity patterns. Activity of Caracciolo’s Stripe-faced Bat might be similar to its sister species, the Great Stripe-faced Bat (V. major ), which is more active in the first two hours after sunset and around midnight in Panama. Day roosts of Caracciolo’s Stripe-faced Bat include foliage, branches, and palm fronds where groups of 2—4 individuals have been recorded. Fruits are carried one at a time from a fruiting tree to a feeding night roost. Although sometimes caught in ground-level mist nets, it usually flies 3 m or more aboveground.

Movements, Home range and Social organization. Caracciolo’s Stripe-faced Bat can be found roosting in small groups of adults and their young under foliage oftall trees, shrub branches, and palm leaves; leaves are not modified to form a tent.

Status and Conservation. Classified as Least Concern on The [UCN Red List. Caracciolo’s Stripe-faced Bat is widely distributed, seems tolerant ofvarious habitats, and is unlikely to be declining at a rate that would cause it to be classified in a threatened category.

Bibliography. Baker (1979), Gardner (2008e), Goodwin & Greenhall (1961), Graham (1987), Handley (1976), Velazco & Simmons (2011), Willis et al. (1990).














Vampyrodes caraccioli

Don E. Wilson & Russell A. Mittermeier 2019

Vampyrops caracciolae

Thomas 1889