Artibeus fraterculus, Anthony, 1924

Don E. Wilson & Russell A. Mittermeier, 2019, Phyllostomidae, Handbook of the Mammals of the World – Volume 9 Bats, Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, pp. 444-583 : 571-572

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Artibeus fraterculus


189. View Plate 44: Phyllostomidae

Fraternal Fruit-eating Bat

Artibeus fraterculus

French: Artibée dAnthony / German: Peru-Fruchtvampir / Spanish: Artibeo de Anthony

Other common names: Fraternal Artibeus

Taxonomy. Artibeus fraterculus Anthony, 1924 ,

“Portovelo, Provincia del Oro, Ecuador;altitude, 2000 ft. [= 610 m].”

Artibeus fraterculus is in subgenus Artibeus . Molecular analyses suggest thatit is sister to A. hirsutus from central Mexico. A few authors listed A. fraterculus as a subspecies of A. jamaicensis . Monotypic.

Distribution. Endemic to Pacific coast from W Ecuador (Manabi Province) to W Peru (Lima Department). View Figure

Descriptive notes. Head—body 64-76 (tailless), ear 15-21 mm, hindfoot 12-16 mm, forearm 52-59 mm; weight 30-55 g. The Fraternal Fruit-eating Bat is the smallest and palest species in subgenus Artibeus in South America. Pelageis soft and velvety. Dorsal fur is dark gray to grayish brown and has dichromatic appearance, occurring in grayish brown and yellowish brown morphs. Dorsalfuris short (less or equal to 8 mm). Ventral pelage is pale, with tips of hairs appearing silvery gray, giving a frosted appearance. Basally, dorsal and ventral surfaces of forearm are hairy. Horseshoe of noseleat is free. Wing membraneis blackish gray and extends to near metatarsals. Uropatagium is dark brown and broad (greater or equal to 10 mm), with central notch and slightly hairy and fringed medially. Dental formulais12/2,C1/1,P 2/2, M 2/3 (x2) = 30. Crowns of I' are bilobed. Shape of M' is almost triangular in occlusal view, and hypocone is well developed—a character unique to the Fraternal Fruit-eating Bat. Chromosomal complement has 2n = 30 and FN = 56, with XX/XY sex-determination system.

Habitat. Coastal mangroves, desert scrubland, deciduous and semideciduous forests, disturbed habitats, croplands, and urban areas from sea level to elevations of ¢. 2150 m. The Fraternal Fruit-eating Bat is more common in drier areas (tropical dry forests) and less abundant in wet areas (mangroves).

Food and Feeding. The Fraternal Fruit-eating Bat is a generalist frugivore; its diet is varied and includes fruits of Mangifera indica ( Anacardiaceae ); Brosimum alicastrum and Ficus spp. ( Moraceae ); Muntingia calabura ( Muntingiaceae ); Psidium guajava and Syzygiumjambos ( Myrtaceae ); Eriobotryajaponica ( Rosaceae ); Acnistus arborescens and Solanum crinitipes ( Solanaceae ); Styrax subargentea ( Styracaceae ); and Cecropia spp. ( Urticaceae ). Insect remains have been found in feces.

Breeding. The Fraternal Fruit-eating Bat exhibits seasonal bimodal polyestry, with parturition occurring during dry and wet seasons, with peaks in February and May. In Ecuador, pregnant females were found in October-November and lactating females in July and November.

Activity patterns. The Fraternal Fruit-eating Bat is nocturnal and appears to be active throughout the night without distinctive peaks. It inhabits natural roosts such as hollow trees, shrubs, caves, termite mounds, and artificial structureslike bridges, churches, houses, gardens, and mines. Parameters of search-phase FM echolocation call taken in Loja, Ecuador, included starting frequency of 95-8 kHz (range 89-4-104 kHz), ending frequency of 62-3 kHz (59-2-68 kHz), frequency of maximum energy 74-4 kHz (67-9-84-1 kHz), and duration 1-6 milliseconds; it had three harmonics.

Movements, Home range and Social organization. Fraternal Fruit-eating Bats have been found in groups ranging from nine individuals in a termite nest to 709 individuals in an active coalmine.

Status and Conservation. Classified as Least Concern on The IUCN Red List. The Fraternal Fruit-eating Bat has a wide distribution and presumably large population, and itis unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category.

Bibliography. Albuja (1999), Anthony (1924a), Baker (1979), Carrera et al. (2010), Koopman (1978), Larsen, PA. et al. (2007), Marques-Aguiar (2008a), Mena & Williams de Castro (2002), Novoa et al. (2011), Patterson et al. (1992), Pinto et al. (2013), Redondo et al. (2008), Salas et al. (2018), Tirira (2012c).














Artibeus fraterculus

Don E. Wilson & Russell A. Mittermeier 2019

Artibeus fraterculus

Anthony 1924