Lonchorhina fernandez, Ochoa & Ibanez, 1984

Don E. Wilson & Russell A. Mittermeier, 2019, Phyllostomidae, Handbook of the Mammals of the World – Volume 9 Bats, Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, pp. 444-583 : 497

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Lonchorhina fernandez


19. View Plate 35: Phyllostomidae

Fernandez’s Sword-nosed Bat

Lonchorhina fernandez

French: Lonchorhine de Fernandez / German: Fernandez-Schwertnase / Spanish: Loncorino de Fernandez

Taxonomy. Lonchorhina fernandez Ochoa & Ibanez, 1984 ,

“entre Puerto Ayacucho y El Burro,” 40-50 km NE of Puerto Ayacucho (along the highway), Amazonas, Venezuela.

This species is monotypic.

Distribution. Known only from vicinity of type locality along Rio Orinoco in Bolivar and Amazonas states, Venezuela. View Figure

Descriptive notes. Head—body 53-57 mm, tail 41-48 mm, ear 18-22 mm, hindfoot 8-11 mm, forearm 41-44 mm; weight 9-7-10 g. Dorsal fur of Fernandez’s Sword-nosed Bat is brownish, with dark-based hairs almost one-third of their lengths; ventral fur looks frosted, with individual hairs having brownish bases, cinnamon middles, and pale tips. Three specimens had some extent of white hairs (as small patches) on ventral or dorsal regions. Like other species of Lonchorhina , it has unusually long noseleaf and proportionally long ears, almost as tall as noseleaf. Sella is relatively large; filiform, corni prenariale majus, and minus (at base of sella) are reduced; and filiform lacks lateral expansions (allae and lamina), resulting in less ornamented sella. Wing membranes are dark, blackish, and sparsely haired, with very short white hairs. Forearm looks naked, with only a few dispersed hairs. Third metacarpal is largest in series, and fifth is shortest;first phalanx of finger III is almost 46% the length of second phalanx. Whitish hairs on ventral region of plagiopatagium contrast markedly with ventral fur and sometimes look like whitish spots on both sides of body. Short hairs, not visible to the naked eye, cover dorsal surface of uropatagium and legs. Long tail extends to posterior margin of long uropatagium, giving it a pointy look. Skull has short wide rostrum, and frontals are flat between orbits. Nasals end well behind premaxillae. Strong lacrimal crests extend to and join maxillae anteriorly, and postorbital is very constricted posteriorly. Interorbital depression is slightly concave, reaching level of interorbital constriction. Braincase is elevated, showing no depression on its posterior portion. Temporal and lambdoid crests are inconspicuous. Palate is domed between tooth rows. Basisphenoid pits are deep posteriorly. Length of C'-M?® is shorter than breadth at M®. Lingual cingulum of C' is slightly convex; P® has almost circular base. Hypocones of upper molars are little developed. Lowerincisors are trilobed; anterior end of C, cingulum is slightly projected to lingual side. Base of P,is laterally expanded over mandibular ramus, and P, is small and hidden between P, and P,. Vertebrae formula is seven cervical, twelve thoracic, six lumbar, six sacra, and nine caudal.

Habitat. Tropical savanna grasslands in transition of llanos and the Amazon at elevations of 70-90 m (vicinity oftype locality).

Food and Feeding. Stomach contents of 14 of 16 Fernandez’s Sword-nosed Bats had remains of Lepidoptera , five had remains of Coleoptera , and three had remains of unidentified insects. Three individuals in the type series had remains of Noctuidae ( Lepidoptera ), Arachnida, and unidentified insects.

Breeding. All known specimens of Fernandez’s Sword-nosed Bats are males, so there is no information on reproductive activity of females. Males caught in February were juveniles, and those caught in December had descended testicles. If Fernandez’s Sword-nosed Bat behaves like its sympatric congener, the Orinoco Sword-nosed Bat ( Lonchorhina orinocensis ), pregnant females are expected at end of rainy season in September—October.

Activity patterns. A large roost of more than 120 Fernandez’s Sword-nosed Bats began to emerge by 19:00 h and came back the next day between 05:00 h and 06:00 h.

Movements, Home range and Social organization. Fernandez’s Sword-nosed Bats have been found only in roosts with males in February 1985 and March 1986 that were empty in August 1985, suggesting they could have split from a larger reproductive group. The Lesser Dog-like Bat ( Peropteryx macrotis ) and Parnell’s Common Mustached Bat ( Pteronotus parnellit ) shared the same roost.

Status and Conservation. Classified as Endangered on The IUCN Red List. Fernandez’s Sword-nosed Bat has a restricted distribution, occurring at only two known localities less than 30 km apart with no protected areas nearby.

Bibliography. Eisenberg (1989), Gardner (1977b), Guerrero (1997), Herndndez-Camacho & Cadena (1978), Linares (1998), Ochoa & Ibanez (1984), Ochoa & Sanchez (1988), Williams & Genoways (2008).














Lonchorhina fernandez

Don E. Wilson & Russell A. Mittermeier 2019

Lonchorhina fernandez

Ochoa & Ibanez 1984