Choeronycteris mexicana, Tschudi, 1844

Don E. Wilson & Russell A. Mittermeier, 2019, Phyllostomidae, Handbook of the Mammals of the World – Volume 9 Bats, Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, pp. 444-583 : 523-524

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Choeronycteris mexicana


77. View Plate 38: Phyllostomidae

Mexican Long-tongued Bat

Choeronycteris mexicana

French: Choéronyctére du Mexique / German: Langschnauzenfledermaus / Spanish: Coeronicterio de Mexico

Taxonomy. Choeronycteris mexicana Tschudi, 1844 ,

“Mejico [= Mexico].”

This species is monotypic.

Distribution. SW USA (from S California, S Arizona, SW New Mexico, and extreme S Texas) S throughout most of Mexico (including Baja California Peninsula and Marias Is, but not Gulf slope lowlands and Yucatan Peninsula) S to El Salvador and Honduras. View Figure

Descriptive notes. Head-body 81-103 mm, tail 6-12 mm, ear 3-7 mm, hindfoot 10-13 mm, forearm 39-45 mm; weight 20 g. The Mexican Long-tongued Bat is medium-sized, with generally grayish to brownish pelage and elongated muzzle. Tail is relatively short, about one-third the length of naked uropatagium and about one-half the length of femur. Rostrum is elongated, accounting for 40-50% of length of cranium, and zygomata are incomplete. Dental formulais12/0.C1/1,PM 2/3. M 3/5 (x2) = 30 teeth.

Habitat. Tropical deciduous and subdeciduous forests, arid lands, and pine and pineoak forests, known from elevations of 300-3600 m.

Food and Feeding. The Mexican Long-tongued Bat eats nectar and pollen. Stomach contents from Mexico contained pollen grains from Lemaireocereus sp. ( Cactaceae ), Ipomoea sp. ( Convolvulaceae ), Agave sp. ( Asparagaceae ), and Myrtillocactus sp. ( Cactaceae ). It reportedly eats nectar and pollen of the shaving brush tree ( Pseudobombax ellipticum, Malvaceae ).

Breeding. The Mexican Long-tongued Bat has been variously reported to be monoestrous or as having a bimodal reproduction pattern. In general, pregnant and lactating females are found in March—July, but pregnant females have also been found in February—April and again in July-September. In Mexico, pregnant females have been found mainly in February-March and September.

Activity patterns. The Mexican Long-tongued Bat is nocturnal. Its activity pattern coincides with night-blooming plants. It roosts in cave entrances and abandoned mines and has been found in basements of abandoned houses and hollow trees.

Movements, Home range and Social organization. Mexican Long-tongued Bats apparently have latitudinal migrations. They have been found flying near columnar cacti fruits with long-nosed bats ( Leptonycteris spp.). In the northern part ofits distribution, Mexican Long-tongued Bats share roosts with Cave Myotis ( Myotis velifer), Big Brown Bats ( Eptesicus fuscus), Townsend's Big-eared Bats ( Plecotus townsendir), and Mexican Free-tailed Bats (Tadarida brasiliensis ). In the southern part ofits distribution, it shares roosts with other long-tongued bats ( Glossophaga spp.).

Status and Conservation. Classified as Near Threatened on The IUCN Red List. The Mexican Long-tongued Bat is considered endangered on the Mexican list of threatened species.

Bibliography. Arroyo-Cabrales et al. (1987), Gardner (1977b), Goodwin (1946), Ortega & Arita (2014a), Phillips (1971), SEMARNAT (2010), Solari (2018e), Tschudi (1844), Villa (1967), Wilson (1979), Wilson & Ruff (1999).














Choeronycteris mexicana

Don E. Wilson & Russell A. Mittermeier 2019

Choeronycteris mexicana

Tschudi 1844