Rhinophylla pumilio, Peters, 1865

Don E. Wilson & Russell A. Mittermeier, 2019, Phyllostomidae, Handbook of the Mammals of the World – Volume 9 Bats, Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, pp. 444-583 : 540

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Rhinophylla pumilio


118. View Plate 40: Phyl

Dwarf Little Fruit Bat

Rhinophylla pumilio

French: Rhinophylle naine / German: Zwerg-Kleinfruchtfledermaus / Spanish: Rhinéfilo enano

Taxonomy. Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 ,

“angeblich Brasilien [= allegedly from Brazil].” Restricted by G. E. Dobson in 1878 to “ Brazil (Bahia) .

This species is monotypic.

Distribution. E of Andes in Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, the Guianas, and Amazon and Atlantic coast of Brazil (N Espirito Santo). View Figure

Descriptive notes. Head—body 40-57 mm (tailless), ear 15-17 mm, hindfoot 10-12 mm, forearm 29-9-37 mm; weight 8-135 g. Dorsal fur of the Dwarf Little Fruit Bat 1s olive-brown to reddish brown. Underparts are dull brown. Dorsal and ventral hairs are bicolored, with whitish bases. Ears are brown, with whitish bases. Tragus is small, c.33% of ear length, and broad. Noseleaf is simple and uniformly brown, with base of horseshoe fused to upperlip. Chin has triangular central protuberance bordered by 2-6 longitudinal fleshy pads. Uropatagium is narrow, less than 10 mm when measured from midline and less hirsute than in Fischer’s Little Fruit Bat ( R. fischerae ) and the Hairy Little Fruit Bat ( R. alethina ). Calcaris less than 50% of foot length. Tail is absent. Rostrum is relatively short, ¢.50% the length of braincase. Zygomatic arches are absent. Palate is relatively broad, short, and V-shaped posteriorly. Sagittal crest is imperceptible. Mandible has small angular process. Condyle is level with tooth row or slightly below. Coronoid process is anteriorly placed. I' is notched, and much larger than I*. P° is peg-like. I,is slightly trilobed and L,. Chromosomal number varies. In Brazil, it has 2n =36 and FN = 62 and 64, with 15 pairs of biarmed metacentric and submetacentric and one pair of acrocentric chromosomes, or 16 pairs of biarmed chromosomes. It has 2n = 34 and FN = 64 in Suriname and 2n = 36 and FN = 62 in Colombia. X-chromosome 1s metacentric, and Y-chromosome is acrocentric.

Habitat. Primary and secondary humid tropical forests of the Amazon and Atlantic rainforest, including disturbed areas, from sea level to elevations of ¢. 1400 m.

Food and Feeding. The Dwarf Little Fruit Bat is frugivorous and is considered the primary disperser of seeds of Philodendron ( Araceae ), Asplundia , and Evodianthus (both Cyclanthaceae ). It eats fruits and infructescences of at least 34 plant species from 17 genera and eleven families. In Amazonia, it consumes Vismia duckei, V. guianensis , and Vismia sp. ( Hypericaceae ); Syzygiumjambolanum ( Myrtaceae ); Piper aduncum ( Piperaceae ); and Solanum rugosum and Solanum sp. ( Solanaceae ). In Peru,it eats from Philodendron cuneatum, Cecropia distachya, and C. ficifolia ( Urticaceae ) and Vismia angusta, V. macrophylla, and Marcgravia ( Marcgraviaceae ). In French Guiana, plants in its diet were species of Philodendron and Rhodospatha ( Araceae ); Schlegelia ( Schlegeliaceae ); Aechmea ( Bromeliaceae ); Cecropia and Coussapoa ( Urticaceae ); Symphonia ( Clusiaceae ); Asplundia , Evodianthus , and Thoracocarpus ( Cyclanthaceae ); Solanum ; Marcgravia ( Marcgraviaceae ); Siparuna ( Siparunaceae ); Ficus ( Moraceae ); Syzygium ; and Piper . Besides these species, large seeds from Licania canescens, L. membranacea (both Chrysobalanaceae ), Symphonia globulifera ( Clusiaceae ), and Byrsonima ( Malpighiaceae ) were found under roosts, suggesting that Dwarf Little Fruit Bats consumed the fruit. Besides fruits, it also feeds on nectar of the bat-pollinated Tetrastylis ovalis ( Passifloraceae ).

Breeding. Pregnant Dwarf Little Fruit Bats were captured in March and July in Brazil, July-November in Peru, and May and July in Columbia. In French Guiana, females with their young were observed in February—May. One young is born per pregnancy.

Activity patterns. Dwarf Little Fruit Bats in Nouragues, French Guiana, began their flight activity at ¢.19:30 h and ceased at 06:00 h. Activity rhythm was characterized by flying periods of 10-15 minutes, interspersed with slightly longer hanging phases of 15-20 minutes. Lactating females had longer flight time than non-reproductive females (average of 42 minutes longer). Dwarf Little Fruit Bats commonly roosts during the day in foliage modified into tents; they also roosts in buildings and culverts.

Movements, Home range and Social organization. In Nouragues, home ranges were 2-5-16-9 ha and foraging area were 3-5-14-1 ha. Fifteen of 27 day roosts were outside of the foraging area but never more than 500 m away. Lactating females move their young to temporary night roosts in their foraging areas, instead of leaving them in day roosts. Leaves of ten species from eight genera and six families are known to be used as tents by Dwarf Little Fruit Bats: Philodendron fragrantissimum, P. melinonii, P. ornatum, Rhodospatha latifolia, Astrocaryum sciophilum, and Attalea attaleoides (all Arecaceae ); Heliconia sp. ( Heliconiaceae ); Musa sp. ( Musaceae ); Sterculia sp. ( Malvaceae ); and Phenakospermum guyannense ( Strelitziaceae ). They also roost under unmodified leaves of A. sciophilum, A. attaleoides, and Jessenia bataua (all Arecaceae ); Cecropia obtusa and C. sciadophylla ( Urticaceae ), and epiphytic Cyclanthaceae . All observed roosts were situated 0-6-5 m aboveground. The Dwarf Little Fruit Bat has low roost fidelity, changing roost every two days on average. It rarely roosts alone, and groupsizes are 2-7 individuals.

Status and Conservation. Classified as Least Concern on The IUCN Red List. The Dwarf Little Fruit Bat is relatively common, has a wide distribution, and tolerates disturbed areas.

Bibliography. Baker & Bleier (1971), Buzato & Franco (1992), Charles-Dominique (1993), Charles-Dominique & Cockle (2001), Dobson (1878), Gomes et al. (2012), Handley (1976), Henry & Kalko (2007), Honeycutt et al. (1980), Husson (1962), Marinkelle & Cadena (1972), Peracchi et al. (1984), Peters (1865b), Reis & Guillaumet (1983), Rinehart & Kunz (2006), Simmons & Voss (1998), Zortéa (1995).














Rhinophylla pumilio

Don E. Wilson & Russell A. Mittermeier 2019

Rhinophylla pumilio

Peters 1865