Lonchophylla bokermanni, Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978

Don E. Wilson & Russell A. Mittermeier, 2019, Phyllostomidae, Handbook of the Mammals of the World – Volume 9 Bats, Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, pp. 444-583 : 532

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Lonchophylla bokermanni


99. View Plate 39: Phyllostomidae

Bokermann’s Nectar Bat

Lonchophylla bokermanni

French: Lonchophylle de Bokermann / German: Bokermann-Nektarfledermaus / Spanish: Loncofilo de Bokermann

Taxonomy. Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978 ,

“Serra do Cipo, municipio de Jaboticatubas, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil.”

This species is monotypic.

Distribution. NE & SE Brazil, cerrado biome of Bahia and Minas Geraisstates. View Figure

Descriptive notes. Head-body 60-63-5 mm, hindfoot 8-9 mm, forearm 38-7-41-3 mm; weight c. 12 g in the cerrado of Minas Gerais; head-body 55-57, tail 10-12 mm, forearm 36-2-39-9 mm; weight 10-11 g in the caatinga of Bahia. No other specific measurements are available. Dorsal fur of Bokermann’s Nectar Bat ranges from yellowish brown to grayish brown. Hairs are bicolored, with light brown bases and dark brown tips. Underparts are lighter than dorsum, ranging from yellowish gray to grayish brown. Head is same color as dorsum. Deep medial sulcus occurs on chin, bordered by small warts. Well-developed bristles occur on upper and lower lip. Ears are round and small. Noseleaf is brown, with free flap at base of horseshoe. Wing membranes and uropatagium are dark brown. Uropatagium is long, reaching distal part oftibia. Calcar is smaller than foot but conspicuous. Tail is ¢.33% the length of uropatagium, with tip perforating uropatagium dorsally. Braincase is anteroposteriorly elongated, forming smooth slope between it and rostrum. Parietal and interparietal are slightly inflated. Rostrum is shorter than braincase. Basisphenoid pits are shallow. Zygomatic arches are incomplete. Palate is relatively short, broad, and V-shaped posteriorly. Mandibular condyle is placed above tooth row. I' are spatulated and project forward. Anterior surface of C' is grooved. P* is buccolingually narrow in occlusal view. Lower incisors are relatively broad and slightly trilobed. Chromosomal complement has 2n = 28 and FN = 50, with twelve pairs of metacentric or submetacentric and small pair of acrocentric autosomes. X-chromosome is metacentric, and Y-chromosome is acrocentric.

Habitat. Rocky, montane fields (“campos rupestres”) at elevations of 720-1129 m. Vegetation is sparse and contains herbs, shrubs, grasses, and small trees.

Food and Feeding. Bokermann’s Nectar Bat is a nectarivore. In an altered campos rupestres in Minas Gerais, it consumed pollen and nectar of Bauhinia rufa ( Fabaceae ), and stomach contents contained fragments of ants ( Formicidae ). At another site in Minas Gerais, it consumed pollen and nectar of Encholirium glaziovi: ( Bromeliaceae ), a stemless bromeliad with terminal inflorescence 1-5-1-8 m tall. Bokermann’s Nectar Bat approached inflorescences c.30-60 minutes after dusk, circling around them but not visiting flowers. After these initial approaches, individuals begin to visit flowers. These bouts occurred at intervals of 5-40 minutes. When visiting inflorescences of E. glaziovii, individuals hovered in front of individual flowers and lapped nectar. They approached other flowers after short flights in loops. Two to six individuals perched on two small trees (2-3 m) located near flowers of E. glaziovii and remained in these nocturnal roosts for 5-30 minutes before restarting feeding bouts.

Breeding. A pregnant Bokermann’s Nectar Bat was captured in January in Bahia, and reproductively inactive females were found in September—October in Minas Gerais.

Activity patterns. In Bahia, Bokermann’s Nectar Bats left day roosts between 17:40 h and 22:00 h. In Minas Gerais, individuals began visiting flowers of E. glaziovii c.30 minutes after sunset. Bokermann’s Nectar Bat apparently is a cave-roosting species.

Movements, Home range and Social organization. In Caetité (Bahia), a colony containing at least nine Bokermann’s Nectar Bats was found inside a mine, sharing it with Seba’s Short-tailed Bat ( Carollia perspicillata ) and Pallas’s Long-tongued Bat ( Glossophaga soricina ).

Status and Conservation. Classified as Endangered on The IUCN Red List. For 40 years, Bokermann’s Nectar Bat was known only from three localities in Minas Gerais. In 2018, it was recorded in the state of Bahia, extending its distribution 840 km to the north. Even with an estimated extent of occurrence of 17,534 km?it is still poorly known and restricted to a specific montane habitat.

Bibliography. Almeida, B. et al. (2016), Claudio, Silveira, Farias, Maas et al. (2018), Dias et al. (2013), Nascimento et al. (2013), Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei (1978), Sazima, Vogel & Sazima (1989), Teixeira et al. (2015).














Lonchophylla bokermanni

Don E. Wilson & Russell A. Mittermeier 2019

Lonchophylla bokermanni

Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei 1978