Scarabaeinae, Latreille, 1802

Ratcliffe, Brett C., 2013, The Dung- and Carrion-Feeding Scarabs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of an Amazonian Blackwater Rainforest: Results of a Continuous, 56 - Week, Baited-PitfallTrap Study, The Coleopterists Bulletin 67 (4), pp. 481-520: 510-511

publication ID 10.1649/0010-065x-67.4.481

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Scarabaeinae   : Phanaeini  

Coprophanaeus   has 38 species distributed from the southern USA to Argentina (Edmonds and Zídek 2010). Three species were collected at Reserva Ducke, all fairly abundantly ( Table 1) with C. jasius   exceeding a thousand specimens. Coprophanaeus jasius   ( Brazil, Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname, Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Colombia) is a nocturnal burrower and feeds primarily on carrion but also on dung (86% on carrion versus 14% on dung). It was active throughout the year.

Coprophanaeus lancifer   (frontispiece, Fig. 50) ( Brazil, Venezuela, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Bolivia, Peru, probably Colombia and Ecuador) is the largest species (30–50 mm) in the study area and one of the most conspicuous with its bright metallic blue coloration. It is crepuscular and cruises just above ground while foraging. It is primarily necrophagous, but it has also been observed feeding on dung (64% on carrion versus 36% on dung in this study). It was active throughout the year and had a peak collecting event in mid-January. Vulinec et al. (2009) also observed it feeding on rotting bananas and occasionally attracted to lights at night. Edmonds and Zídek (2010) characterized this species as the best choice as an indicator species of Amazonia.

Oxysternon   ( Fig. 51) is comprised of 11 mostly brightly colored species that are found in the Neotropics (Edmonds and Zídek 2004). Two species were collected exclusively in the dung traps at Reserva Ducke ( Table 1), and neither was abundant.

Phanaeus MacLeay has 54 primarily metalliccolored species occurring from the USA to Argentina (Edmonds and Zídek 2012). Only Phanaeus chalcomelas (Perty) ( Fig. 52) ( Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, Suriname) was collected at Reserva Ducke ( Table 1) and only in the dung traps. This species is diurnal.