Cynoglossum monophlebium Baker

Miller, James S., 2005, A synopsis of the genus Cynoglossum L. (Boraginaceae) in Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, Adansonia (3) 27 (1), pp. 113-127: 122-126

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Cynoglossum monophlebium Baker


5. Cynoglossum monophlebium Baker  

J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 20: 211 (1884). — Type: Baron 1871, Madagascar, Central Madagascar, fl., fr., Oct. 1882 (lecto-,   K!; iso-, P!).

Perennial herb, lacking an evident rosette, from a woody taproot (apparently sometimes flowering in the first year and lacking the taproot at that stage); stems erect, with a few scattered siliceous hairs or glabrous. Leaves alternate, those at the base larger, but otherwise not morphologically different from the cauline leaves; blades oblanceolate to linear, 2.5-5(-7.5) cm long, 2.5-10 (-15) mm wide, the apex obtuse to rounded, the base clasping, the margin unevenly serrate, sometimes minutely so, or undulate, the adaxial surface moderately to sparsely strigillose, sometimes unevenly so, the hairs thin, the abaxial surface sparsely to moderately strigose, more densely so

45°E 50°E

on the midrib, the hairs thicker than those on the adaxial surface; midrib impressed on the adaxial surface, the secondary venation obscure.

Inflorescences terminal, the stems usually branched multiple times into multi-flowered cymes; flowers bisexual, borne on slender pedicels 0.5-4 mm long; sepals ovate, 1.3-1.5 mm long, 0.5-0.6 mm wide, acute at the apex, evenly strigillose; corolla blue, campanulate, the tube c. 1.3 mm long, with small papillate, saccate faucal appendages, the lobes ovate to widely ovate, 1.5 mm long, 1.5-2 mm wide; anthers borne just beneath the faucal appendages, 0.5 mm long, nearly sessile; ovary c. 0.3 mm tall, style 0.3- 0.5 mm long, the stigma capitate.

Fruits 3-4 mm broad; nutlets ovoid, 1.5-2 mm broad, the margin with a glochidiate wing, the dorsal surface evenly glochidiate.

This is a very distinctive species, in its perennial, non-rosette growth habit, nearly glabrous stems, distinctive leaves with odd, uneven serration, very small flowers, and uniformly glochidiate fruits.

DISTRIBUTION. — Cynoglossum monophlebium   is restricted to south-central Madagascar ( Fig. 4 View FIG ), where it occurs on the massif at Ankaratra and also near Ihosy, from 1400-2300 m in elevation.

CONSERVATION STATUS. — Provisional IUCN Red List Category: Vulnerable (VU B1ab(i-iv)). Cynoglossum monophlebium   has a restricted distribution within central Madagascar but appears not to be uncommon where it does occur.

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — MADAGASCAR: Baron 360, Central Madagascar , fl., s. date ( K!)   ; Baron 2009, Central Madagascar , fl., fr. (fasciated abnormal growth), Oct. 1882 ( K!, P!)   ; Baron 3307, Central Madagascar , fl., fr., s. date ( K!, P!)   ; Bosser 8712, Prov. Antananarivo, Nanokely , Ankaratra , 19°33 ’S, 47°09’E, fl., Nov. 1955 ( MO!, P!, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Bosser 8816, Prov. Antananarivo, Ambohimandroso , près d’Ambatolampy , cultures et jachères sur alluvions récentes de l’Onive , 1500 m, 19°32’S, 47°26’E, fl., fr., Dec. 1955 ( P!, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Croat 29069, Prov. Antananarivo, massif l’Ankaratra , station forestière Manjakatompo , near Sommet Nosiarivo , 1950 m, 19°20’S, 47°15’E, fl., fr., 22 Jan. 1975 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Croat 29089, Prov. Antananarivo, vicinity of station forestière Antsampandrano , 1750 m, 19°36’S, 47°03’E, fl., fr., 23 Jan. 1975 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 15053, Prov. Fianarantsoa, Ihosy , 22°24’S, 46°08’E, fl., 9 Oct. 1939 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Jacquemin H243 J, Prov. Antananarivo, sur rocher en trachyte de l’Ambohimirandrana, station forestière de l’Ankaratra , 19°20’S, 47°27’E, fl., 27 Feb. 1966 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Le Myre de Vilers s.n., s. loc., fl., s. date ( P!)   ; Peltier & Peltier 1835, Prov. Antananarivo, Manjakatompo, Sommet Anosiarivo , 19°22 ’S, 47°18’E, fl., 3 Feb. 1960 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Perrier de la Bâthie 9089, Prov. Antananarivo, alluvions de l’Onibe à Tsinjoarivo , 1400 m, 19°38’S, 47°42’E, fl., fr., Sep. 1911 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Perrier de la Bâthie 18312, Prov. Antananarivo, Antsirabe , 19°51’S, 47°02’E, fl., Oct. 1927 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Schlieben 8150, Prov. Antananarivo, Antsirabe , 1500 m, 19°51’S, 47°02’E, fl., 13 Dec. 1959 ( BM!, K!) GoogleMaps   ; Viguier & Humbert   1708, Prov. Antananarivo, flanc W de l’Ankaratra , entre Ambatofotsy et le Tsiafajavona, 2000-2300 m, 19°21’S, 47°15’E, fl., 27 Nov. 1912 ( P!) GoogleMaps   .

6. Cynoglossum tsaratananense J.S. Mill.   , sp. nov.

Haec species inter congeneros madagascarienses quoad nuculas dorsaliter glabras 4-5 mm latas atque fructum in diam. 7-10 mm ad Cynoglossum birkinshawii   maxime accedit, sed ab eo foliorum basalium laminis anguste ellipticis usque lanceolatis 11-17(-20) cm longis apice acutis usque leviter acuminatis atque petiolis 10-20 cm longis distinguitur.

TYPUS. — Perrier de la Bâthie 16465, Madagascar, Prov. Antsiranana, massif de Tsaratanana, près des eaux, 2600 m, 13°57’S, 48°52’E, fl., fr., Apr. 1929 (holo-, P!; iso-, MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   .

Perennial herb from a woody taproot 3-5 mm in diam.; stems erect to 55 cm, with scattered, thin, appressed to erect hairs; basal leaves clustered in a loose rosette of 5-10, blades narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, 11-17(-20) cm long, 2.5- 5.5 cm wide, the apex acute to slightly acuminate, the base cuneate to attenuate, the margin entire, the adaxial surface with scattered appressed hairs, the abaxial surface with short, appressed hairs or nearly glabrous, but evenly strigose on the midrib; venation brochidodromous, the midrib impressed on the adaxial surface; secondary and tertiary veins visible on the abaxial surface; petioles 10-20 cm long, canaliculate on the adaxial surface, glabrous or with scattered hairs; cauline leaves alternate, sessile, blades lanceolate to ovate, 3.5-8 cm long, 1-2.5 cm wide, the apex acute to obtuse, the base obtuse to clasping, the margin entire.

Inflorescences terminal, the stems usually branched multiple times into multi-flowered cymes; flowers bisexual, borne on pedicels 2- 6 mm long; sepals ovate, 2-2.5 mm long, 1- 1.3 mm wide, acute to obtuse at the apex, sparsely to moderately strigillose; corolla blue, campanulate, the tube 2-2.5 mm long, with 5 saccate granular faucal appendages, the lobes widely depressed ovate, 1.5-2 mm long; anthers borne just beneath the faucal appen- dages, c. 1 mm long, sessile or nearly so; ovary less than 1 mm tall, style c. 1 mm long, stigma capitate.

Fruits 7-10 mm broad; nutlets ovoid, 4-5 mm broad, margin with an entire wing, the dorsal surface glabrous, glochidia completely absent. — Fig. 5. View FIG

DISTRIBUTION. — Cynoglossum tsaratananense   is known only from the type collection made at 2600 m on Tsaratanana in north-central Madagascar ( Fig. 4 View FIG )   .

CONSERVATION STATUS. — Provisional IUCN Red List Category: Critically Endangered (CR B1ab(i-iv) + 2ab(i-iv)). Cynoglossum tsaratananense   has been collected only once, and not since 1929, and it is questionable whether this species still survives, although its single known locality is within a protected area.


University of the Witwatersrand


Royal Botanic Gardens


Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants


Missouri Botanical Garden


Parc de Tsimbazaza


Bristol Museum


Naturhistorisches Museum Wien