Phanocles procerus, Conle & Hennemann & Bellanger & Lelong & Jourdan & Valero, 2020
Conle, Oskar V., Hennemann, Frank H., Bellanger, Yannick, Lelong, Philippe, Jourdan, Toni & Valero, Pablo, 2020, Studies on neotropical Phasmatodea XX: A new genus and 16 new species from French Guiana, Zootaxa 4814 (1), pp. 1-136 : 7-12
treatment provided by
Chopard, 1911: 343
HT, ♀: GUY13-048, 8–23.X.2013, Guyane fr.— Saül, rec. ASPER , coll. ASPER; GUY13-048 , Saül—Guyane, 08–21 X 2013, Col. ASPER : Y. Bellanger, T. Jourdan & P. Lelong [ MNHN] .
PT, 1 ♂: GUY13-049, 8–23.X.2013, Guyane fr.— Saül, rec. ASPER , coll. ASPER; GUY13-049 , Saül—Guyane, 08–21 X 2013, Col. ASPER : Y. Bellanger, T. Jourdan & P. Lelong [ MNHN] .
PT, 1 ♂♂: Phanocloidea baculus ( Olivier, 1792) . E. Delfosse. 10/05 [ MNHN] .
PT, 1 ♂: E. Delfosse, dét. 10/05; Phanocles procerus, Conle et al. , n. sp., paratype, det. Hennemann et al. II.2017 [ MNHN] .
PT, 1 ♀: (penultimate instar): Mai ; Guyane Française , Guatmala , Coll Le Moult ; Museum Paris, Collection Lucien Chopard 191; Bacteria arumatia Stoll [ MNHN] .
PT, 1 ♀: (penultimate instar): Janvier ; Guyane Française , Nouveau-Chantier , Coll Le Moult ; Museum Paris, Col- lection Lucien Chopard 191 [ MNHN] .
PT, 1 ♂: Französisch Guyana: Commune de Camopi , Bergmassiv Sommet Tabulaire, Mount Itoupé, N 03°01’23’’ W 053°05’44’’, 570m, S.E.A.G., leg. Stéphane Brûlé 2010 [coll. OC, No. 0346-3] .
PT, 1 ♂: Ex Zucht O. Conle 2016, Französisch Guyana: Saül, leg. ASPER team 8– 23.10.2013 [coll. OC, No. 0346- 5] .
PT, 1 ♂: Ex Zucht O. Conle 2016, Französisch Guyana: Saül, leg. ASPER team 8– 23.10.2013 [coll. OC, No. 0346- 6] .
PT, 1 ♂: Ex Zucht O. Conle 2016, Französisch Guyana: Saül, leg. ASPER team 8– 23.10.2013 [coll. OC, No. 0346- 7] .
PT, 1 ♀ (nymph): Ex Zucht O. Conle 2016, Französisch Guyana: Saül, leg. ASPER team 8– 23.10.2013 [coll. OC, No. 0346-8] .
PT, 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀: ex Zucht S. Eilmus XI.2016, F3- Generation, Herkunft: Franz. Guayana, Saül, leg. J.L.B. X.2013 [coll. FH, No‘s 0963-1 to 3] .
PT, 17 eggs: ex Zucht Y. Bellanger 2014, F1- Generation, Herkunft: Franz. Guayana, Saül, leg. J.L.B. X.2013 [coll. FH, No‘s 0963-E] .
PT, 1 ♀ (nymph): GUYTRI16-018, Guyane, Réserve Naturelle Nationale de la Trinité , Layon A, N4°36’3,1’’;W53 °25’3,2’’, alt. 119m, 04.XI.2016, rec. & det. P. Lelong & Y. Bellanger [ MNHN] .
PT, 1 ♂: GUYKAW16-048, Guyane fr.—route de Kaw, Camp Caïman—PK22 depuis Roura, 12.XI.2016, rec. ASPER P. Lelong & Y. Bellanger, in coll. ASPER [ ASPER-PL] .
PT, 1 ♂ (nymph): GUYKAW16-049, Guyane fr.—route de Kaw, Camp Caïman—PK28 depuis Roura, N 4°34’11,7 ’’;W52°12’41,8’’, alt. 300m, 11.XI.2016, rec. ASPER P. Lelong & Y. Bellanger, in coll. ASPER [ ASPER-PL] .
PT, 1 ♀ (nymph): GUYKAW16-050, Guyane fr.—route de Kaw, Camp Caïman—PK27 depuis Roura, N 4°34’12,4 ’’;W52°12’52,5’’, alt. 300m, 09.XI.2016, rec. ASPER P. Lelong & Y. Bellanger, in coll. ASPER [ ASPER-PL] .
PT, 23 eggs from: GUY13-048, 2013 [ASPER-YB].
PT, 5 eggs: VIII-2014, col. & leg. Christian Bouladou-Dupré [ YB] .
PT, 2 eggs from: GUY13-048, 2013 [ASPER-PL].
Further material [ 7 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀]: FRENCH GUIANA : 3 ♀: Phanocles sp, Guyane , Saül, I-2015, Elevage F 1 Y. Bellanger [ ASPER-YB] ; 1 ♀: Phanocles procerus , Guyane , Saül, Elevage Y. Bellanger— 16.II.2017 [ ASPER-YB] ; 2 ♂: Phanocles sp, Guyane , Saül, I-2015, Elevage F 1 Y. Bellanger [ ASPER-YB] ; 1 ♂: Phanocles sp, Guyane , Saül, 24-IX-2014, Elevage F 1 Y. Bellanger [ ASPER-YB] ; 2 ♂: Phanocles sp, Guyane , Saül, X-2014, Elevage F 1 Y. Bellanger [ ASPER-YB] ; 2 ♂: Phanocles sp, Guyane , Sinnamary, route menant au sentier de St Elie, VIII-2014, col. & leg. Christian Bouladou-Dupré [ YB] .
Etymology. The name “procerus” (lat. = slender, elongate) refers to the very slender and elongate shape of this new species.
Differentiation. Readily distinguished from P. maroniensis ( Chopard, 1911) (n. comb.) by the lack of cephalic horns in both sexes, the much shorter subgenital plate, lack of lateral lobes of abdominal tergum VII and unarmed outer ventral carinae of the mesofemora of ♀♀ as well as the larger poculum, shorter anal segment and more decid- edly laterally deflexed abdominal tergum IX of ♂♂.
Description. ♀ ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ). Medium-sized (body length incl. subgenital plate 174.0–184.0 mm), very slender species for the genus with a smooth thorax, no distinct cephalic armature and entirely unarmed legs. Colour various shades of mid to dark brown, often with irregular greyish speckles and mottling on body and legs.
Head: Almost sub-spherical, strongly globose, broadest just behind the eyes; vertex convex and weakly biglobose, smooth. Frons with two small impression between the bases of the antennae. Eyes circular in outline and projecting hemispherically; their length about 2.1x in that of genae. Antennae long, filiform and very thin; almost reaching to posterior margin of abdominal tergum II. Scapus compressed dorsoventrally, roughly rectangular in outline and almost 2x longer than wide. Pedicellus subcylindrical, gently constricted towards the apex and only about half the length of scapus.
Thorax: Pronotum shorter and just a little more than half the width of head; rectangular in outline but gently narrowed pre-medially and slightly widened post-medially. Transverse median sulcus indistinct, straight and not reaching lateral margins of segment. Entire disc with an impressed median line, which gradually disappears towards the posterior margin. Mesothorax very elongate, slender, uniform in width and almost 10x longer than prothorax; entirely smooth. Mesonotum with a very weakly indicated longitudinal carina near lateral margins and mesosternum very weakly tectinate longitudinally. Metanotum somewhat less than 1/3 the length of mesonotum; smooth.
Abdomen: Median segment smooth, gently widened in the posterior half and 1.2x longer than metanotum and about 1.1x longer than segment II. II–VII uniform in width, parallel-sided. III equal in length to II, III–V increasing in length with V longest and about 5.2x longer than wide. VI–VII slightly decreasing in length. Tergum VII with the lateral margins just very weakly widening and deflexed towards the posterior. Sterna II–VII with a fine longitudinal carina near lateral margins. Praeopercular organ indistinct and merely formed by a slightly rounded expansion of the two lateral carinae. Tergum VIII about 2x longer than IX, the latter transverse. Anal segment roundly rectangular in dorsal aspect, almost parallel-sided and with a fairly well defined and acute longitudinal median carina over entire length. Posterior margin with a shallow median impression, the two outer portions broadly and weakly rounded. Epiproct very small, scale-shaped and slightly tectinate longitudinally. Cerci very small and conical with a fairly acute apex. Gonapophysis VIII elongated, very gently up-curving and considerably projecting beyond apex of anal segment and subgenital plate. The latter with a prominent lamellate lateral keel in basal portion, the apical portion gently tectinate longitudinally; apex bluntly rounded to slightly indented and projecting over apex of abdomen by less than 1/3 the length of anal segment.
Legs: All long, slender and distinctly carinate, the meso- and metafemora and tibiae very gently down-curving; all entirely unarmed except for three minute apical denticles on medioventral carina of meso- and metafemora. Both outer ventral carinae of meso- and metafemora deflexed into a blunt, triangular tooth apically. Profemora roughly equal in length to mesothorax, metafemora reaching some ¾ along abdominal segment IV and metatibiae reaching to segment VII. All basitarsi with a distinct, roundly triangular lobe dorsally, which is most prominent on probasitarsi and least distinct on metabasitarsi; somewhat longer than following three tarsomeres combined.
Measurements HT [mm]: Body 186.0, head 6.0, pronotum 5.1, mesonotum 41.5, metanotum 13.4, median segment 16.1, profemora 37.2, mesofemora 31.2, metafemora 36.8, protibia 41.8, mesotibia 34.8, metatibia 42.2, antennae 76.6.
Measurements PT [mm]: Body (incl. subgenital plate) 174.0–184.0, body 172.0–182.5, pronotum 4.9–5.0, mesonotum 41.5–45.0, metanotum 12.8–13.0, median segment 14.8–15.3, profemora 41.5–43.0, mesofemora 34.2– 35.0, metafemora 37.5–40.0, antennae 91.0.
♂ ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ). Moderately sized for the genus (body length 103.0– 109.5mm), form very slender and delicate, with long and slender, unarmed legs and alae that reach to posterior margin of abdominal segment III. Colour ochraceous or greyish mid brown, most of two terminal terga pale cream to white (IX with a washed black marking laterally). Head with characteristic colouration: vertex pale brown, genae with a broad dark brown postocular streak and the portions above and below this streak pale cream or straw. Mesonotum with a very fine, dark brown longitudinal lateral line. Tegmina and costal region of alae of same colour as body; each with the anterior margin pale yellow. Anal region of alae translucent grey. All femora dull red or reddish brown basally, the meso- and metafemora with three, the corresponding tibiae with two pale washed annulae.
Head: Generally as in ♀♀ but the vertex less decidedly bi-globose, smooth. Frons with a sharply defined, trap- ezoidal impression between bases of antennae. Eyes very large, projecting more than hemispherically and each eye is 1.2x as long as the genae. Antennae as in ♀♀ and almost reaching apex of abdomen.
Thorax: Pronotum as in ♀♀ but with a deep pit at each anterolateral angle; much narrower and slightly shorter than head. Mesothorax very elongate and slender, almost 9x longer than prothorax. Mesonotum smooth but with a fine longitudinal median keel and a fine longitudinal carinae some distance off the lateral margins. Meso- and metasternum with a blunt longitudinal median keel. Tegmina slender, spatulate and somewhat narrowed in basal half, the central portion with a small but fairly acute conical hump. Alae almost reaching posterior margin of abdominal segment III.
Abdomen: Median segment 4.3x longer than metanotum and almost 1.6x longer than segment II. Segments II– VII uniform in width but slightly constricted medially, II–IV slightly decreasing in length, IV–VI roughly equal in length and VII some ¾ the length of VI. Sterna II–VII with a fine longitudinal median carina. Tergum VIII gradually widened towards the posterior, IX indistinctly longer and constricted medially with the lateral margins noticeably and increasingly deflexed towards the posterior. Anal segment only about half the length of IX and not longer than wide; the posterior margin somewhat labiate, swollen, broadly rounded and with a fairly distinct median indention. Inner portion of ventral surface of posterior margin densely armed with small, black denticles. Epiproct very small and fully hidden under anal segment. Vomer almost an isosceles triangle in outline with a short, up-curving terminal hook; the median portion concave in longitudinal direction and the entire ventral surface with fine transverse ridges. Cerci slender, cylindrical in cross-section with the apical portion very gently up-curving; hardly projecting beyond posterior margin of anal segment. Poculum roundly cup-shaped, moderately convex with the posterior margin somewhat narrowed, slightly labiate and almost reaching to posterior margin of tergum IX.
Legs: All very long and delicate, entirely unarmed. Profemora about as long as head, pro- and mesothorax combined, metafemora almost reaching posterior margin of abdominal segment V and metatibiae projecting considerably beyond apex of abdomen. Basitarsi very elongate and longer than remaining tarsomeres combined (probasitarsi in particular).
Measurements PT [mm]: Body 100.5–109.5, pronotum 2.8–3.4, mesonotum 25,7–26–1, tegmina 4.6–5.1, alae 32.4–34.8, profemora 33.2–36.1, mesofemora 26.7–30.1, metafemora 30.1–33.4, antennae>74.0–92.0.
Eggs ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ). Of average size and fairly typical for the genus. Capsule 1.65x longer than wide and 1.5x longer than high, the dorsal surface considerably more convex than ventral surface, oval in cross-section. Entire surface covered with an irregular, dense network of blunt, very minutely granulose ridges; pits in between smooth and slightly glossy. Polar-area with a shallow impression. Anterior margin somewhat lowered towards the dorsal surface. Micropylar plate elongate, about 0.7x the length of capsule, very gently widening towards the posterior and placed in centre of dorsal capsule surface; outer margin strongly swollen and the inner surface sculptured like capsule. Micropylar cup positioned at lower end of plate, the median line formed by a low bulge that almost reaches the polar-area. Operculum oval and bearing a strongly convex and globose, hollow capitulum which has the upper portion irregularly perforated; surface smooth. Raised ridges of capsule dull black, the lowered spaces in between very dark brown. Capitulum ochraceous mid brown.
Measurements PT [mm]: overall length 4.0, length of capsule 3.4, width 1.9, height 2.3, length of micropylar plate 2.4.
Comments. This species has already been recorded from French Guiana by Serville (1838: 233) and Chopard (1911: 343) but was misidentified as “ Bacteria arumatia (Stoll, 1813) ”, which is a synonym of Phanocloidea baculus ( Olivier, 1792) . While the ♀ from Cayenne recorded by Serville was not traced in MNHN, the two penultimate instar nymphs listed by Chopard are here designated as paratypes of P. procerus (n. sp.). Jourdan, Lelong & Bellanger (2014: 489) have already suggested this to be an as yet undescribed species.
Live eggs laid by the ♀ HT were brought back to Europe for breeding purposes in 2013. Captive breeding has proven fairly difficult but at least three generations have so far been reared successfully using bramble ( Rubus fruticosus , Rosaceae ) as an alternative food plant. The hatching rate of the first generation was close to 100% and the incubating time was 4–6 months at average temperatures of 18–20°C. While ♂♂ reached maturity in about 5–5,5 months, the ♀♀ took almost two months longer. ♀♀ start laying eggs about two weeks after their final moult.
Distribution. Commune de Saül, Saül [ASPER, MNHN, coll. FH]; Commune de Kourou, Guatemala (= Kourou) [MNHN]; Commune de Saint-Laurent-du Maroni, Nouveau Chantier [MNHN]; Commune de Roura, Montagnes de Roura, Piste de Kaw [coll. FH]; Commune de Roura, Montagne des Chevaux [coll. OC]; Commune de Régina, Nouragues, Saut Pararé [coll. OC]; Commune de Camopi, Montagnes de Sommet Tabulaire, Mount Itoupé [coll. OC]; Sinnamary [YB].
No known copyright restrictions apply. See Agosti, D., Egloff, W., 2009. Taxonomic information exchange and copyright: the Plazi approach. BMC Research Notes 2009, 2:53 for further explanation.
|Conle, Oskar V., Hennemann, Frank H., Bellanger, Yannick, Lelong, Philippe, Jourdan, Toni & Valero, Pablo 2020|
|Jourdan, T. & Lelong, P. & Bellanger, Y. 2014: 489|
Bacteria arumatia, Serville, 1838: 223
|Serville, J. G. 1838: 223|