Wilson J. E. M. Costa, 2007, Taxonomic revision of the seasonal South American killifish genus Simpsonichthys (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae)., Zootaxa 1669, pp. 1-134: 104-106
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Simpsonichthys ghisolfii ZBK Costa, Cyrino & Nielsen, 1996: 18 ( type locality: Guanambi [rio das Ras drainage, rio Sao Francisco basin] , Bahia, Brazil [14°15’15.6”S 42°46’55.6”W; altitude 555 m]; holotype: MZUSP 49403GoogleMaps ).
Brazil: Estado da Bahia, rio das Rãs drainage, rio São Francisco basin: MZUSP 49403, holotype, 47.1 mm SL; MZUSP 49404, 1 paratype; UFRJ 3526, 2 paratypes; UFRJ 3527, 2 paratypes (c&s); UFRJ 3808, 1 (c&s); Guanambi ; A. L. F. Cyrino, D. Nielsen, J. C. Cruz & A. C. de Luca, 27 Jan. 1996. UFRJ 4768, 4; idem ; W. J. E. M. Costa, F. Pupo & E. Araujo, 11 Feb. 1999. UFRJ 4849, 10; idem ; W. J. E. M. Costa, A. C. L. H. Bacellar, F. Pupo & E. Araujo, 4 May 1999. UFRJ 6066, 6; UFRJ 6067, 2; Guanambi, road to Caitite ; W. J. E. M. Costa, C. P. Bove & B. B. Costa, 13 Jan. 2005. UFRJ 6073, 12; UFRJ 6075, 1; 5 km N from Pindaí; W. J. E. M. Costa, C. P. Bove & B. B. Costa, 16 Jan. 2005.
Similar to S. mediopapillatus , and distinguished from all other species of the S. antenori group, in having a long (vs. short) urogenital papilla in males, zigzag shaped bars on caudal peduncle in males (vs. bars straight or slightly curved), and a distinctive narrow subdistal bright yellowish orange stripe on anal fin in males (vs. never a similar color pattern). Distinguished from S. mediopapillatus by the presence of minute contact organs on anteroventral portion of flank of males (vs. contact organs absent) and absence of median neuromast on posterior rostral series (vs. presence).
Morphometric data appear in Table 6. Largest specimen examined 72.8 mm SL. Dorsal profile nearly straight on head, convex from nape to end of dorsal-fin base, approximately straight on caudal peduncle. Ventral profile convex from lower jaw to end of anal-fin base, nearly straight on caudal peduncle. Eye positioned on dorsolateral portion of side of head. Snout blunt. Body deep, compressed, greatest body depth at level of pelvic-fin bases. Urogenital papilla cylindrical and long in males, pocket-shaped in females.
Tip of dorsal fin pointed in males, rounded to slightly pointed in females; tip of anal fin pointed in males, rounded in females. Tip of dorsal and anal fins with filamentous rays in males, tips reaching vertical through posterior portion of caudal fin. Caudal fin subtruncate in males, round in females. Pectoral fins elliptical. Posterior margin of pectoral fins reaching vertical between base of 5th and 7th anal-fin rays in males, and between base of 1st and 5th anal-fin rays in females. Tip of each pelvic fin reaching base of 3rd or 4th anal-fin ray in males and between base of 1st and 3rd anal-fin rays in females. Pelvic-fin bases medially united. Dorsalfin origin in vertical between base of 2nd and 4th anal-fin rays in males, and between base of 3rd and 5th anal-fins ray in females; dorsal-fin origin between neural spines of vertebrae 7 and 8 in males, and neural spines of vertebrae11 and 12 in females. Anal-fin origin between pleural ribs of vertebrae 7 and 9 in males, and pleural ribs of vertebrae 9 and 10 in females. Dorsal-fin rays 20-25 in males, 16-20 in females; anal-fin rays 21-24 in males, 19-24 in females; caudal-fin rays 23-25; pectoral-fin rays 12-13; pelvic-fin rays 6.
Frontal squamation E-patterned; E-scales overlapping medially; no scales anterior to H-scale; two or three supraorbital scales. Longitudinal series of scales 27-29; transverse series of scales 12-13; scale rows around caudal peduncle 16. One to three minute contact organs on anteroventral portion of flanks in males. Small papillate contact organs on inner surface of dorsalmost ray of pectoral fins in males.
Cephalic neuromasts: supraorbital 14-17, parietal 2-4, anterior rostral 1, posterior rostral 1, infraorbital 2 + 19-25, preorbital 3, otic 2, post-otic 2-3, supratemporal 1, median opercular 1, ventral opercular 1-2, preopercular16-19, mandibular 12-14, lateral mandibular 4-7, paramandibular 1. One neuromast on each scale of lateral line. Two neuromasts on caudal-fin base.
Basihyal subtriangular, width about 75-95% of length; basihyal cartilage about 15-20% of total length of basihyal. Six branchiostegal rays. Second pharyngobranchial teeth 5-6. Gill-rakers on first branchial arch 4 + 11-12. Vomerine teeth absent. Dermosphenotic absent. Ventral process of posttemporal long. Total vertebrae29-30.
Males. Sides of body light bluish gray, with white dots and 14-19 approximately straight faint gray bars, more conspicuous on caudal peduncle.,Opercular region pale greenish blue. Iris light yellow, with dark purplish gray bar. Dorsal fin yellow, sometimes dark purplish pink on distal portion, with white dots; dorsal-fin filaments black. Anal fin greenish yellow, with bluish white dots; often subdistal zone yellowish orange, light blue spot near fin tip; usually black distal stripe, sometimes gray or stripe inconspicuous in life; anal-fin filaments black. Caudal fin dark yellow, with white dots; blue line on posterior margin of caudal fin. Pectoral fins hyaline. Pelvic fins yellow, with black tip.
Females. Sides of body light gray, with 16-18 dark gray bars; venter pale golden; 2-6 rounded black blotches on anterocentral portion of flank; 1-17 irregularly arranged rounded black blotches on caudal peduncle. Opercular region pale greenish golden. Iris light yellow, with gray bar. Unpaired fins hyaline, with faint, longitudinally elongated gray spots; small, iridescent blue spot on posterior portion of anal fin close to caudal peduncle. Paired fins hyaline.
Rio das Rãs drainage, rio São Francisco basin, Estado da Bahia, Brazil (Fig. 1).
Temporary pools in the Caatinga.
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