Nezara viridula (Linnaeus, 1758),

Ghahari, Hassan, Moulet, Pierre & Rider, David A., 2014, An annotated catalog of the Iranian Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomomorpha), Zootaxa 3837 (1), pp. 1-95: 40-41

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3837.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:848FCF21-B70B-401F-ABC2-F9BE1F9DBFFC

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/645987E6-AF06-FFF2-5ECA-F8EED8223B6D

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Nezara viridula (Linnaeus, 1758)
status

 

Nezara viridula (Linnaeus, 1758) 

Cimex viridulus Linnaeus, 1758: 444  ; Cimex torquatus Fabricius, 1775: 710  ; Cimex smaragdulus Fabricius, 1775: 711  ; Cimex transversus Thunberg, 1783: 40  ; Cimex variabilis Villers, 1789: 505  ; Cimex spirans Fabricius, 1798: 533  ; Cimex viridissimus Wolff, 1801: 55  ; Pentatoma flavicollis Palisot  de Beauvois, 1818: 185; Pentatoma oblonga Westwood, 1837: 37  ; Pentatoma unicolor Westwood, 1837: 38  ; Pentatoma berylina Westwood, 1837: 38  ; Pentatoma subsericea Westwood, 1837: 38  ; Pentatoma leii Westwood, 1837: 38  ; Pentatoma tripunctigera Westwood, 1837: 38  ; Pentatoma chinensis Westwood, 1837: 38  ; Pentatoma proxima Westwood, 1837: 9  ; Pentatoma chloris Westwood, 1837: 38  ; Pentatoma chlorocephala Westwood, 1837: 38  ; Pentatoma propinqua Westwood, 1837: 9  ; Cimex hemichloris Germar, 1838: 166  ; Nezara approximata Reiche & Fairmaire, 1848: 443  ; Pentatoma plicaticollis Lucas, 1849: 87  ; Rhaphigaster prasinus Dallas, 1851: 274  (non Linnaeus, 1758); Rhaphigaster orbus Stål, 1854: 221  ; Pentatoma vicaria Walker, 1867: 303  ; Nezara viridula  var. aurantiaca  A. Costa, 1884: 37; Nezara antennata  var. icterica Horváth, 1889: 31  ; Nezara viridula  var. hepatica Horváth, 1903: 406  ; Nezara icterica (Horváth, 1889) Ghauri 1972  stat. nov.

Distribution in Iran. Ardabil ( Linnavuori 2008), Fars ( Safavi 1959; Kiritshenko 1966; Modarres Awal 1997 b), Golestan ( Jakovlev 1877, 1880; Hoberlandt 1955; Safavi 1959; Farahbakhsh 1961; Modarres Awal 1997 b; Karimian & Khormali 2006; Linnavuori 2008; Ghahari et al. 2011 a), Guilan ( Wagner 1961; Miyamoto 1963; Hoberlandt 1997; Modarres Awal 1997 b; Linnavuori 2008); Hamadan ( Mirab-balou et al. 2007), Hormozgan ( Kiritshenko 1966; Linnavuori 2004), Kerman ( Seidenstücker 1958; Farahbakhsh 1961; Kiritshenko 1966; Wagner 1968; Hoberlandt 1997; Modarres Awal 1997 b), Khorasan ( Modarres Awal 1996 a, 1997 b, 2008; Mehneh et al. 2010), Khuzestan ( Hoberlandt 1955; Safavi 1959; Modarres Awal 1997 b; Linnavuori 2012), Kordestan ( Wagner 1968), Mazandaran ( Kiritshenko 1949; Hoberlandt 1955, 1997; Safavi 1959; Farahbakhsh 1961; Modarres Awal 1997 b; Heiss 2002; Linnavuori 2008; Sakenin et al. 2008), Semnan ( Modarres Awal 1997 b; Kalaii et al. 2013), Sistan & Baluchestan (Ghahari et al. 2011 b), West Azarbaijan (Nateq Golestan 2004; Nateq Golestan et al. 2004, 2010 b, c), Zanjan ( Modarres Awal 1997 b), Caspian Sea area ( Farahbakhsh 1961), Iran (no locality cited) ( Oshanin 1906; Khanjani 2006; Rider 2006).

General distribution. Mediterranean basin, Near East, Central and Far Eastern Asia ( Japan), tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia, ( Ferrari et al. 2010), it is also known from Argentina to the southern half of United States.

Host plants. In cotton field ( Farahbakhsh 1961; Modarres Awal 1997 b; Linnavuori 2004; Karimian & Khormali 2006; Ghahari et al. 2011 a), Salix  sp. ( Salicaceae  ) near rice field ( Miyamoto 1963), on castor-bean, citrus, cucumber, melon, mulberry, tobacco, tomato, water-melon ( Farahbakhsh 1961; Modarres Awal 1997 b), lucerne, pistachio, soybean ( Modarres Awal 1997 b), Medicago sativa  ( Fabaceae  ) ( Modarres Awal 1996 a; Mirabbalou et al. 2007), Citrus aurantium ( Rutaceae  ) (Sakenin et al. 2008), Phragmites  sp. ( Poaceae  ), and Tamarix  sp. ( Tamaricaceae  ) (Linnavuori 2012). Ribes & Pagola Carte (2013) recall that N. viridula  has been recorded on more than 150 plants belonging to many diverse families.

Comments. The variety N. viridula  f. smaragdula (Fabricius, 1775) is distinguished by its reddish color, variety Nezara viridula  f. torquata Fabricius, 1775 by the yellow collar on the pronotum; smaragdula seems to be an automnal form in western Europe; these forms are only color variations and have no taxonomic value.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Pentatomidae

Genus

Nezara

Loc

Nezara viridula (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ghahari, Hassan, Moulet, Pierre & Rider, David A. 2014
2014
Loc

Nezara icterica (Horváth, 1889) Ghauri 1972

(Horvath, 1889) Ghauri 1972
1972
Loc

var. hepatica Horváth, 1903 : 406

Horvath 1903: 406
1903
Loc

var. icterica Horváth, 1889: 31

Horvath 1889: 31
1889
Loc

Pentatoma vicaria

Walker 1867: 303
1867
Loc

Rhaphigaster orbus Stål, 1854: 221

Stal 1854: 221
1854
Loc

Rhaphigaster prasinus

Dallas 1851: 274
1851
Loc

Pentatoma plicaticollis

Lucas 1849: 87
1849
Loc

Nezara approximata

Reiche & Fairmaire 1848: 443
1848
Loc

Cimex hemichloris

Germar 1838: 166
1838
Loc

Pentatoma oblonga

Westwood 1837: 37
1837
Loc

Pentatoma unicolor

Westwood 1837: 38
1837
Loc

Pentatoma berylina

Westwood 1837: 38
1837
Loc

Pentatoma subsericea

Westwood 1837: 38
1837
Loc

Pentatoma leii

Westwood 1837: 38
1837
Loc

Pentatoma tripunctigera

Westwood 1837: 38
1837
Loc

Pentatoma chinensis

Westwood 1837: 38
1837
Loc

Pentatoma proxima

Westwood 1837: 9
1837
Loc

Pentatoma chloris

Westwood 1837: 38
1837
Loc

Pentatoma chlorocephala

Westwood 1837: 38
1837
Loc

Pentatoma propinqua

Westwood 1837: 9
1837
Loc

Cimex viridissimus

Wolff 1801: 55
1801
Loc

Cimex spirans

Fabricius 1798: 533
1798
Loc

Cimex variabilis

Villers 1789: 505
1789
Loc

Cimex transversus

Thunberg 1783: 40
1783
Loc

Cimex torquatus

Fabricius 1775: 710
1775
Loc

Cimex smaragdulus

Fabricius 1775: 711
1775
Loc

Cimex viridulus

Linnaeus 1758: 444
1758