Bittacomorpha clavipes Fabricius 1781

Fasbender, Andrew & Courtney, Gregory W., 2017, A revision of Bittacomorphinae with a review of the monophyly of extant subfamilies of Ptychopteridae (Diptera), Zootaxa 4309 (1), pp. 1-69: 30-34

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Bittacomorpha clavipes Fabricius 1781


Bittacomorpha clavipes Fabricius 1781 

Tipula clavipes Fabricius, 1781: 404  (original description)

Tipula clavipes Fabricius, Fabricius 1787: 323  (redescription)

Ptychoptera clavipes Fabricius, Fabricius 1805: 22  (catalog, redescription) Bittacomorpha clavipes Fabricius, Westwood 1835: 282  (set as type species of Bittacomorpha  ) Bittacomorpha clavipes Fabricius, 1890: 230  (key)

Bittacomorpha clavipes Aldrich, 1895: 200  (original description)

Bittacomorpha clavipes Fabricius, Johnson 1905: 75  (key)

Bittacomorpha (Bittacomorpha) clavipes Fabricius, Alexander 1916: 546  (key) Bittacomorpha clavipes Fabricius, Alexander 1920: 784  –787 (redescription) Bittacomorpha clavipes Fabricius, Alexander 1927: 9  (catalog)

Bittacomorpha clavipes Fabricius, Peus 1968: 11  (catalog)

Bittacomorpha clavipes Fabricius, Alexander 1965: 98  (catalog)

Bittacomorpha clavipes Fabricius, Alexander 1967: 171  (illustration)

Diagnosis. Larva ( Figs. 5View FIGURE 5 a, 6a –b). Genae round and abbreviate, cranium olive-colored and spotted with black; postgena with rounded anterolateral lobes. Abdominal segments with linear rows of tubercles transverse dorsally and ventrally, longitudinal laterally. Adult ( Figs. 7View FIGURE 7 a, 8, 9). Scutum with longitudinal white stripe. Male with paramere apex weakly furcate.

Description. Larva. Dorsal surface of cranium domed, hemispherical, olive-colored, rows of dark spots posteriorly on frontoclypeal apotome and dorsal surface of genae. Genae rounded in dorsal view, not expanded posteriorly, ventroposterior margin weakly and broadly emarginate; subgenal sclerite narrowed at midpoint of length, apex with semicircular anterolateral lobes. Antenna two-segmented, basal segment cylindrical, apical segment weakly fusiform, apex rounded, apical sensilla cluster directed laterally. Abdominal segments with rows of tubercles transverse dorsally and ventrally, longitudinal laterally. Adult. Measurements (n=5). Overall length 10.82mm (10.51–11.16mm) head width 1.06mm (1.02–1.12mm); height 0.95mm (0.88–1.0mm), length 0.61mm (0.57–0.67mm); antennal flagellum length 5.17mm, flagellomere proportions 1.00, 0.82, 0.89, 1.00, 1.00, 0.89, 0.94, 0.89, 0.76, 0.76, 0.64, 0.64, 0.64, 0.51, 0.43, 0.43, 0.38, 0.38, 0.17; maxillary palpus length 1.49mm, maxillary palpus segment proportions 0.24, 1.0, 1.3, 0.96, 1.0; thorax length 1.96mm (1.65–2.22mm), height 1.78mm (1.65–1.91mm); wing length 7.26mm (6.7–7.9mm), width 1.42mm (1.31–1.6mm), R3+4+5 stem 0.60mm, straight; R4+5 stem 2.00mm, R4 after fork 1.25mm, R5 after fork 1.23mm, R3+4+5:R4+5-stem: R4 1.00, 3.33, 2.08, r-m 0.30mm, M distal to r-m 2.97mm, Mdistal:R3+4+5 4.95, 1.00, R4:Mdistal 0.42, 1.00. CuA2 1.78mm; leg femur 1.0, 1.12, 1.27, tibia 0.98, 0.95, 1.19, tarsomeres foreleg 0.53, 0.22, 0.14, 0.05, 0.04, midleg 0.54, 0.21, 0.12, 0.05, 0.03, hind leg 0.58, 0.25, 0.16, 0.04, 0.06; abdomen length 11.87mm (10.85–13.15mm), male tergite proportions 1.00, 3.13, 2.20, 2.23, 1.88, 0.89, 0.28, male genitalia width 1.03mm, height 0.71mm. Head. Face narrow, incised by clypeus to dorsal margin. Clypeus subcylindrical, lateral margins somewhat pinched at junction with face, shorter than eye, inflated. Hypopharynx subconical triangular, directed anteroventrally. Labium beyond clypeus greater than ½ length; labella pad subequal width to labium. Scutum and prescutum pollinose black, presecutum with white line along medial suture. Wing membrane without macrotrichia, apex of veins R1 and R3, with macrotrichia, others bare. Posthalter palpiform. Male. Epandrium with posterolateral corners simple right angle, posterior margin transverse laterally, with semicircular emargination medially; posteriomedial stylus short, triangular. Internal fold extending medially with slight posterior deflection. Epandrial clasper pad width of subapical clasper. Subepandrial sclerite divided, broadly sickle-shaped, fused to medial margin of base of epandrial clasper, directed towards hypoproct (additional small crescent-shaped weak sclerotization exists between subepandrial sclerites in subepandrial membrane in some specimens). Paramere with lateral spine at 7/8 length supporting lateral membrane; apex subacute triangular spine, with prominent dorsal tooth subapically. Gonostylus apex with or without irregularly spaced trichoid sensilla. Hypandrium terminal division foliform, petiolate base, two flattened lateral lobes directed laterally, posterior margin variable. Lateral ejaculatory process lateral apex broadly triangular, medial apex acute fingerlike; ventral lobe dorsally subacute quadrilateral towards blunt anterior apex, apex with lightly sclerotized region directed laterally, deeply inserted into sperm sac. Aedeagal sclerites widely separated at base, ventral apical apodeme apex pointed, fused to subapical anterior portion of subaedeagal sclerite. Subaedeagal sclerite internal section anterolateral apex obtuse round point, medial margin emarginate. External portion of subaedeagal sclerite extending dorsally beyond apex of dorsal apical apodeme. Female. Epigynium posterior margin V-shaped, medial suture present, faint; hypoproct broad, tongue-like, with sclerotized triangular boat-like sclerite ventrally, cercus dorsal margin straight, apex rounded, ventral margin swollen, potbellied anteriorly, tapering posteriorly. Genital fork spatulate, posterior margin weakly emarginate. Hypogynium a hemi-ring, hypogynial valve a short triangular lobe medially, lateral margins straight and angled dorsally, medial notch square: 0.75x as deep as broad.

Material examined. COSTA RICA. GUANACOSTE. Bijagua, 22.ii.1991, coll. D.W. Webb & M.E. Irwin [pinned 1 ♂; INHSAbout INHS]  . UNITED STATES. ALABAMA. Hale Co. Payne Lake , 24 mi. SE. of Tuscaloosa, 25.v.1978, coll. G.W. Byers, C.W. Young [pinned 1 ♂, 1 ♀ on same pin; KU]  ; Lee Co. Chewacia State Park 4 mi. SW. of Auburn, 26.v.1978, coll. G.W., Byers, C.W. Young [pinned 1 ♀; KU]. ARKANSAS  . Hot Spring Co. Malvern, City park, 22.v.78, coll. G.W. Byers, C.W. Young [pinned 3 ♂; KU]; Montgomery Co. Gap Creek , 1.3mi. SE. of Joplin, 22.v.1978, coll. G.W. Byers, C.W. Young [pinned 1 ♂; KU]  ; Gap Creek Picnic Grd. 1 mi SE Joplin ,, coll. S.A. Teale [pinned 1 ♂; KU]; 2 mi NW Mount Ida,, coll. S.A. Teale [pinned 1 ♂; KU]. COLORADO  . Fremont Co., Hayden Creek 4 mi. SW. Coaldale, 13.vii.1974, coll. G.W. Byers, C.W. Young [pinned 8 ♂, 1 ♀; KU]  ; Gunnison Co. Gothic 23.vii.1952, coll. B. Pruitt [pinned 6 ♂, 1 ♀; UMMZ]; Mineral Co. Wolf Creek Cpgr. San Juan Natl. Forest, 25.vii.1981, coll. G.W. Byers, S.A. Teale [pinned 3 ♀; KU]; San Juan Co. 30 mi. N. Durango, 13.viii.1965, coll. G.W. Byers [pinned 1 ♀; KU]. Unknown locality, collector and date [pinned 1 ♂; WSUAbout WSU]  . CONNECTICUT. Fairfield Co. Redding, 2.viii.1928, coll. A.L. Melander [pinned 1 ♂; USNMAbout USNM]  ; GEORGIA. Butts Co. Unknown locality and collector, 6.v.1973 [pinned 2 ♂; FMNHAbout FMNH]  ; Fulton Co. East Point , 15.v.1965, coll. B. Harrison [pinned 1 ♀; KU]  ; Lumpkin Co. #5 De Soto Falls ,, coll. G.W. Byers [pinned 2 ♂; KU]  ; Oconee Co. 2mi. N. Watkinsville, 3.x.1977, coll. G.W. Byers [pinned 2 ♂; KU]  ; Union Co. Lake Winfield Scott,, coll. G.W. Byers [pinned 1 ♂; KU]. ILLINOIS  . Cook Co. Palos Park,, coll. W.J. Gerhard [pinned 1 ♂; FMNH]; Dupage Co. Argonne Natl. Lab, 11.ix.1974, coll. D. Pearson [pinned 1 ♂; FMNH]; Kane Co. 23.vii.1972, coll. D. Pearson [pinned 2 ♂, 4 ♀, additional dates July 23, 1972 – July 27, 1973; FMNHAbout FMNH]  . INDIANA. Lagrange Co. Pigeon River , 4.ix.1928 B.E.M. [pinned 1 ♀, UMMZAbout UMMZ]  ; LaPorte Co. Michigan City, 2.ix.1955, coll. H. Dybas [pinned 1 ♂; FMNHAbout FMNH]  ; IOWAAbout IOWA  . Dickinson Co. Iowa Lakeside Lab, 18.vii.1959, J.L. 

Laffoon [pinned 1 ♂; ISIC]; Iowa Lakeside Lab Hillside Seep near marsh, 17.v.2010, 43.383374°N, 95.179974°WGoogleMaps  , coll. G.W. Courtney, A. Fasbender [pinned 2 ♀; ISIC]; Silver Lake Fen 17.v.2010, 43.437472°N, 95.365009°W, coll. G.W. Courtney, A. Fasbender [pinned 11 ♂, 9 ♀; alcohol: 4 ♂, 3 ♀, 3 larvae, adults reared; ISIC]GoogleMaps  ; Guthrie Co. Springbrook State Park, 24.viii.1972, A. Stewart Cott [pinned 1 ♂, 1♀; ISIC], 19.vii.1960  , coll. J. Laffoon [pinned 1 ♂; ISIC]; Story Co. Ames, 17.v.1964, coll. W.S. Craig [pinned 43 ♂, 2 ♀; ISIC]  . KANSAS. Douglas Co. Lawrence, Snow Hall, 8.vii.1987, J. Gelhaus [pinned 1 ♀; KU] 19.v.1986  , coll. B.N. Danforth [pinned 1♀; KU]. MAINEAbout MAINE. Hancock Co. Bar Harbor, 5.viii.1936  , coll. A.E. Brower [pinned 2 ♂; USNM]; Ellsworth , 12.ix.1967, coll. P.J. Spangler [pinned 1 ♀; USNMAbout USNM]  ; Penobscot Co. Orono, 18.viii.1981, coll. S. Struad [pinned 1 ♂; KU]  . MICHIGAN. Calhoun Co. Battle Creek , 5.vii.1979, G.W. Byers [pinned 1 ♀; KU]  ; Battle Creek, date and collector unknown [pinned 3 ♂, 5 ♀; WSUAbout WSU]; Cheboygan Co. Cochran Lake , 19.vii.1957  , coll. R.E. Beer [pinned 1 ♂; KU]; 4mi. N. of Topinbee , 8.vii.1961  , coll. H. Willis [pinned 1 ♀; KU]; No collector, vii.1931 [pinned 1 ♂, KU]; Emmet Co. 4mi. W. Pellston, 15.vii.1969 [pinned 3 ♂, 2 ♀; UMMZAbout UMMZ]  ; Gratiot Co. Ithaca, 13.vii.1959, coll. V. Potter [pinned 3 ♂, 5 ♀; UMMZAbout UMMZ]  ; Jackson Co. 7.v.1939, coll. F. Awnerman [pinned 1 ♀, UMMZAbout UMMZ]  ; Kalamazoo Co. Gull Lake Biol. Sta., 4.vii.1965, coll. B. Hlavac, T. Hlavac [pinned 1 ♀; FMNHAbout FMNH]  ; Schoolcraft Co. 14.viii.1951, coll. J.S. Rogers [pinned 1 ♂; UMMZAbout UMMZ]  . MINNESOTA. Clearwater Co. Itasca State Park, 2.ix.1950, coll. J.L. Laffoon [pinned 6♂, 1 ♀; ISIC]  . MISSISSIPPI. Lafayette Co. Puskus Lake, 8mi. NE. Oxford , 23.v.1978, G.W. Byers, C.W. Young [pinned 1 ♀; KU]  ; Warren Co. Vicksburg, 23.ix.1977, coll. G.W. Byers [pinned 1 ♂; KU]  . NEBRASKA. Cherry Co. Valentine,  , coll. Hicks, Slater, J.L. Laffoon, multiple dates 9– [pinned 6 ♂, 5 ♀; ISIC]; Sheridan Co. Rushville, Malaise Trap  , coll. R.W. Dawson, 12.vii.1967 [pinned 1 ♂; WSU]. NEWAbout NEW YORK. Chenango Co. Smyrna, 16.viii.25  , coll. A.C. Weed [pinned 1 ♀; FMNH]; Clinton Co. Saranac Inn, 1900, coll. O.S. Wescott [pinned 5 ♂; KU]; Hamilton Co. 7 miles S. of Long Lake , 26.viii.1956  , coll. W.E. LaBerge [pinned 2 ♂]; Wayne Co. North Rose ,, Rawson-MacMillan Exped.  , coll. A.C. Weed [pinned 1 ♀; FMNH]. NORTH CAROLINA. Buncombe Co. Asheville, on store window, 29.iv.62  , coll. R.D. Peterson [pinned 1 ♀; ISIC]; Swain Co. 1.2, mi. NE. Clingman’s Dome , GSMNPAbout GSMNP,, coll. G.W. Byers [pinned 1 ♂; KU]  . OHIO  . Portage Co. 4 mi. E Kent, 8.viii.1967, coll. M. Duckenonod [pinned 1 ♀; USNMAbout USNM]  . PENNSYLVANIA. Berks Co. French Creek Park, 7.vii.1960  , coll. G.W. Byers, multiple dates 7–10.vii.1960 [pinned 30 ♂, 2 ♀; KU]; 1mi. SE. Reading, 15.viii.1956, G.W. Byers [pinned 3♂, 1 ♀; KU]  ; Franklin Co. Caledonia St. Park, 2.vii.1960, coll. G.W, Byers and party [pinned 2 ♂, KU]  ; Luzerne Co. Hazelton, 8.vii.1979, coll. G.W. Byers [pinned 1 ♂; KU]  . SOUTH CAROLINA. Abbeville Co. 5 mi. S. Abbeville, 29.v.1978, coll. G.W. Byers, C.W. Young [pinned 2 ♂, 1 ♀; KU]  ; Oconee Co. Westminster, 30.v.1978, coll. G.W., Byers, C.W. Young [pinned 1 ♀; KU]; Oconee State Park , Small lake 20.viii.1939  , coll. B.E. Montgomery #3974 [pinned 1 ♂; UMMZ]; Pickens Co. Clemson U. Experimental Forest, Six-Mile Creek , 17.iii.2005, 34.75°N, 82.85°W, coll. G.W. Courtney [alcohol 5 pupae; ISIC] coll. M.J. Petersen [1 ♂, 2 pupae; ISIC]GoogleMaps  ; SOUTH DAKOTA Pennington Co. Black Hills Nat. For., Stream nr  . South Rochford Road, Sweeping, 44.109621°N 103.734564°W, A Fasbender [alcohol 3 ♂; ISIC]GoogleMaps  ; Custer Co. Custer State Park, French Creek Picnic,, 43.718°N, 103.4891°W, coll. J.D. Petersen [alcohol: 1 ♀, ISIC]GoogleMaps  ; Custer State Park, Sylvan Lake , 30. vi.2 0 0 8, 43.8459°N, 103.5602°W, coll.: J.D. Petersen [alcohol 1 ♀; ISIC]GoogleMaps  . TENNESSEE Fentress Co. Allardt,, coll. G.W., Byers, C.W. Young [pinned 2 ♂; KU]  ; Sevier Co. Fighting Creek, Great Smoky Mts. 7.vii.1958, 35.67833°N, 83.555°W, J.L. Laffoon [pinned 1 ♂; ISIC]GoogleMaps  . TEXAS. Bastrop Co. Bastrop St. Park, 20.iii.1976, E.M. May [pinned 1 ♂; KU]  ; Nacogdoches Co. Nacogdoches, 12.x.1960  , coll. R. Oliver, multiple dates 8.iv.1960 – 6.v.1962 [pinned 7 ♂, 1 ♀; KU]. VERMONT Orleans Co. 5 mi. NNE. Orleans ,, coll. G.W. Byers [pinned 1 ♀; KU]  . VIRGINIA. Arlington Co. Alexandria,, coll. B.M. O’Connor [pinned 1 ♀; UMMZAbout UMMZ]  ; Fairfax Co. Lake Accotink, 5.viii.1972, coll. B.M. O’Connor [pinned 1 ♀; UMMZAbout UMMZ]  ; Giles Co. Mt. Lake Biol. Stn. 6–12.viii.1979, coll. G.W. Byers #163 [pinned 1 ♂; KU]  ; Prince William Co. Woodbridge, 28.viii.1946, coll. L.D. Beamer [pinned 1 ♂; KU]  . WISCONSIN. Vilas Co. Squaw Lake , 16.viii.1954, coll. J.L. Laffoon [pinned 2 ♂; ISIC]  . WYOMING. Albany Co. Medicine Bow Nat  . For. North Laramie River at Sand Lake Rd. Beaver Dam, 41.351557°N, 106.166511°W, coll. A Fasbender [pinned 1 ♀; ISIC]GoogleMaps  .

Taxonomic notes. This species can be easily differentiated from its congener Bittacomorpha occidentalis  by the medial white stripe on the scutum, shortened and narrowed clypeus, and paramere with lateral spur and apical dorsal tooth. Larvae can be distinguished in dorsal view, the head capsule of Bi. clavipes  being ovoid and that of Bi. occidentalis  triangular.

The holotype of Bittacomorpha clavipes  is not listed in the collection of Fabricius type material at ZMUC, and may be lost or destroyed. Fortunately, the distinctive character of the inflated 1 st tarsomere  allows the determination of the genus without contention, and material from the range of Bittacomorpha occidentalis  would not have been available to Fabricius at the time.

Distribution. Fig. 18View FIGURE 18 a.


Illinois Natural History Survey


Washington State University


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Field Museum of Natural History


University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology


University of Iowa, Museum of Natural History


University of Maine


University of Newcastle


Great Smoky Mountains National Park














Bittacomorpha clavipes Fabricius 1781

Fasbender, Andrew & Courtney, Gregory W. 2017


Tipula clavipes

Fabricius 1781: 404


Tipula clavipes

Fabricius 1787: 323


Ptychoptera clavipes

Westwood 1835: 282Fabricius 1805: 22


Bittacomorpha clavipes

Aldrich 1895: 200


Bittacomorpha clavipes Fabricius, Johnson 1905 : 75

Johnson 1905: 75


Bittacomorpha (Bittacomorpha) clavipes Fabricius, Alexander 1916 : 546

Alexander 1927: 9Alexander 1920: 784Alexander 1916: 546


Bittacomorpha clavipes Fabricius, Alexander 1965 : 98

Alexander 1965: 98


Bittacomorpha clavipes Fabricius, Alexander 1967 : 171

Alexander 1967: 171