Trilocha varians (Walker, 1855)

Wang, Xing, Wang, Min, Zolotuhin, Vadim V., Hirowatari, Toshiya, Wu, Shipher & Huang, Guo-Hua, 2015, The fauna of the family Bombycidae sensu lato (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea) from Mainland China, Taiwan and Hainan Islands, Zootaxa 3989 (1), pp. 1-138: 38

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3989.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9BCFFC47-43D1-47B8-BA56-70A129E6A63F

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03BB102D-FF93-CE34-A2B5-1C7CF3A6A3D6

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Trilocha varians (Walker, 1855)
status

 

21. Trilocha varians (Walker, 1855)  ( FIGURES 13View FIGURE 13 C – 13 G)

Naprepa varians Walker, 1855  , Cat. Lep. Het. Br. M. 5: 1153. TL: [ Ceylon] “ Ceylon and Hong Kong ”. Syntype: male ( BMNH) [examined].

Chazena velata  Walker, 1869, Char. Undescr. Het.: 21. TL: “Limas”.

Trilocha varians: Kirby, 1892  , A synonymic catalogue of Lepidoptera Heterocera  1: 718.

Ocinara velata: Hampson  , [1893], Fauna Brit. India, Moths 1: 35.

Ocinara varians: Hampson  , [1893], Fauna Brit. India: 35; Strand, 1922, in Seitz, Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde: 437; Roepke, 1924, Tijdschr. Ent., 67: 170; Grünberg, 1911, in Seitz, Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde 2: 170; Chu & Wang, 1996, Fauna Sinica  Insecta, 5: 38.

Diagnosis. This species is very similar to T. friedeli  , but can be distinguished by the following characters: forewing with a kidney-shaped spot in the discal cell; saccus basally constricted; aedeagus slightly bent near the apex; long processes on anterior margin of 8 th sternite closer together

Specimens examined. [ TAIWAN] Taitung County: 1 male, 3 km west of Hungyeh village, 350 m, 5.XI. 1996, 22˚ 28 ’N, 120 ˚ 52 ’E, T.Csovari & C.Szaboky leg. (MWM); 2 males, Chihpen Hot Springs, 400 m, 10–11.VI. 1997, T.Herczig and L. Ronkay leg. (MWM); 1 male, 7 km E of Taimali, 710 m, 11–12.VI. 1997, 22˚ 41 ’N, 120 ˚ 56 ’E, T.Szaboky & I.Soos leg. (MWM); 1 male, 5 km W Chipen, 350 m, 15–16.V. 1997, M.Laszlo & G.Laszlo leg. (MWM); Hualien County: 1 male, 3 km W Hua-Juan, 150 m, 2.VII. 1996, T.Csorba & L.Nemeth leg. (MWM); Pingtung County: 1 male, Hengchun, 27.V. 2000, Daniel Anstine leg. ( TFRI); Yunlin County: 1 male, Douliu, 25.I. 1992, Yi-Bin Fan leg. ( TFRI); Taipei City (Taipei Botanic Garden): 1 male, 20.XI- 1983, Yu-Chen Chang leg. ( TFRI); 1 male, 20.II. 1991, Yi-Bin Fan leg. ( TFRI); 2 males, 28.XI. 1963, Yu-Chen Chang leg. ( TFRI); 1 male, 22.X. 1964, Yu-Chen Chang leg. ( TFRI); Hsinchu City: 4 males, 24.XII. 1984, Yu-Chen Chang leg. ( TFRI); [GUANGDONG] Guangzhou City: 1 male, campus of South China Agricultural University, 9.V. 2003, Guo-Hua Huang leg. ( SCAU); 1 male, Baiyunshan Garden, 21.V. 2004, larva collected and reared by Guo-Hua Huang, adult eclosed on June 14 ( SCAU); 1 male, campus of South China Agricultural University, 1.XII. 2005, Hai-Ying Ou fed. ( SCAU); 5 males, campus of South China Agricultural University, 3.V. 2006, Jing Gong fed. ( SCAU); Foshan City: 1 female, Foshan Garden, 23.VI. 2003, Liu-Sheng Chen leg. ( SCAU); Qujiang County: 1 male and 1 female, Qujiang Service Area, 23.VI. 2003, Guo-Hua Huang leg. ( SCAU); [GUANGXI] Jingxi County: 1 male, Renzhuang Village, 31.VII. 2007, Liu-Sheng Chen leg. ( SCAU); [HAINAN] Wuzhishan City: 1 male, Mt. Atuoling, 23.X. 2006, Min Wang, Zhen Li & Guo-Hua Huang leg. ( HUNAU); 5 males, Wuzhishan Mts., 18 ˚ 53 ’N, 109 ˚ 43 ’E, 20.II – 10.IV. 2001, local collector leg. (MWM); Baisha County (Yinggeling National NR): 2 males, Daoyin Village, 4.XII. 2005, Min Wang & Wei Xiong leg. ( SCAU); Wenchang County (Bawangling National NR): 1 male, 25.V. 2006, Liu-Sheng Chen leg. ( HUNAU); [YUNNAN] Mojiang County: 1 male, Tongguan Town, 29.XII. 2006, Min Wang leg. ( SCAU); Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture: 1 male, Puwen, 30 km SSW Simao, 900 m, 16.III – 10.IV. 2000, 22˚ 30 ’N, 100 ˚02’E, Brechlin’s local collector leg. (MWM); Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture: 1 male, 10 km west Yunxian/ Daxing, 120 km west of Dali city, Lincang district, 1200 m, 16.III – 10.IV. 2000, 24˚ 30 ’N, 100 ˚01’E, Brechlin’s local collector leg. (MWM).

Bionomics. The larvae feed on Ficus carica Linn., 1753  , Ficus microcarpa Linn., 1781  , Streblus  spp. and Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., 1789  (all Moraceae  ). Adults are on the wing throughout the year in Taiwan (Plate 5 B – 5 E) and Guangdong (Plate 5 F). Lin (2005) recorded that young larvae are gray with large subdorsal black spots on A 2, and a short fleshy curved horn on A 8. Mature larvae were dull brown, mottled paler dorsally and dark brown laterally, and with a purplish-brown double dorsal hump on A 2 and a similar but smaller one on A 5 (Plate 5 G). The cocoon is boat-shaped, closely woven with white or yellow, rather-papery silk (Plate 5 H). The pupa is pale yellow and thinly chitinized (Holloway, 1987). The pupa of T. varians  is often parasitized by tachinid flies (Plate 6 A – 6 D).

Distribution. Mainland China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan), Taiwan and Hainan Islands, southern Japan, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Nepal, India including the Andaman islands, Sri Lanka.

Remarks. Holloway (1987) reported that this species was widely distributed in the Oriental Region. It is an important pest of ornamental plants (Huang et al., 2002; Rajavel & Shanthi, 2007), and so its biological characters and control have been the subject of several recent works (Ou et al., 2006; Hussain et al., 2009).

TFRI

Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Bombycidae

Genus

Trilocha