Apopyllus Platnick & Shadab, 1984 : 2,

Azevedo, Guilherme H. F., Ott, Ricardo, Griswold, Charles E. & Santos, Adalberto J., 2016, A taxonomic revision of the ground spiders of the genus Apopyllus (Araneae: Gnaphosidae), Zootaxa 4178 (3), pp. 301-327: 302-304

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4178.3.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2EE90745-EEA2-4ECA-A82B-EFC246495682

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03B9562D-F55B-FF84-B582-D17DFC8CC803

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Apopyllus Platnick & Shadab, 1984 : 2
status

 

Genus Apopyllus Platnick & Shadab, 1984: 2  .

Type species: Zelotes silvestrii ( Simon, 1905) 

Diagnosis. Females of Apopyllus  can be recognized by the long, convoluted copulatory ducts extending anteriorly to the copulatory openings, and by the presence of paramedian epigynal pockets and of an anterior ridge in the epigynum, which covers the copulatory openings ( Figs 1View FIGURE 1 A –B, 2A –B). Males can be distinguished from other gnaphosid genera by the shape of RTA, which is folded in an elaborated structure, by the long bifid membranous tegular extension (MTE) that supports the long coiled embolus, by a retrolateral incision on the cymbium, and by the presence of median apophysis on tegulum ( Figs 1View FIGURE 1 C –D, 2C).

Description. As in Platnick & Shadab (1984), except for the male and female genitalia, which are redescribed below, and for the presence of terminal pseudosegmentation of tarsi IV in both sexes ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 D). The female internal genitalia (vulva) of Apopyllus  are composed of a pair of highly convoluted copulatory ducts, a pair of secondary spermathecae (blind end receptacles with large glandular pores), a pair of primary spermathecae that are connected to a pair of fertilization ducts ( Figs 1View FIGURE 1 A –B, 2B). The copulatory ducts, though variable between and within species, have a basic structure shared by all species ( Figs 1View FIGURE 1 A –B). The copulatory opening leads to the proximal part of the copulatory duct (PPD) that is ventrally located and has a “U” shape. It curves dorsally and goes towards the posterior part of epigynum, forming the paramedian descendant tract (PDT). The PDT curves towards the anterior part, forming the lateral ascendant tract ( LAT). It extends anteriorly to the copulatory opening forming the anterior curled tract (ACT). The ACT leads to a ventral tract that goes posteriorly, called lateral descendent tract (LDT). It curves forming the lateral loop (LL) and then the paramedian ascendant tract ( PAT). The PAT curves dorsally leading to the terminal part of the copulatory duct (TPD), which ends at the primary spermatheca. The secondary spermatheca is a rounded blind sac of variable size that arises from the lateral loop.

Male genitalia have a small subtegulum that can be seen in ventral view on unexpanded palp ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 C). The tegulum is rounded to oval, with an elongated, partially sclerotized, hook shaped median apophysis ( Figs 1View FIGURE 1 C, 2C), and with a long bifid membranous tegular extension (MTE) that supports a long coiled embolus ( Figs 1View FIGURE 1 C –D, 2C). The embolus articulates with the tegulum by a long distal tubular membrane (DTM) ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 C). The RTA is folded in an elaborated structure, with ventral, dorsal and apical serrated keels ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 C). The cymbium has a retrolateral projection ventrally incised (CP, in Figs 1View FIGURE 1 C –D, 2C).

Distribution. From southern South America to southern Mexico.

Natural history. Species of Apopyllus  can be found in areas with rocky ground and, at least A. suavis  , might be active during daylight (GHFA personal observation).

LAT

Saint Vincent College

PAT

Mus�um National d'Histoire Naturelle

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Gnaphosidae

Loc

Apopyllus Platnick & Shadab, 1984 : 2

Azevedo, Guilherme H. F., Ott, Ricardo, Griswold, Charles E. & Santos, Adalberto J. 2016
2016
Loc

Apopyllus

Platnick 1984: 2