Trichogramma, , Querino & Zucchi, 2004

Querino, Ranyse B. & Zucchi, Roberto A., 2019, Annotated checklist and illustrated key to the species of Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) from South America, Zootaxa 4656 (2), pp. 201-231: 216-228

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4656.2.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3BCA5814-1747-4936-B36E-30E3D6016178

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/F05B87A2-E764-FF9A-09A9-FC57FF99EE8A

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Trichogramma
status

 

Illustrated key to the species of South American Trichogramma  (males)

1. Antenna with flagellar segments unjoined, flagellum consisting of two distinct funicular and three claval segments ( Fig. 1aView FIGURE 1); marginal vein of forewing with seta near posterior border ( Fig. 1bView FIGURE 1); hind wing without posterior vein track ( Fig. 1cView FIGURE 1) (subgenus Vanlisus  ) (figures based on Pinto 1992, 1999)............................................................... 2

1’. Antenna with flagellar segments joined, forming a single structure ( Fig. 2aView FIGURE 2); marginal vein of forewing without seta near posterior border and with three long robust setae on dorsal surface ( Fig. 2bView FIGURE 2); hind wing always with at least two vein tracks ( Fig. 2cView FIGURE 2) (subgenus Trichogramma  )........................................................................... 3

2. Mesoscutum and scutellum smooth, microsculpture indistinct; second funicular segment subquadrate, only slightly longer than wide (Fig. 3a); male genitalia with triangular posterior extension of dorsal lamina, this extension with rounded apex (Fig. 3b) (figures based on Pinto 1992, 1999)................................................................ T. atropos 

2’. Distinctive rugulose microsculpture on mesosoma; second funicular segment elongate and tapering apically (Fig. 4); male genitalia with dorsal lamina not lobed or notched at base, extremely broad over entire length, width of posterior extension subequal to parameres (figure based on Pinto, 1992, 1999)...................................................... T. clotho 

3. Dorsal lamina without lateral lobe (not as below)............................................................ 4

3’. Dorsal lamina with lateral lobe extending laterally beyond margin of genital capsule (Fig. 5a); intervolsellar process short, distinctly notched apically (Fig. 5b).............................................................. T. manicobai 

4. Dorsal lamina broad, wide, not narrowing appreciably from base to apex (Fig. 6a); dorsal ridge present (Fig. 6b)......... 5

4’. Dorsal lamina less broad, relatively narrow, or narrowing gradually from base to apex, or base wider than apex (Fig. 7); dorsal ridge absent......................................................................................... 11

5. Genital capsule relatively elongate and narrow; volsellae abruptly narrowed at apical half (Fig. 8) (figure based on Pinto 1999)...................................................................................... T. obscurum 

5’. Genital capsule broader, suboval (Fig. 9); volsellae variable.................................................... 6

6. Parameres arcuate (Fig. 10a); volsellae curved (Fig. 10b); genital capsule broad (width greater than 0.6 genital capsule length).............................................................................................. 7

6’. Parameres not arcuate (Fig. 11); genital capsule small and oval (width less than 0.6 genital capsule length).............. 9

7. Dorsal lamina deeply bilobate apically (Fig. 12a); volsellae modified (Fig. 12b), extending beyond parameres (Fig. 12c) (Figures based on Pinto 1999)........................................................................ T. nomlaki 

7’. Dorsal lamina otherwise................................................................................ 8

8. Volsellae with strong constriction, broadly expanded laterally (Fig. 13a); parameres arcbroad posterior extension of dorsal lamina with apex roundeduate (Fig. 13b); intervolsellar process very short (Fig. 13c); ventral processes distinctly tubular (Fig. 13d)...................................................................................... T. atopovirilia 

8’. Volsellae curved, with pointed apex; spine of volsellae long, narrow and straight (Fig. 14a); parameres arcuate (Fig. 14b); intervolsellar process absent or obsolescent (Fig. 14c)................................................... T. acacioi  9. Dorsal lamina as wide as or wider than genital capsule (Fig. 15a), concealing volsellae (Fig. 15b) and intervolsellar process (Fig. 15c).................................................................................. T. fasciatum 

9’. Dorsal lamina narrower than genital capsule............................................................... 10

10. Volsellae modified (Fig. 16a), distinctly lobed laterally; intervolsellar process subtriangular, only about half-length of volsellae (Fig. 16b); posterior extension of dorsal lamina wide both at the apex as the base (Fig. 16c) (figures based on Nagaraja & Nagarkatti 1973)............................................................................... T. bennetti 

10’. Volsellae not modified (17a); intervolsellar process minute (17b); posterior extension of dorsal lamina narrower at the apex............................................................................................. T. pusillum 

11. Dorsal lamina not extending beyond base of intervolsellar process............................................. 12

11’. Dorsal lamina extending beyond base of intervolsellar process................................................ 13

12. Intervolsellar process long (Fig. 18a); dorsal lamina short, almost reaching base of intervolsellar process (Fig. 18b) (figures based on Velásquez & Terán 2003................................................................... T. diazi 

12’. Intervolsellar process short, not reaching volsellae (Fig. 19a); dorsal lamina short, almost reaching base of intervolsellar process (Fig. 19b) (Figures based on Velásquez & Terán 2003).............................................. T. terani 

13. Dorsal lamina long, narrow, and posterior extension with apex rounded or just slightly rounded and always extending beyond volsellae (linguiform) (Fig. 20a,b)....................................................................... 14

13’. Dorsal lamina long or short, gradually narrowing from base to apex, or divided more or less into two portions, a wider basal section and a narrower apical section; posterior extension with apex pointed (Fig. 21a) or slightly rounded (Fig. 21b)..... 17

14. Posterior extension of dorsal lamina very narrow, its width near apex distinctly less than that of aedeagus.............. 15

14’. Posterior extension of dorsal lamina narrow, its width near apex approximately or same as width of aedeagus (linguiform). 16

15. Flagelliform setae long; dorsal lamina long, narrow, and posterior extension apically pointed (Fig. 22a); ventral ridge long, extending beyond middle of genital capsule (Fig. 22b)............................................... T. pratissolii 

15’. Flagelliform setae shorter; dorsal lamina funnel-shaped (Fig. 23a); ventral ridge short (Fig. 23b).......... T. piracicabense 

16. Posterior extension of dorsal lamina distinctly long and narrow, extending beyond volsellae (Fig. 24a); intervolsellar process short and pointed (Fig. 24b)...................................................................... T. zucchii 

16’. Posterior extension of dorsal lamina long, but not as narrow, extending beyond volsellae (Fig. 25a); intervolsellar process long and pointed or slightly rounded (Fig. 25b)............................................................ T. parrai 

17. Dorsal lamina basal notch absent or indistinct (Fig. 26)...................................................... 18

17’. Dorsal lamina with distinct basal notch (Fig. 27)............................................................ 21

18. Intervolsellar process well-developed (Fig. 28) (figure adapted from Velaìsquez & Teìran (2003)........... T. colombiense 

18’. Intervolsellar process short (not well-developed)........................................................... 19

19. Ventral processes swollen, distant from each other and placed at base of intervolsellar process (Fig. 29)...... T. alloeovirilia 

19’. Ventral processes distinct but not swollen, located near each other.............................................. 20

20. Intervolsellar process relatively short and distinctly less than half length of volsellae (Fig. 30a); ventral processes at or very near base of intervolsellar process (Fig. 30b); anterior setae of scutellum elongate.............................. T. tupiense 

20’. Intervolsellar process elongate, reaching middle of volsellae (Fig. 31a); ventral processes close to base of intervolsellar process (Fig. 31b); anterior setae of scutellum short and thin............................................... T. acuminatum 

21. Genital capsule sides constricted near level of intervolsellar process (Fig. 32)..................................... 22

21’. Genital capsule sides not constricted near level of intervolsellar process......................................... 23

22. Genital capsule narrowing abruptly near level of intervolsellar process (Fig. 34a); parameres straight (Fig. 34b)... T. nerudai 

22’. Genital capsule narrowing more gradually at level of intervolsellar process (35a); parameres distinctly arcuate (35b).................................................................................................... T. pintoi 

23. Intervolsellar process short (extending at most to base of volsellae) (Fig. 36)..................................... 24

23’. Intervolsellar process long (extending at least half length of volsellae) (Fig. 37)................................... 31

24. Fringe setae of forewing long, 0.6 length of hind tibia (Fig. 38).................................... T. lopezandinense 

24’. Fringe setae of forewing short, less than 0.3 length of hind tibia (Fig. 39)........................................ 25

25. Hind wing, posterior row of setae elongate, with 10 or more setae, last setae reaching apex of wing (Fig. 40a); ventral processes located very near base of intervolsellar process (Fig. 40b)................................................ T. rojasi 

25’. Hind wing, posterior row of setae with fewer than 10 setae, last setae reaching or not to midlength of middle row of setae (Fig. 41)................................................................................................ 26

26. Dorsal lamina short, with apex rounded, at most extending to base of volsellae (Fig. 42)............................ 27

26’. Dorsal lamina long, with apex pointed or rounded, extending beyond base and reaching or not to apex of volsellae (Fig. 43)28

27. Genital capsule dark; ventral processes located far from base of intervolsellar process (Fig. 44a); intervolsellar process with apex pointed (Fig. 44b); anterior setae of scutellum long (Fig. 44c)................................... T. esalqueanum 

27’. Genital capsule not dark; ventral processes far from each other and located near intervolsellar process (Fig. 45a); intervolsellar process usually bifid (Fig. 45b); anterior setae of scutellum short (Fig. 45c)............................... T. iracildae 

28. Ventral ridge short, with anterior limit indistinct (Fig. 46); basiconic sensilla subglobose; anterior setae of scutellum elongate and dark; genital capsule dark.................................................................... T. lasallei 

28’. Ventral ridge long or moderately elongate, distinct (Fig. 47)................................................... 29

29. Flagellum relatively short, with unsocketed setae in all four regions (Fig. 48)............................... T. valmiri 

29’. Flagellum different, with no unsocketed setae.............................................................. 30

30. Ventral ridge long and distinct, reaching about 2/3 length of genital capsule (Fig. 49); basiconic sensilla oval, formula 2(1)-2(1)- 2-0(1)-1; anterior setae of scutellum short............................................................. T. bruni 

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30’. Ventral ridge long, reaching or extending slightly beyond middle of genital capsule (Fig. 50); basiconic sensilla formula 1-2-2- 0(1)-1-1 (usually associated with Euselasia  spp. on eucalyptus  )........................................ T. maxacalii 

31. Flagelliform setae long, tapering evenly to tips (CSF/LF>2.5) (Fig. 51).......................................... 32

31’. Flagelliform setae short, robust, tapering more abruptly apically (CSF/LF<2,5) (Fig. 52)............................ 34

32. Genital capsule with apical distance long (Fig. 53a); ventral ridge indistinct (Fig. 53b); absence of distinct notching and shoul- der at the base of the dorsal lamina (Fig. 53c); setae in posterior row on hind wing elongate, 10 or more setae present (figures based on 1999)................................................................................. T. erebus 

32’. Genital capsule with apical distance short; notching and shoulder at base of dorsal lamina varying, but not completely absent; setae in posterior row on hind wing short, with fewer than 10 setae............................................. 33

33. Ventral ridge narrow and elongate, extending to middle of genital capsule (Fig. 54); apical third of longest terminal sensillum extending beyond tip of flagellum (a single report from Venezuela) (figure based on Pinto 1999).............. T. minutum 

33’. Ventral ridge short, not reaching middle of genital capsule (Fig. 55); apical fourth of longest terminal sensillum extending beyond tip of flagellum; posterior extension of dorsal lamina usually slightly sclerotized, its apex difficult to observe in optical microscope; flagelliform setae longer (widely distributed in the Neotropics).............................. T. pretiosum 

34. Intervolsellar process robust, long, usually pointed or truncated at level of apex of volsellae (Fig. 56a); ventral ridge short, little developed, not extending beyond middle of genital capsule (Fig. 56b); posterior row of setae on hind wing elongate, extending nearly to apex of wing (Fig. 56c).................................................................. T. fuentesi 

34’. Intervolsellar process long, reaching or not apex of volsellae.................................................. 35

35. Posterior extension of dorsal lamina not reaching apex of volsellae (Fig. 57)..................................... 36

35’. Posterior extension of dorsal lamina approximately at same level or extending beyond apex of volsellae; if at same level, intervolsellar process close to or at level or besides the volsellae (Fig. 58)........................................... 39

36. Intervolsellar process long, usually with pointed apex; if truncated, ventral ridge extending beyond middle of genital capsule (Fig. 59)........................................................................................... 37

36’. Intervolsellar process long, with rounded apex, or truncated; if truncated, ventral ridge not extending to middle of genital capsule (Fig. 60)........................................................................................ 38

37. Intervolsellar process at same level or extending slightly beyond apex of dorsal lamina (Fig. 61a); dorsal lamina with shallow basal notch (Fig. 61b) (associated with lepidopterans in forest habitats)...................................... T. bertii 

37’. Intervolsellar process shorter, never extending beyond apex of dorsal lamina (Fig. 62a); dorsal lamina with deeper basal notch (Fig. 62b); basiconic sensilla prominent and globose (commonly associated with lepidopterans of agricultural importance).............................................................................................. T. exiguum 

38. Intervolsellar process robust, pointed or truncated at apex (Fig. 63a); ventral ridge not extending beyond middle of genital capsule (Fig. 63b); dorsal lamina with posterior extension narrow and rounded apex at same level of intervolsellar process (associated with eggs of Erinnyis ello  on cassava)................................................... T. marandobai 

38’. Intervolsellar process with rounded apex (associated with eggs of Euselasia  spp. on eucalyptus  ) (Fig. 64)...... T. demoraesi 

39. Flagellum of antennae relatively short; degree of fusion of funicular segments with one another and with claval segments less than in most species; basiconic sensilla prominent and globose; dorsal aperture elongate, narrowing apically (Fig. 65a); width of dorsal lamina after basal notch considerably smaller than base, sides gradually tapering apically, with sublinguiform appearance (Fig. 65b) (figure based on Pinto, 1999)....................................................... T. stampae 

39’. Flagellum of antennae with funicular segments fused with one another; basiconic sensilla smaller and fewer; dorsal lamina otherwise (associated with eggs of Diatraea saccharalis  on sugarcane).......................................... 40

40. Genital capsule wide (larger than 0.50 ± 0.02 mm) (Fig. 66a, b)........................................ T. dissimilis 

40’. Genital capsule relatively narrow (less than 0.50 ± 0.02 mm).................................................. 41

41. Intervolsellar process at level or extending beyond apex of volsellae (Fig. 67a, b)............................ T. galloi 

41’. Intervolsellar process not reaching apex of volsellae......................................................... 42

42. Dorsal lamina with sinuous sides (Fig. 68a,b)...................................................... T. distinctum 

42’. Dorsal lamina with straight sides (Fig. 69a,b)....................................................... T. jalmirezi