Martins, Caleb Califre, Ardila-Camacho, Adrian & Aspöck, Ulrike, 2016, Neotropical osmylids (Neuroptera, Osmylidae): Three new species of Isostenosmylus Krüger, 1913, new distributional records, redescriptions, checklist and key for the Neotropical species, Zootaxa 4149 (1), pp. 1-66: 11

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Subfamily Protosmylinae  Krüger, 1913

Extant genera of Protosmylinae  are recorded from eastern Asia ( Gryposmylus Krüger, 1913  and Heterosmylus Krüger, 1913  ) and South America ( Paryphosmylus Krüger, 1913  ), but many fossil genera are recorded in Germany, USA, England, Kazakhstan and China ( Wang et al. 2010). Species of Protosmylinae  are characterized by the following features: antennae filiform; forewing generally strongly maculated, nygmata and pterostigma well defined, costal crossveins simple; Rs often with ten branches, slightly zigzagged; 2–3 rows of gradates series; radial sector with large and well defined cells; MP forked near from wing base; basal crossveins MP-CuP, forming a large free space in the wing base; Cu forked at wing base, CuA and CuP with some distal pectinate branches. Hindwing with short CuP and single branches ( Wang et al. 2010).