Riedel, Alexander & Kilmaskossu, Agust, 2017, Revision of the subgenus Niphetoscapha Heller of Gymnopholus Heller (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea, Entiminae, Eupholini) and a new species with epizoic symbiosis from West New Guinea, Zootaxa 4254 (3), pp. 339-356: 340-346

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Gymnopholus  subgenus Niphetoscapha Heller 1914 

Type-species: Rhinoscapha wichmanni Heller, 1914  , by monotypy.

Diagnosis. Rostrum ( Figs. 9–12View FIGURES 9 – 12) dorsally with median furrow. Scrobe in straight line to front margin of eye (curved ventrad in Rhinoscapha  ). Pronotum ( Figs. 13–16View FIGURES 13 – 16) simple or with shallow median impression (with deep median impression and / or pair of sublateral knobs in most species of Gymnopholus  s.s. and Symbiopholus  ). Elytra elongate, median suture fused (free in other species of Eupholini  except Penthoscapha gerhardschereri Riedel  ); ultimate elytral apex above abdominal ventrite 5 with ridges forming M- or Ω-like structure ( Figs. 17–20View FIGURES 17 – 20) (in apical 1/3 with more or less distinct pair of knobs or protrusions in Gymnopholus  s.s. and Symbiopholus  ). Penis ( Figs. 21–24View FIGURES 21 – 24) with asymmetrical apical tip (with symmetrical, pointed tip in Gymnopholus  s.s. and Symbiopholus  ).

Redescription. Males. Length. Total length 20.0– 27.5 mm; pronotum + elytron 11.5–22.0 mm. Body subglabrous or with vestiture of scales and setae bearing encrustations of algae.

Head sparsely setose or subglabrous, shining or with faint lustre; frons between eyes 0.86–1.05 X as wide as vertical diameter of eye, at middle with fovea where rostral median furrow ends. Eyes moderately to markedly prominent from outline of head. Vertical diameter of eye 1.42–1.73 X horizontal diameter. Gena short, shorter than or subequal to vertical diameter of eye (0.49–1.22 X), with sides converging.

Rostrum moderately long ( Figs. 9–12View FIGURES 9 – 12), ca. 1.41–1.46 X longer than wide at base. Epistome heart-shaped, posteriorly well delimited against dorsum of rostrum. Dorsum with median furrow and with or without pair of sublateral furrows; without median ridge. Scrobe in straight line to front margin of eye. Ventral surface of rostrum along midline with densely setose furrow, behind prementum with fringe of ca. 6 long stout bristles.

Antenna. Funicle + club 1.45–1.94 X length of scape; scape and funicle sparsely setose with thin recumbent and thicker dehiscent setae; club long, 3.55–4.08 X as long as wide.

Thorax. Pronotum ca. as long as wide (1.04–1.14 X wider than long); sides subparallel, subapically weakly converging; disc with shallow median impression. Scutellar shield externally small but distinct, subglabrous, shape intraspecifically variable, oblong, hourglass-shaped or subtriangular.

Elytral suture medially fused. Elytron 3.91–4.53 X longer than wide between humeri; greatest width in front of middle, 1.04–1.24 X wider than between humeri; striae externally effaced; epipleural edge simple, or with indistinct fringe of setae (in G. inexspectatus  sp. n.); ultimate elytral apex (above abdominal ventrite 5) with ridges forming M- or Ω-like structure ( Figs. 17–20View FIGURES 17 – 20). Ala ( Fig. 36View FIGURES 33 – 38) vestigial, narrow, length 9. 0–10 mm, 0.53–0.59 X length of elytron.

Legs. Femora weakly clavate with shallow subapical construction or almost subparallel, unarmed, moderately long. Metafemur in repose reaching elytral apex or distinctly shorter. Tibiae with sparse suberect bristles and denticles, more densely on ventral surface; apically with small mucro; metatibia apically with distinct, sparsely to densely setose bevel. Tarsi moderately long, relatively wide, tarsomere 1 of metatarsus 1.4–1.6 X as long as wide, tarsomere 2 0.6–0.9 X as long as wide.

Abdomen. Ventrite 1–2 medially concave or flat; apical margin of ventrite 5 broadly convex. Genitalia. Aedeagus ( Figs. 21–24View FIGURES 21 – 24) with sides converging from base to apex; apical orifice near middle of body of penis; apex extended into more or less widened, slightly asymmetrical apical tip; in profile body of penis sinuate with body curved ventrad, apical tip gently curved dorsad. Transfer apparatus ( Figs. 33–34View FIGURES 33 – 38) of endophallus relatively short, sting-like, ca. 1.3–1.6 X [in G. wichmanni  1.6X] as long as width at base.

Females. Same as males except: size larger, total length 22.0–31.0 mm; pronotum + elytron 17.0– 26.5 mm. Rostrum ca. 1.34–1.45 X longer than wide at base. Elytron wider, both laterally and dorsally more convex; 3.79– 4.55 X longer than wide between humeri, 1.04–1.30 X wider than between humeri; apices of both elytra jointly rounded. Abdomen. Ventrite 1–2 medially convex; ventrite 5 subtriangular, apically narrowly rounded. Terminalia. Sternite VIII ( Figs. 2 7–28View FIGURES 1 – 4View FIGURES 5 – 8View FIGURES 9 – 12View FIGURES 13 – 16View FIGURES 17 – 20View FIGURES 21 – 24View FIGURES 25 – 32). Hemisternite ( Fig. 31–32View FIGURES 25 – 32) 1.9–2.3 X as long as high, apical half subtrapezoid, apically with broad angulate notch. Stylus 2.0–2.5 X as long as wide, apically with pointed brush of stiff setae directed laterad. Vagina ( Figs. 25–26View FIGURES 25 – 32) in posterior half between hemisternites with pair of somewhat indistinct elongate sclerites. Ductus spermathecae almost isodiametric, inserted at junction of bursa copulatrix and oviduct. Spermatheca ( Figs. 29–30View FIGURES 25 – 32) with gland ca. 2 X as long as body.