Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) sonorina, Smith, 1874

Mérida-Rivas, Jorge A., Hinojosa-Díaz, Ismael A., Ayala-Barajas, Ricardo, Pozo, Carmen & Vandame, Rémy, 2022, Revision of carpenter bees of the subgenus Neoxylocopa Michener (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Mexico and Mesoamerica, Zootaxa 5158 (1), pp. 1-67 : 50-55

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5158.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2191B88A-2CEB-496B-A255-5800EEFAEAFA

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6821843

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/FE1487AC-AD3B-FF90-FF42-9254FE69F99D

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) sonorina
status

 

Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) sonorina Smith, 1874

( Figs. 86–93 View FIGURES 86–89 View FIGURES 90–93 , 126–128 View FIGURES 126–131 , 139 View FIGURES 136–140 )

Xylocopa sonorina Smith, 1874 in Smith 1874: 278 [♀]. Holotype: HAWAII, Sandw[ich]. Isl[and].” (not Sunda Isl.; see Lieftinck (1956)) [British Museum Natural History, London England (♀); presented by E.W.H. Holdsworth Esq. to the British Museum under register 1864.8 as per Lieftinck (1956)].

Xylocopa varipuncta Patton, 1879 in Patton 1879: 60 [♀]. Syntypes: (♀). USA, Arizona, by C.V. Riley [ United States National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. USA]

Diagnosis. Body length, female, 22.28 mm (21.27–24.10; n=5); male, 23.32 mm (21.27–25.40; n=5). Female: Head without elevated ridges or prominences on frons; ocelli below tangent of the eyes; area between parapsidal line and mesoscutal disca with dense punctures (puncture separation, one to two puncture diameters); wings coppery with variable purple iridescence ( Fig. 89 View FIGURES 86–89 ); pubescence evenly black; integument of terga evenly black; T1 densely punctate (punctures separated by two o three times their diameter), T2 to T5 densely punctate on discal area (puncture separation one to two times their diameter); length of hairs on terga respect MOD as follows: T2 0.28–0.52, T3 0.47–0.86, T4 0.59–1.03, T5 0.52–1.14. Male: Terga yellowish to orange without bands; metasoma with yellowish-orange pubescence: hind tibia internal distal extreme with prominent subapical projection curved distally, with elevated rounded margin defining a concave area, posterior margin also with narrow (carinated) edge ( Fig. 93 View FIGURES 90–93 ); length of hairs on terga respect MOD, T2 0.67–1.32, T3 0.86–1.29, T4 0.67–1.71, T5 1.22–2.31; tip of the lateral process of gonostylus ending oval-shaped (as broad as shaft of the process) ( Fig. 127 View FIGURES 126–131 ).

Description: Female: Integument and pubescence mostly black; wings copper with some purple, or totally purple iridescence ( Fig. 89 View FIGURES 86–89 ). Clypeus, genal area ( Fig. 86 View FIGURES 86–89 ), and vertex with densely punctate; between the parapsidal line and discal area dense punctate, separated by one to one and a half times their diameter; terga densely punctate. Body length 22.28 mm (21.27–24.10; n=5); length of forewing 19.25 mm (18.87–19.68; n=5); head length 5.44 mm (5.22–5.71; n=5); intertegular distance 6.77 mm (6.15–7.18; n=5); width of T2 10.04 mm (9.65–10.30; n=5). Head: Clypeus: lower margin unpunctate, submargin anterior defined by two depressions, with dense punctures on upper sublateral, and inferolateral areas; discal area of clypeus with punctures separated by one and a half to two times their diameter. Genal area densely punctate on lower area, middle and upper area with punctures separated by one and a half to three times their diameter ( Fig. 86 View FIGURES 86–89 ). Vertex densely punctate, similar in size to those present on clypeus. Pits in area sublateral to the posterior ocelli half their diameter of the ocelli. Mesosoma: Between the parapsidal line and discal area with dense punctures, separated by a distance of one to two times their diameter. Metasoma: T1 with densely punctate; T2 to T5 with densely punctate on discal area, separated by one to two times their diameter; T6 with dense appressed punctures. Length of hairs on terga respect MOD as follows: T2 0.28–0.52, T3 0.47–0.86, T4 0.59–1.03, T5 0.52–1.14. Male: Integument and pubescence usually yellowish to orange. Clypeus with a brown light to dark middle longitudinal line up to the lower margin ( Fig. 90 View FIGURES 90–93 ). Wings light brown or orange; venation reddish brown. Body length 23.32 mm (21.27–25.40; n=5); length of forewing 18.47 mm (17.41–19.49; n=5); head length 4.14 mm (3.97–4.50; n=5); intertegular distance 6.35 mm (5.87–6.85; n=5); width of T2 10.44 mm (9.97–11.52; n=5). Head: Labrum: anterior margin unpunctate; triangular shaped of middle region unpunctate, rest of labrum with dense punctures. Clypeus with a wide middle longitudinal line unpunctate, discal area with few punctures, lateral and inferolateral areas with scattered punctures, separated by two or more times their diameter; area unpunctate sublateral posterior to the posterior ocelli, one fourth the diameter of the ocelli; pits on sublateral area of posterior ocelli 1/4 the diameter of the ocelli. Vertex with an area without punctures on the middle region; rest of vertex with dense punctures; lateral ocelli to the same level as the upper margin of the eyes. Mesosoma: Between the parapsidal line and the discal area with dense appressed punctures. Hind tibia, internal distal extreme with a prominent subapical projection with curved distal extreme, with elevated rounded margin defining a concave area, with an elevated margin that continues to the middle region of the tibia, posterior margin also with narrow (carinated) edge; internal surface with few long hairs on the basal region; anterior margin with long hairs, denser toward the apical region; internal posterior margin with shorter pubescence; long hairs not dense, and short equallength hairs forming a line a modo de well defined pecten. Something similar but less defined occurs in X. griswoldi sp nov; ( Fig. 93 View FIGURES 90–93 ). Metasoma: T1 with dense, long, plumose hairs, T2 with some plumose hairs on discal and ssubmarginal area, T3 to T5 with some simple hairs, T6 and T7 with dense, simple and plumose hairs. Length of hairs on terga respect MOD as follows: T2 0.67–1.32, T3 0.86–1.29, T4 0.67–1.71, T5 1.22–2.31. Genitalia: Distal angle of the ventral section of the gonostylus, obtuse ( Fig. 128 View FIGURES 126–131 ); basal angle at the base of lateral process of the gonostylus, obtuse ( Fig. 127 View FIGURES 126–131 ); tip of the lateral process ending on an oval as broad as shaft of the process ( Fig. 127 View FIGURES 126–131 ).

Variation. Throughout the distribution present variation in wing color. Specimens of the United States and northern Mexico present copper or somewhat violet wings; specimens of central Mexico may have wings with violet iridescence. The specimens from Oaxaca present pubescence a bit longer on discal area of the terga. Specimens with wings with violet iridescence may be confused with the species X. griswoldi sp. nov. but it can be distinguished by its disjunct distribution (See figs. 137 and 139).

Distribution ( Fig. 139 View FIGURES 136–140 ). This species is present on the island of Hawaii quite possibly as a result of longdistance transport of the nests by bees of this species, built on dry branches, a case very similar to what possibly happened with X. clarionesis . This species is present in arid regions, as well as those with Mediterranean climate in the United States and the Mexican tropical and highlands areas, in the following ecoregions ( Dinerstein et al. 2017): Dry forests of the Bajío, Dry forests of the Balsas Basin, Grasslands of the Central Valley of California, Chaparral and coastal sage of California, Central Mexican Scrubland, Desert of Chihuahua, Xeric scrubland of the Gulf of California, Dry forests of Jalisco, Scrubland of the Central Mexian Plateau, Mojave desert, Mangroves of the Mesoamerican Pacific North, Dry forests of Sierra de la Laguna, Pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre of Oaxaca, Pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre del Sur, Pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Dry forests of Sinaloa, Desiert of Sonora, Subtropical dry forest of Sonora-Sinaloa, Dry forests of the South Pacific, Scrubland of the Tehuacan Valley, and Pine-oak forests of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. Broad altitudinal distribution from 0 to 2385 m.

Material examined. 394 ♀ 13 ♂. UNITED STATES: Arizona: Pima: Tucson, 32.22167, -110.9258; 759 m, R. Minckley : -3-1986 GoogleMaps , 1 ♂; 21-IV-1987, 1 ♀ ( SEMC). California, Kern: Taft, 35.1425, -119.4556; 289 m, 14-VIII- 1978 GoogleMaps , P. H. Timberlake, 1 ♀ ( SEMC). Los Angeles: San Marino, 34.12114, -118.10504; 174 m, 23-VII-1952 GoogleMaps , 1 ♀

( SEMC). Riverside : 33.95333, -117.3953; 254 m, 21-V-1932, P. H. Timberlake, 1 ♀; 11-III-1963, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Nevada: Las Vegas: Clark , 36.1988, -115.01284; 642 m, 18-I-1980, S. A. Steffen, 1 ♂ ( EBCH) GoogleMaps . MEXICO: Aguascalientes: Calvillo: Palo Alto , 21.98332, -102.67767; 1804 m, 19-X-2012, 10:45 h, J. Mérida, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Baja California: Mexicali: Alfalfa desierto, 32.65406, -115.01040; 18 m, 4-VI-2019, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps ; Alfalfa frontera, 32.63452, -115.46515; 4 m, 10-VI-2019, 1 ♀; 11-VI-2019, 2 ♀; 12-VI-2019, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Arvenses ALF1, 32.67383, -115.35430; 8 m, 3-VI-2019, 2 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps ; Cerca de la frontera, 32.67383, -115.35430; 8 m, 1-VI-2019, A. Castro, 1 ♀; 7-VI-2019, D. Garcia, 5 ♀; 14-VI-2019, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Baja California Sur: La Paz: Isla Cerralvo , 24.2112, -109.85929; 506 m, 27-I-1987, L. Cervantes, 1 ♀; 28-I-1987, A. Medina, 1 ♀ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps . La Paz , 24.16667, -110.283333, 67 m, 26-III-1990, D. Brzoska, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps ; La Paz , 10 mi S, 23.99908, -110.28863; 155 m, 16-X-1971, C. D. Michener, 2 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps ; Los Barriles , 23.68123, -109.71387; 42 m, 24-III-1990, D. Brzoska, 2 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Loreto: Insurgentes 66 km NE nr. Última Agua , 25.60485, -111.32328; 350 m, 13-IV-1994, F. A. Noguera, 1 ♂ ( EBCH) GoogleMaps . Los Cabos: Cabo San Lucas, Rancho San Carlos , 2-VIII-1981, Zaragoza, 1 ♀ ( CNIN) . Ciudad de México: Álvaro Obregón : 19.35056, -99.21304; 2385 m, 21-IX-2018, 2 ♂ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps ; Coyoacán: Ciudad Universitaria , 19.320295, -99.193718; 2320 m, 15-XII-2014, I. Hinojosa, 2 ♀; 17-XII-2014, I. Hinojosa, 1 ♀; 2-I-2015, I. Hinojosa, 3 ♀; 20-VI-2015, A. C. Martínez, 1 ♀ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps . Coyoacán, REPSA, Ciudad Universitaria , 19.314565, -99.191903; 2328 m, A. C. Martínez: 20-VI-2015, 1 ♀; 18-VII-2015, 1 ♂; 25-VII-2015, 1 ♀; 1-VII- 2015, 1 ♀; 1-IX-2015, 1 ♀; 5-IX-2015, 2 ♀; 19-IX-2015, 1 ♀; 27-IX-2015, 1 ♀; 10-10-2015, 1 ♀; 14-XI-2015, 1 ♀; 28-XI-2015, 1 ♀; 6-XII-2015, 3 ♀; 19-XII-2015, 2 ♀; 29-XII-2015, 2 ♀; 9-I-2016, 2 ♂ 3 ♀; 21-II-2016, 1 ♀; 1-V-2016, 6 ♀; 11-VIII-2016, 1 ♀; 30-VIII-2016, 1 ♀; 7-IX-2016, 6 ♀; 24-X-2016, 2 ♀; 18-XI-2016, 1 ♀; 17-I- 2017, 1 ♀; 9-II-2017, 1 ♀; 3-V-2017, 3 ♀; 2-VI-2017, 5 ♀; 25-VI-2017, 2 ♀ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps . Guanajuato: Cuerámaro: San Gregorio , 20.54361, -101.61638; 1700 m, L. Godínez, 26-VI-1989, 2 ♀; 24-VIII-1989, 1 ♀; 31-VIII-1989, 2 ♀; 28-VII-1990, 1 ♀ ( MZFC) GoogleMaps . Silao: León , 13 mi SE, 21.00801, -101.52418; 1800 m, 19-VIII-1954, C. D. Michen- er, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Guerrero: Pilcaya: Grutas , 2 km SE, hwy 55, 18.67007, -99.51193; 1163 m, 6-I-1989, R. Minckley, B. Danforth, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . San Luis Acatlán: Yoloxochitl , 16.81583, -98.69027; 600 m, J. Amith. 1 ♀ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps , Hidalgo: San Agustín Metzquititlán: Barranca de Venados , 20.47156, -98.66944; 1322 m, 5-VII-1973, B. Ramírez, 1 ♀ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps . Jalisco: Chapala : 20.29731, -103.18879, 1541 m, 15-X-1968, G. E. Bohart, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Lagos de Moreno: 15.5 mi NE, 21.50477, -101.76050; 1930 m, 26-VII-1962, Univ. of Kansas Mex. Exped. , 2 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Mazamitla: Mazamitla 15 km S, 19.8687, -103.095; 1768m, C. M. Estrada, 19-III-1990, 1 ♀, 29-IV-1990, 1 ♀ ( EBCH) GoogleMaps . Zapotlán el Grande: Ciudad Guzmán , 16 km SW, 19.6534, -103.55249; 1894 m, 18-VII-1989, T. L. Griswold, 3 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Ciudad Guzmán , 9 km SW, 19.62879, -103.52430; 1735 m, 17-VII-1989, C. Everaerts, 1 ♀ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps , 17-VII-1989, C. Everaert, Crotalaria acapulcensis , 2 ♀, 18-VII-1989, L. Godínez, 5 ♀; T. L. Griswold, 2 ♀ ( EBCH) , 18-VII-1989, T. L. Griswold, 3 ♀ ( BBSL) . Estado de México: Ixtapan de la Sal : 18.84375, -99.67552; 1900 m, 30-X-1991, T. L. Griswold, 2 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Ixtapan de la Sal , 18.84375, -99.67552; 1900 m, 30-X-1991, A. Rodríguez, 2 ♀; R. Ayala, 2 ♀ ( EBCH) GoogleMaps , 3-IX-1996, R. W. Brooks, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) . San Pedro Tlacochaca , 18.85753, -99.64716; 1800 m, 9-XI-2015, 12:00 h, J. López, 1 ♀; 10-XI-2015, 8:50 h, J. López, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps ; Malinalco: 18.94833, -99.49472, 1745 m, -8-1942, C. Bolivar, 1 ♂; -8-1943, E. Bolivar, 1 ♀; Tenancingo : 18.96166, -99.59000; 2035 m, 24-V-1948, O. Hecht, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Michoacán: E. Zarate, 1 ♀ ( MZFC) ; Arteaga : 36.7 km NE, 18.5, - 101.98; 328 m, 16-VII-1989, R. W. Brooks, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) ; La Piedad: Ciudad del Sol , 20.37079, -102.02304; 1695 m, 14-VII-1981, R. Ayala, 1 ♀ ( MZFC) GoogleMaps ; La Piedad , 20.3430, -102.0300; 1693 m, R. Ayala: 10-III-1981, 1 ♀; 10- VIII-1981, 3 ♀; 10-IX-1982, 1 ♀ ( EBCH) GoogleMaps , 10-VII-1983, 1 ♀ ( MZFC) GoogleMaps ; Villamar: La Presa Nueva , 19.95941, - 102.5836; 1591 m, 13-VIII-2014, A. C. Martínez, 1 ♀ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps . Morelos: Cuautla : 18.82275, -98.94137; 1330 m, H. Brailovsky, 22-VI-2008, 1 ♀; 9-III-2014, 1 ♀ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps ; Miacatlán: Laguna de Coatetelco , 18.73983, -99.32693; 964 m, 16-VI-1986, A. Novelo, 2 ♀ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps ; Tepalcingo : 18.59222, -98.84555; 1170 m, 19-IX-1984, J. Avila, 1 ♀ ( MZFC) GoogleMaps ; Tepoztlán: Santa Catarina , 18.970031, -99.138649; 1615 m, 6-VIII-1971, F.M. de la Escalera, 1 ♀ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps ; Xochitepec: Alpuyeca , 18.73591, -99.26289; 1028 m, H. Evans, 27-VI-1951, 1 ♀; 3-VII-1951, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Yautepec: Cañón de Lobos , 18.862582, -99.123091; 1296 m, 12-VII-1969, M. Sousa, 1 ♀ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps . Nayarit: Acaponeta : 22.502016, -105.35524; 31 m, 29-IX-1966, G. E. Bohart, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Ahuacatlán : 21.05143, -104.47230; 1015 m, 18-VII-1951, H. Evans, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Del Nayar: Jesús María , 22.25176, -104.51127; 451 m, 23-X-1989, A. Cadena, 1 ♀ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps . Del Nayar, Mesa del Nayar-El Magueyito , 22.22577, -104.67258; 1661 m, 4- XI-2014, 14:20 h, J. López, 1 ♀; J. Mérida, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Río Santiago, Playa Golondrinas , 21.64177, -104.596091; 332 m, 25-V-1991, R. Barba, 1 ♂ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps . Isla María Cleofas : 21.305602, -106.24044; 116 m, -4-2016, J. Cruzado, 1 ♀ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps . Isla María Madre: Camp. Mariano Escobedo , 21.635208, -106.549366; 55 m, 1-XII-1986, V. Meléndez, 1 ♀ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps . Campamento 21 de marzo, 21.635208, -106.54936; 55 m, 2-XII-1986, L. Cervantes, 1 ♀; V. Meléndez, 1 ♀ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps . Isla María Magdalena : 21.455699, -106.406187; 191 m, 25-XI-1986, R. Barba, 1 ♀; V. Meléndez, 2 ♀; 26-XI-1986, V. Meléndez, 3 ♀ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps . San Blas: 21.53333. -105.28333; 2 m, 26-XII-1983, F. D. Parker, 3 ♀ 1 ♂ ( BBSL) . Tepic: Unión Ríos Santiago y Huaynamota , 27-XI-1991, R. Barba, E. Barrera, 1 ♀ ( CNIN) . Oaxaca: Tuxtepec-Oaxaca , km 202, 26-XII-1990, L. Godínez, 2 ♀ ( SEMC) . Animas Trujano : 16.98861, -96.71278; 1527 m, 25-X-1989, 1 ♀ ( MZFC) GoogleMaps . Coatecas Altas : 16.4936, -96.616; 1593 m, 12-XII-2018, 13:15 h, O. Caballero, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Magdalena Apasco: El Puente, Carretera a San Juan , 17.24119, -96.81888; 1664 m, 12- I-2016, 10:50 h, P. Sagot, 2 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Miahuatlán de Porfirio Díaz: El Zompantle , carr 175, 16.41447, - 96.66932; 1554 m, 11-I-2016, 13:15 h, P. Sagot, 4 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Monjas : 16.4711, -96.6318; 1892 m, 22-XII-2018, 9:00 h, I. Pérez, 2 ♀; O. Caballero, 3 ♀; P. Sagot, 3 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Oaxaca de Juárez: Oaxaca Ciudad , 17.06692, - 96.72253; 1562 m, 28-IV-2012, 11:00 h, P. Sagot, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Oaxaca de Juárez , 17.07197, -96.73087; 1656 m, 20-VII-1937, A. Mead, 1 ♀; 19-II-1954, R. Dreisbach, 3 ♀; 19-XII-1990, L. Godínez, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . San Felipe del Agua , 17.11178, -96.716692; 1733 m, 14-I-2020, P. Sagot, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Reyes Etla : 17.20437, -96.80789; 21-II- 1991, L. Godínez, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . San Dionisio Ocotepec : 16.79182, -96.35637; 1773 m, 8-XII-2018, 16:50 h, P. Sagot, 2 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . San Francisco Telixtlahuaca: Carr. 135 a Cuicatlán , 17.3257, -96.9339; 1906 m, 26-XII- 2018, 9:00 h, P. Sagot, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . San Jeronimo Sosola: EL Capulín , 17.5228, -96.9470; 1961 m, 26-XII- 2018, 13:00 h, I. Pérez, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . San Juan Bautista Cuicatlán : 17.73210, -96.9436; 622 m, 27-XII-2018, 14:05 h, I. Pérez, 1 ♀; L. A. Sosa, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . San Juan de los Cues : 18.0337, -97.0200; 1563 m, 29-XII-2018, 11:40 h, I. Pérez, 3 ♀; L. A. Sosa, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . San Pablo Etla: Cuitlahuac , 17.15561, -96.75833; 1665 m, 16- XI-2015, 8:40 h, J. López, 1 ♀; P. Sagot, 4 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . San Pablo Huitzo: Carr. 190 a Oaxaca, 17.26416, - 96.86392; 1750 m, 4-I-2020, 10:45 h, P. Sagot, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Santa Ana del Valle: Siinbuichi , 17.00791, - 96.45296; 1830 m, 13-I-2016, 16:00 h, P. Sagot, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán: Monte Albán , 17.04406, -96.76805; 1929 m, 15-VII-1955, R. Beer, 11 ♀; 27-VI-1961, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Monte Albán Ruinas , 17.04373, - 96.76807; 1920 m, 1-V-2012, 13:00 h, P. Sagot, 1 ♀; 12-XI-2015, 9:30 h, 2 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Santa María Yavesía: Santa María Yavesía , 17.23452, -96.42983; 2001 m, 15-XII-2015, 11:00 h, M. López, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Santa María Zoquitlán: Las Casas , 16.63029, -96.45168; 1435 m, 21-XI-2018, 9:30 h, I. Pérez, 1 ♀; 11:05 h, P. Sagot, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Río cerca del pueblo, 16.56478, -96.35248; 1011 m, 18-XI-2018, 12:45 h, P. Sagot, 2 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Santiago Chazumba : 18.20833, -97.65416; 1900m, C. Vergara: 20-VII-1996, 1 ♀; 17-XII-1996, 1 ♀ ( UDLAP) GoogleMaps . Santiago Matatlán : Carretera 190, 3 km al Sur del pueblo, 16.84100, -96.37163; 1824 m, 14-I-2016, 10:50 h, P. Sagot, 2 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Santiago Miltepec : Cuyoyepeji , 2 mi N, 17.95844, -97.68287; 1800 m, 3-II-1972, F. D. Parker, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Santiago Nacaltepec : San José Aragón , 17.49889, -96.82770; 1079 m, 4-XII-2014, 11:00 h, L. Reyes, 2 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Santiago Tenango : El Tejocote , 31 mi NW Oaxaca, 17.22347, -97.01173; 2323 m, 5-VII-1969, 2 ♀ 1 ♂ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Santo Domingo Tehuantepec: Tehuantepec , 12 mi W, 16.29339, -95.41169; 441 m, 16-IX-1974, W. Hanson, G. E. Bohart, 3 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Santo Tomás Jalieza: Autopista , km 31, 16.84315, -96.65405; 1555 m, 11-I- 2016, 15.40 h, P. Sagot, 2 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Santo Tomás Tamazulapam: Cerca terreno de football, 16.27867, - 96.58104; 1688 m, 11-I-2016, 12:05 h, P. Sagot, 3 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Tepelmeme Villa de Morelos: San José Miahuatlán , 18.05527, -97.35415; 1940 m, 9-V-1997, T. L. Griswold, 3 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Tlacolula Matamoros: Carretera 190, cerca de la cárcel, 16.93551, -96.434651; 1641 m, 14-I-2016, 10:10 h, P. Sagot, 4 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Tlalixtac de Cabrera : 17.0733, -96.6486; 1591 m, 15-IX-2017, N. Arnold, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Villa Sola de Vega: Carr. 131 salida a la costa, 16.51655, -96.98412; 1485 m, 14-XII-2018, 9:50 h, I. Pérez, 2 ♀; N. Arnold, 2 ♀; O. Caballero, 1 ♀; P. Sagot, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Puebla: Acatlán: Amatitlán , 18.176559, -98.0784; 1168 m, 8-VIII-1969, M. Sousa, 1 ♀, 10-VIII-1969, M. Sousa, 1 ♂ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps . Ahuehuetitla: Tehuitzingo , 10 mi SE, 18.22708, -98.21036; 1205 m, 3-VII- 1953, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Caltepec: Acatepec , 18.22693, -97.58611; 1990 m, 7-V-1997, T. L. Griswold, 3 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Caltepec , 18.21944, -97.61111; 2120 m, 13-IX-1996, C. Vergara, 2 ♀; R. Ayala, 3 ♀; 15-IX-1996, C. Vergara: 1 ♀; 7-V-1997, 4 ♀; 8-V-1997, 1 ♀; 9-V-1997, 1 ♀; 18-VI-1997, 6 ♀ ( UDLAP) GoogleMaps . Coxcatlán: Pueblo Nuevo , 18.2102, - 97.1599; 918 m, 29-XII-2018, 15:45 h, P. Sagot, 2 ♀, I. Pérez, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Huehuetlán el Grande: Bienes comunales, 18.75558, -98.17335; 1345 m, 10-X-2017, L. Marín, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Casa Esmeralda , 98.17328, - 98.17328; 1346 m, 16-XI-2017, L. Marín, 1 ♀; 11-I-2018, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) . Roquexylo , 18.74210, -98.16968; 1368 m, 4-IX-2017, L. Marín, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . San Agustín Ahuehuetla , 18.79888, -98.16805; 1562 m, 12-XII-2017, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Hueyapán : 19.88405, -97.43816; 1651 m, 16-II-1964, R. Dreisbach, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Izúcar de Matamoros : Izúcar de Matamoros, SE, 18.59091, -98.45770; 1281 m, 4-IX-1998, T. L. Griswold, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Petlalcingo : 3 mi NW, 18.10122, -97.96759; 1496 m, 4-III-1972, F. D. Parker, D. Miller, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Puebla: Los Ángeles , 18.88873, -98.16906; 2103 m, 20-IV-2018, L. Marín, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . BUAP CU, 19.00192, -98.19690; 2130 m, 20-XII-2017, L. Marín, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . San Andrés Cholula : 19.05777, -98.29416; 2127 m, 4-XI-2010, M. González, 2 ♀ ( UDLAP) GoogleMaps . San José Miahuatlán : 18.27666, -97.30138; 1125 m, 9-V-1997, C. Vergara, 6 ♀ ( UD- LAP) GoogleMaps . Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán : 17.050788, -96.759467; 1766 m, 8-X-2010, C. Rodríguez, 1 ♂ ( UDLAP) GoogleMaps . Tehuacán : 18.42949, -97.41565; 1637 m, 23-VI-1951, H. Evans, 2 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Tepanco de López: Cacaloapan , 18.578268, -97.579316; 11-IV-1973, C. Beutelspacher, 1 ♀ ( CNIN) GoogleMaps . Tepexco: Izúcar de Matamoros , 9 mi W, 18.63578, -98.58635; 1313 m, 16-IX-1972, W. Hanson, J. Poff, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Zapotitlán: 18.25, -97.54722; 1700 m, C. Vergara : 24-XI-1996, 34 ♀; 16-XII-1996, 1 ♀; 23-II-1997, 2 ♀ ( UDLAP) . Zapotitlán , 3 mi S, 18.31851, - 97.50991; 1513 m, F. D. Parker, D. Miller, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Sinaloa: Concordia : 23.28740, -106.06710; 127 m, 9-IX- 1970, K. J. Capelle, 2 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Chirimoyos , 23.43750, -105.81194; 1587 m, 17-III-1990, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Cosalá : 24.40314, -106.74897; 536 m, 14-X-2013, 10:30 h, J. Mérida, 2 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Culiacán : 24.80777, -107.39265; 52 m, 11-IX-1970, G. E. Bohart, R. M. Bohart, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Culiacán , 25.20760, -107.20028; 584 m, 16-X-2013, 10:45 h, J. Mérida, 1 ♀; E. Esquivel, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB) GoogleMaps . Elota: La Cruz , 23.91826, -106.89813; 20 m, 3-VI-1988, R. Minckley, D. Cacavas, 1 ♀. GoogleMaps Mazatlán: 23.2267, -106.4076; 15 m, 28-X-1965, G. E. Bohart, A. S. Bohart, 1 ♀; 11- X-1968, G. E. Bohart, 4 ♀; 8-IX-1980, J. B. Karren, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . NO Mazatlán , 23.22423, -106.40908; 6 m, 17- VII-1995, R. Ayala, 2 ♀ ( EBCH) GoogleMaps . Villa Unión , 6 mi N, 23.27230, -106.21729; 21 m, 9-IX-1970, W. J. Hanson, T. L. Withworth, 3 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Salvador Alvarado: Guamachil , 25.46113, -108.07896; 48 m, 27-X-1965, G. E. Bohart, A. S. Bohart, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . San Ignacio: Barra de Piaxtla , 23.649475, -106.800014; 4 m, 18-VII-1995, A. Rodríguez, 1 ♀; R. Ayala, 2 ♀; 28-VII-1995, F. A. Noguera, 1 ♀ ( EBCH) GoogleMaps . Mazatlán , 46 mi NW, 23.72360, -106.78090; 20 m, 5-IX-1971, J. L. Petty, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Mazatlán , 50 mi NE, 23.93011, -106.19291; 1101 m, 9-IX-1979, W. J. Hanson, T. L. Withworth, 2 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Sonora: Alamos : 27.02479, -108.93865; 386 m, 1957, P. H. Timberlake, 1 ♀, 27-IX-1966, G. E. Bohart, A. S. Bohart, 2 ♀; 4-IX-1970, W. J. Hanson, T. L. Withworth, 2 ♀; 6-IX-1970, W. J. Hanson, T. L. Withworth, 2 ♀; 7-IX-1970, G. E. Bohart, R. M. Bohart, 6 ♀; 27-VIII-1976, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Alamos , 27.02479, -108.93865; 384 m, 7-IX-1977, R. Brooks, 2 ♀; 3-IX-1991, R. Ayala, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps , 4-IX-1991, L. Godínez, 1 ♀ ( EBCH) ; Alamos , 12 km SE, 26.93959, -108.88420; 277 m, 13-III-1990, R. Minckley, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Alamos, South East , 27.01892, -108.91408; 354 m, 5-IX-1970, W. J. Hanson, T. L. Withworth, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps ; Alamos , west of, 27.03272, -108.95602; 422 m, 4-IX-1970, W. J. Hanson, T. L. Withworth, 4 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Cajeme: Cócorit , 27.57682, -109.96003; 35 m, G. E. Bohart, A. S. Bohart: 27-II-1966, 1 ♀; 27-IX-1966, 3 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Guaymas: Guaymas , 11 mi NW, 28.08160, -110.95440; 44 m, 25-IV-1977, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Magdalena : 30.62705, - 110.96232; 770 m, 2-IX-1970, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Moctezuma: 29.80007, -109.66846; 617 m, 21-IV-1990, A. Byron, 1 ♀. Onavas : 7 km al GoogleMaps SW de Tonichi Río Yaqui , 28.53310, -109.56930; 198 m, 23-IV-1990, G. Chavarria, 2 ♀ ( MZFC) GoogleMaps . San Javier: Tecoripa , 36 km E, 28.57949, -109.67955; 683 m, 16-VII-1991, T. L. Griswold, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps .

Commentaries. Based on DNA sequences, Sheffield et al. (2020), conclude that X. varipuncta is a synonym of X. sonorina , since this was previously described designating the name X. sonorina ; on the other hand, it was also found that the species present in Hawaii corresponds to X. sonorina . Morphologically it is close to X. clarionensis , with a similar color of integument and wings, but distinguished by its size and the diagnostic characters mentioned. X. sonorina has a broader distribuition and X. clarionensis is endemic to the Clarion Island in the archipelago of the Revillagigedo Islands.

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

SEMC

University of Kansas - Biodiversity Institute

CNIN

Coleccion Nacional de Insectos, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

MZFC

Museo de Zoologia "Alfonso L. Herrera"

BBSL

USDA, Agriculture Research Service, Pollinating Insects-- Biology, Management and Systematics Research

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Apidae

Genus

Xylocopa

Loc

Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) sonorina

Mérida-Rivas, Jorge A., Hinojosa-Díaz, Ismael A., Ayala-Barajas, Ricardo, Pozo, Carmen & Vandame, Rémy 2022
2022
Loc

Xylocopa varipuncta

Patton 1879
1879
Loc

Xylocopa sonorina

Smith 1874
1874