Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) maya, Mérida-Rivas & Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala-Barajas & Pozo & Vandame, 2022

Mérida-Rivas, Jorge A., Hinojosa-Díaz, Ismael A., Ayala-Barajas, Ricardo, Pozo, Carmen & Vandame, Rémy, 2022, Revision of carpenter bees of the subgenus Neoxylocopa Michener (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Mexico and Mesoamerica, Zootaxa 5158 (1), pp. 1-67 : 46-50

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5158.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2191B88A-2CEB-496B-A255-5800EEFAEAFA

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6821882

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/FE1487AC-AD27-FF97-FF42-94B1FE91FC79

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) maya
status

sp. nov.

Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) maya Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala, sp. nov.

( Figs. 75–85 View FIGURES 75–81 View FIGURES 82–85 , 123–125 View FIGURES 120–125 , 137 View FIGURES 136–140 )

ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:DF65847C-321B-4CD1-A5A3-ABF5AC61B202

Diagnosis. Body length, female, 22.65 mm (21.58–24.11; n=5); male, 22.72 mm (n=1). Female: Head without elevated ridges or prominences on frons; ocelli below tangent of the eyes; area between parapsidal line and mesoscutal disca with scattered punctures (puncture separation, two or more times their diameter); wings bluish with violet iridescence, magenta on the edges ( Fig. 80 View FIGURES 75–81 ); pubescence evenly black; integument of terga evenly black; T1 with dense punctures (punctures separated by two o three times their diameter), T2 to T5 with very scattered punctures on disc (punctures separated by four or more times their diameter) ( Fig. 81 View FIGURES 75–81 ); length of hairs on terga respect MOD, T2 0.26–0.51, T3 0.36–0.58, T4 0.56–0.96, T5 0.70–0.96. Male: Posterior margin of T1 to T5 with integumental black bands, metasoma principally yellowish or orange, except light brown on T6 and T7; hind tibia internal distal extreme with prominent subapical projection, slightly curved distally with a carinated concave area; posterior margin of this process with narrow laminar carina-like margin throughout almost a third of the internal posterior margin of the tibia ( Fig. 85 View FIGURES 82–85 ); length of hairs on terga respect MOD, T2 0.95–1.14, T3 0.83–1.06, T4 1.14–1.24, T5 1.48–1.72; tip of the lateral process of gonostylus ending oval-shaped (as broad as shaft of the process).

Description. Holotype: Female: Body length 22.65 mm (21.58–24.11; n=5), length of forewing 20.14 mm (18.39–20.79; n=5), head length 5.58 mm (5.13–5.94; n=5), intertegular distance 6.98 mm (6.03–7.46; n=5), width of T2 10.47 mm (9.85–11.27; n=5). Head: Mandibles bidentate; apical tooth longer and wider than internal tooth, defined by a notch ( Fig. 76 View FIGURES 75–81 ). Labrum with three tubercles, the middle narrower than the lateral ones. Ocelli located below the upper margin of the eyes; frontal groove anterior to the middle ocellus well defined, unpunctate, initiating with the width of the ocellus, diminishing to end in a non-prominent middle elevation between the antennal sockets; pits in area sublateral posterior to the ocelli, of 1/3 the ocellar diameter. Vertex elevated respect to the upper margin of the eyes. Mesosoma: Scutellum in lateral view convex ( Fig. 78 View FIGURES 75–81 ). Metanotum and propodeum vertical. Posterior tibia with basitibial plate toward the middle region, with two asymmetrical spiniform projections with similar width, defined by a small notch between them; anterior spine sharp; posterior spine rounded and continues throughout the posterior margin. Metasoma: T1 with a vertical anterior fold with foveate surface. Color: Integument usually black. Antennae with pedicel and distal extreme of scape reddish. S1 to S5 with reddish distal margin. Wings with bluish iridescence, with violet and magenta on the edges ( Fig. 80 View FIGURES 75–81 ); venation very dark, almost black. Punctures: Head: Clypeus, inferior margin unpunctate; inferior subapical margin with two depressions, and with a narrow middle longitudinal line unpunctate; rest of clypeus with densely punctate. Genal area densely punctate on inferior areas; middle and superior areas with punctures separated by one and a half to three times their diameter ( Fig. 77 View FIGURES 75–81 ). Vertex with a middle longitudinal unpunctate line; sublateral and lateral areas with punctures separated by one to two times their diameter; supraclipeal and paraocular areas with dense punctures of similar size as those on clypeus; lateral areas and region posterior to ocelli with scattered punctures. Mesosoma: Scutum : discal area unpunctate; between the parapsidal line and discal area with scattered punctures, separated by two or more times their diameter; scutellum with few punctures on the middle region; by contrast lateral and posterior regions with dense punctures. Metanotum with dense punctures, separated by two or more times their diameter, shallower than on scutellum. Mesepisternum and mesoesternal area with dense punctures. Tegulae mostly unpunctate, but with dense punctures on anterior area; propodeum with dense superimposed punctures. Metasoma: T1 with dense punctures; T2 to T5 with very scattered punctures on discal area, separated by four or more times their diameter ( Fig. 81 View FIGURES 75–81 ). Pubescence: Usually black, except on anterior apical margin of F1 to F10, which has very short dark brown hair; posterior middle region of T6 with simple reddish hairs. Head: Vertex and genal area with a mixture of simple and branched hairs, the latter shorter than the former. Length of hairs on terga respect MOD as follows: T2 0.26–0.51, T3 0.36–0.58, T4 0.56–0.96, T5 0.70–0.96.

Male: Body length 22.72 mm (n=1), length of forewing 17.86 mm (n=1), head length 4.09 mm (n=1), intertegular distance 5.91 mm (n=1), width of T2 10.11 mm (n=1). Head: Mandibles bidentate; apical tooth longer and broader than internal tooth. Frontal groove anterior to middle ocellus unpunctate, initiating with a diameter equal to that of the ocellus, diminishing to end in a non-prominent middle elevation between the antennal sockets; pits on sublateral area posterior to the ocelli, of half the diameter of the ocelli. Vertex elevated with respect to superior margin of the eyes. Mesosoma : Posterior tibia with basitibial plate with a single spiniform projection toward the middle region; tibial spur thin; internal area of posterior tibia as described in the diagnosis ( Fig. 85 View FIGURES 82–85 ). Metasoma: T1 with vertical fold with foveate surface. Genitalia: Distal angle of the ventral section of the gonostylus, obtuse ( Fig. 125 View FIGURES 120–125 ); basal angle at the base of lateral process of the gonostylus, obtuse, barely noticeble ( Fig. 124 View FIGURES 120–125 ); tip of the lateral process ending on an oval as broad as shaft of the process ( Fig. 124 View FIGURES 120–125 ). Color: Integument mostly yellowish or orange. Head: Integument brown clear to dark on margins of labrum, clypeus, and subantennal sutures, as well as on posterior region of antennae to F10. Clypeus with a light brown longitudinal middle line. Mesosoma : Anterior and lateral areas of tegulae and wing sclerite yellowish. Mesepisternum and mesoesternal area blacks. Legs, coxae, and femurs light to dark brown. Wings light brown or orange, veins light brown to reddish. Metasoma: Distal margin of T1 to T5 with dark bands ( Fig. 84 View FIGURES 82–85 ); sterna with light brown distal margins. Punctures: Head: Labrum, distal margin unpunctate, rest of labrum with large dense grooved punctures. Clypeus with punctures on lateral and inferolateral areas, separated bytwo or three times their diameter; discal area of clypeus with scattered punctures. Supraclipeal area, paraocular areas and genal area densely punctates, similar in size to those of clypeus. Vertex with an area unpunctate in middle, the rest with densely punctate. Mesosoma: Between the parapsidal line and discal area densely punctate, separated by one or less their diameter. Scutellum with very small punctures on discal area, in contrast to lateral and posterior regions densely punctate. Mesepisternum and mesoesternal area with densely punctate. Tegula mostly unpunctate, but with dense punctures on anterior region. Propodeum with densely shallow punctate. Metasoma: T1 and T2 with punctures on discal area separated by one or two times their diameter; T3 to T5 with dense punctures on discal area, separated by approximately their diameter; T6 and T7 with scattered punctures, separated by three or more times their diameter; T1 to T5 with a submarginal distal area without punctures, broader in the middle. S1 to S5 with dense punctures from the middle to posterior submarginal region, but posterior margin Tegula mosly unpunctate, but with dense punctures on anterior region. Propodeum with dense shallow punctures. Pubescence: Principally yellowish or orange, except on T6 and T7 where it is light brown. Posterior tibia, internal anterior margin with long pubescence, posterior margin with long and short pubescence; internal surface: basal area with some hairs not as long as on anterior margin ( Fig. 85 View FIGURES 82–85 ).

T1 with dense, long, plumose hairs, T2 to T5 mainly with plumose hairs intermixed with some simple ones, T6 and T7 with dense, long, simple and plumose hairs. Length of hairs on terga respect MOD as follows: T2 0.95–1.14, T3 0.83–1.06, T4 1.14–1.24, T5 1.48–1.72.

Variation. This species varies little in size. Wings of some specimens may be greenish on the subapical region, perhaps due to antiquity in the collection.

Etymology. The specific epithet maya refers to the great Mayan civilization, since most of the distribution range of the new species falls in Chiapas, Tabasco and the Yucatán Peninsula, in the core region of Mayan settlements. It is worth saying that small farmers of the region commonly know carpenter bees, that they call jonon’ or bonon’, as well as bumblebees.

Distribution ( Fig. 137 View FIGURES 136–140 ). Present in Belize and Mexico (Chiapas, Campeche, Tabasco, Veracruz), in the following ecoregions ( Dinerstein et al. 2017): Dry forests of Yucatán, Mesoamerican mangroves of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean, Swamps of Centla, Humid forests of Petén-Veracruz, Humid forests of Yucatan Peninsula. Altitudinal distribution from 0 to 290 m.

Holotype (♀): ECOAB.82129 MEX. CAMP [ Mexico, Campeche] / [QR code] Hopelchén / 130 m / 19.41 N; 89.35 W / 27/09/2015 / Eric vides // ♀ / mexicanorum [handwritten] / det. Sagot Ph. 2015 // [Red label] HOLO- TYPE / Xylocopa maya / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. (ECOAB). Paratype (♀): ECOAB.121714 Mex. Cam [ Mexico, Campeche] / [QR code] Champotón / 191 m / 18.48 N; 89.9 W;/ 7/6/2018 / Jorge Mérida // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa maya / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. (ECOAB). Paratype (♀): México, Campeche, Champotón / Seybaplaya, al NE del poblado / 19º38’45” N 90º41’ 39” W 0 m /, 5/05/1997 13:30 H / Selva baja caducifolia / ex atrapada en red ornitológica / O. Yañez 0Y-1972 // MUSEO DE ZOOLOGÍA / HY- MENOPTERA / 06686 //. (MZFC). Paratype (♀): ECOAB.82362 MEX CAMP [ Mexico, Campeche] / [QR code] / Hopelchén 77 m / 19.66 N; 89.66 W / 2/10/2015 / Roberto Chan //. ♀ / Xylocopa mexicanorum [handwritten] / det. Sagot Ph. 2015 // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa maya / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. (ECOAB). Paratype (♀): ECOAB.121883 Mex. Chis [ Mexico, Chiapas] / [QR code] / Palenque / 18 m / 17.7 N; 92.24 / 12/04/2018 / Jorge Mérida // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa maya / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. (ECOAB). Paratype (♀) México: Chiapas / 6 km SW La Libertad / 40 m 17º41’ N, 91º48’ / 24/04/1993 E. Tovar // SMO326822 / KUNHM-ENT [BARCODE] // ex Lonchocarpus / sp // Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) mexicanorum Cockerell // / det. by D. Yanega // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa maya / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. (EBCH). Paratype (♀): ECOAB.131812 Mex. Tab [ Mexico, Tabasco] / [QR code] / Tenosique / 155 m / 17.33 N; 91.19 W / 2017 / Adriana Tapia // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa maya / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. (ECOAB). Paratype (♂): ECOAB.131813 Mex. Tab [ Mexico, Tabasco] / [QR code] / Tenosique / 155 m 17.33 N; 91.19 W /, 2017 / Adriana Tapia // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa maya / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. (ECOAB). Paratype (♀): ECOAB.121150 Mex. Tab [ Mexico, Tabasco] / [QR code] / Tenosique / 41 m / 17.42 N; 91.41 W /, 226/2018 / Fermin González // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa maya / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. (ECOAB). Paratype (♀): ECOAB.131261 Mex. Tab [ Mexico, Tabasco] / [QR code] / Tenosique / 46 m / 17.42 N; 91.32 W / 12/2/2019 / Jorge Mérida // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa maya / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. (ECOAB). Paratype (♀): ECOAB.131262 Mex. Tab [ Mexico, Tabasco] / [QR code] / Tenosique / 46 m / 17.42 N; 91.32 W / 12/2/2019 / Jorge Mérida // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa maya / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. (ECOAB). Paratype (♀): ECOAB.131263 Mex. Tab [ Mexico, Tabasco] / [QR code] / Tenosique / 46 m / 17.42 N; 91.32 W / 12/2/2019 / Jorge Mérida // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa maya / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. (ECOAB). Paratype (♀): ECOAB.131265 Mex. Tab [ Mexico, Tabasco] / [QR code] / Tenosique / 46 m / 17.42 N; 91.32 W / 12/2/2019 / Philippe Sagot // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa maya / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. (ECOAB)

Additional material examined. 8 ♀. Belize: Distrito de Cayo: 17.0981, -88.9414; 290 m, - I-1900, G. Gaumer GoogleMaps , 1 ♀ ( SEMC) . Stann Creek: Placentia , 16.51667, -88.36667; 4 m, 15-II-1989, Michener & Brzoska GoogleMaps , 4 ♀ ( SEMC) . Mexico: Quintana Roo: Isla Mujeres : 21.24118, -86.73964; 4 m, 25-I-1981, G. E. Bohart GoogleMaps , 1 ♀ ( BBSL) .? Sinaloa: Mazatlán : 23.2267, -106.4076; 15 m, 8-IX-1980, J. B. Karrem GoogleMaps , 5 ♀ ( BBSL) . Veracruz: Actopan: José Cardel , 25 km N along Hwy 180, 19.58547, -96.38975; 23 m, 2-I-1989, R. Minckley, B. Danforth GoogleMaps , 1 ♀ ( SEMC) . Yucatán: Progreso : 21.28444, -89.66333; 4 m, 20-VI-1984, M. Devall GoogleMaps , 1 ♀ ( SEMC) .

Commentaries. This species is morphologically close to X. griswoldi sp. nov., as can see in the form of the structures on internal margin of posterior tibiae ( Figs. 65 View FIGURES 62–65 and 85 View FIGURES 82–85 ). Both species are present on the continental slope of the Gulf of Mexico ( Fig. 137 View FIGURES 136–140 ), X. maya only in the southernmost states of this region. It is very possible that both species are present at medium altitudes throughout the slope; in some regions, they are sympatric with other species of the same subgenus. Five specimens of this new species deposited in BBSL, with labels showing they were collected in the state of Sinaloa, Mexico, but they are very far from the distribution region of this species, and it could be a labeling error.

SEMC

University of Kansas - Biodiversity Institute

BBSL

USDA, Agriculture Research Service, Pollinating Insects-- Biology, Management and Systematics Research

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Apidae

Genus

Xylocopa