Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) frontalis ( Olivier, 1789 )

Mérida-Rivas, Jorge A., Hinojosa-Díaz, Ismael A., Ayala-Barajas, Ricardo, Pozo, Carmen & Vandame, Rémy, 2022, Revision of carpenter bees of the subgenus Neoxylocopa Michener (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Mexico and Mesoamerica, Zootaxa 5158 (1), pp. 1-67 : 17-22

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5158.1.1

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2191B88A-2CEB-496B-A255-5800EEFAEAFA

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6821866

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/FE1487AC-AD1A-FFB3-FF42-96F0FCCDFEF1

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scientific name

Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) frontalis ( Olivier, 1789 )
status

 

Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) frontalis ( Olivier, 1789)  

( Figs. 11–21 View FIGURES 11–15 View FIGURES 16–21 , 105–107 View FIGURES 102–110 , 133 View FIGURES 132–135 )

Apis frontalis Olivier, 1789: 64   . Holotype: locality unknown (♀). Type locality: French Guiana, Cayenne.

Xylocopa fasciata Lepeletier, 1841: 202   . Holotype: Museum Natural d’Histoire Naturelle Paris, France (♂). Type locality: Brazil, synonymy by Smith (1874:284).

Xylocopa nitens   . Lepeletier, 1841: 176. Holotype: locality unknown (♀). Type locality: French Guiana, Cayenne, current whereabouts unknown and presumed by Hurd (1978) to be lost, synonymy by Hurd (1978:81).

Xylocopa frontalis quadrimaculata Meunier, 1890: 64   . Holotype: whereabouts unknown (♂). Type locality: Ecuador, Pichincha, Quito, synonymy by Hurd (1978:81).

Xylocopa morio callichlora Cockerell, 1911: 287   . Holotype: American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA (♀). Locality: Peru, Piura, synonymy by Hurd (1978:81).

Xylocopa frontalis var. coeruleomicans Enderlein, 1913: 158   . Holotype: Academie Polonaise des Sciences, Warsaw, Poland (♀). Type locality: Brazil, Espírito Santo, synonymy by Hurd (1978:81).

Xylocopa frontalis var. viridimicans Enderlein, 1913: 158   . Holotype: Academie Polonaise des Sciences, Warsaw, Poland (♀). Type locality: Panama, Chiriquí, synonymy by Hurd (1978:81).

Xylocopa frontalis fabricii Cockerell, 1926: 658   . Holotype: American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA (♀). Locality: French Guiana, Maroni, synonymy by Hurd (1978:81).

Xylocopa frontalis roseata Cockerell, 1926: 658   . Syntypes: National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA (♀). Type locality: Ecuador, synonymy by Hurd (1978:81).

Xylocopa frontalis trinitatis Cockerell, 1926: 658   . Syntype: American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA (♂). Type locality: Trinidad and Tobago, synonymy by Hurd (1978:81).

Xylocopa frontalis var. obscuripennis Cockerell, 1949: 484   . Holotype: National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA (♂). Type locality: Honduras, Zamorano, synonymy by Hurd (1978:82).

Xylocopa frontalis var. purpureipennis Cockerell, 1949: 484   . Holotype: National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C., USA (♂). Type locality: Honduras, Zamorano, synonymy by Hurd (1978:81)

Xylocopa americana Prance 1976: 238   . (nomen nudum).

Xylocopa (Megaxylocopa) frontalis, Hurd & Moure, 1963: 151   ; Minckley 1998: 151.

Diagnosis. Body length, female, 27.08 mm (24.83–28.28; n=5), male, 28.86 mm (26.22–31.67; n=5). Female: Head with two arc-shaped elevations at the sides of middle ocellus ( Figs. 12 and 13 View FIGURES 11–15 ); middle ocellus located somewhat above upper margin of eyes; area between parapsidal line and mesoscutal disc with sparse punctures (separated by three or more times their diameter); wings dark brown with blue, violet o coppery iridescence ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 11–15 ); pubescence evenly black; integument of terga generally black (some specimens from Costa Rica, Panama and South America with reddish terga); T1 to T3 with dense minute shallow punctures on discal area, some punctures with diameter approximately twice that of the minute punctures; T2 to T4 with very minute hairs, T5 hair 0.86–3.24 (length respect MOD). Male: T1 to T6 yellow with black bands half or more the terga surface, T7 yellow; T2 to T5 with black and yellow hairs on lateral areas; T5 and T6 with long, dense black hairs ( Fig. 19 View FIGURES 16–21 ); posterior tibia internal distal extreme with a projection longer than wide, with sharp apex rounded at the tip, anterior margin with broad rounded lobe ( Fig. 21 View FIGURES 16–21 ); length of hairs on terga respect MOD, T2 0.13–0.16, T3 0.15–0.24, T4 0.22–0.27, T5 0.17–0.37; tip of the lateral process of the gonostylus ending broad, ellipsoidal ( Fig. 106 View FIGURES 102–110 ).

Description. Female: Integument and pubescence generally black, although some specimens from Costa Rica, Panama and South America have reddish terga [as described originally by Olivier (1789)]; wings dark brown with blue ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 11–15 ), violet o coppery iridescence; venation dark brown. Body length 27.08 mm (24.83–28.28; n=5); length of forewing 24.49 mm (23.61–25.63; n=5); head length 6.68 mm (6.18–7.07; n=5) intertegular distance 7.93 mm (7.46–8.47; n=5); width of T2 12.32 (11.5–013.07; n=5). Head: With two arc-shaped elevations arise at the sides of the middle ocellus; middle ocellus located somewhat above upper margin of eyes and slightly below level of lateral ocelli ( Figs. 12 and 13 View FIGURES 11–15 ). Mesosoma: Mesoscutal   disc unpuctate, between the parapsidal line and discal area with sparse punctures, separated by three or more times their diameter. Metasoma: T1 to T3 with dense minute shallow punctures on discal area; some punctures with diameter approximately twice that of the minute punctures; T4 and T5 with punctures slightly larger than in the preceeding terga, separated by three or more times their diameter; T6 with dense punctures. Length of hairs on terga respect MOD as follows: T2 to T4 with very minute hairs, T5 0.86–3.24. Male: Yellowish-orange integument on head and discal area of scutum; pubescence yellowish-orange on head and mesosoma; hyaline wings with venation reddish brown; body length 28.86 mm (26.22 – 31.67; n=5); length of forewing 24.72 mm (24.32 – 25.43; n=5); head length 5.09 mm (4.94–5.37; n=5); intertegular distance 7.84 mm (7.80 – 8.21; n=5); width of T2 12.99 mm (12.59 – 13.56; n=5). Head: Labrum with a triangular area without punctures on the middle region; rest of labrum with scattered punctures; clypeus with dense punctures on the middle region of lower submargin; disc of clypeus without punctures; inferolateral and superior lateral regions with scattered punctures, separated by two to four times their diameter; lateral ocelli above the supraocular margin. Mesosoma: Between   the parapsidal line and discal area with scattered punctures, separated by three or more times their diameter ( Fig. 20 View FIGURES 16–21 ). Posterior tibia, anterior margin and anterior area of internal region with long pubescence; posterior margin with alternating long and short hairs; distal extreme of internal surface toward the posterior region with dense short pubescence; internal distal extreme with a projection longer than it is wide, with sharp apex rounded at the point: anterior margin of this projection with a broad rounded lobe ( Fig. 21 View FIGURES 16–21 ). Metasoma: T1 to T6 yellow with black bands occupying half or more of their surface area; T7 yellow; lateral areas of T2 to T5 with black and yellow hairs; T5 and T6 covered with long dense black hairs ( Fig. 19 View FIGURES 16–21 ), T1 with dense, long, plumose hairs, T5 with long hairs on lateral areas, T2 to T5 with very minute hairs on discal area. Length of hairs on terga respect MOD as follows: T2 0.13–0.16, T3 0.15–0.24, T4 0.22–0.27, T5 0.17–0.37. Genitalia: Distal angle of the ventral section of the gonostylus, acute ( Fig. 107 View FIGURES 102–110 ); basal angle at the base of lateral process of the gonostylus, obtuse ( Fig. 106 View FIGURES 102–110 ); tip of the lateral process ending broad, ellipsoidal ( Fig. 106 View FIGURES 102–110 ).

Variation. Throughout its distribution, females of X. frontalis   present vartiation in color of terga and wings iridescence; some specimens from Costa Rica have T1 and T2 with reddish integument. In specimens from Panama, T1 to T4 or T5 are reddish in the basal region or on to the middle of the terga. In some regions of South America, specimens with black metasoma or reddish bands on the terga are observed ( Lucia et al. 2014). Wing iridescence varies greatly, specimens from Mexico and Central America show mainly violet iridescence while South America specimens have different iridescence pattern depending on the geographical region; many species and subspecies have been described based on wing iridescence variation, and have later been synonymized.

Distribution ( Fig. 133 View FIGURES 132–135 ). Present in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela ( Gonzalez & Gonzalez 2009; Moure 2012). In Mexico present in Oaxaca, and in the majority of Central American countries, in the following ecoregions ( Dinerstein et al. 2017): Dry forests of Central America, Pine-oak forests of Central America, Dry forests of the Central Depression of Chiapas, Seasonal Humid forests of Costa Rica, Humid isthmus-Atlantic forests, Humid isthmus-Pacific forests, Dry forests of Panama, Humid forests of Petén-Veracruz, Humid forests of the Sierra Madre of Chiapas, Dry forests of the South Pacific and Mountainous Forests Talamanca. Wide altitudinal distribution from 0 to 2180 m.

Material examined. 221 ♀ 10 ♂: COSTA RICA: Alajuela: 10.01593, -84.21417; 955 m, 15-X-1992 GoogleMaps   , F. Soto 1 ♀ ( MZUCR); San Carlos: Fortuna—Estación La Mona , 10.40926, -84.73974; 1150 m, 1-IX-1990 GoogleMaps   , E. Bello, 3 ♀ ( MNCR). Upala: A.C. G, Upala, Dos Ríos ( Colonia Mayorga , Finca San Gabriel ), 10.88965, -85.39893; 600 m, 1- V-1990 GoogleMaps   , 3 ♀ ( MNCR). Sector San Ramón de Dos Ríos ( Colonia Mayorga ), 1.5 km NW Hacienda Nueva Zelandia, 10.88327, -85.41354; 620 m, 3-IV-1994 GoogleMaps   , F. Quesada, 1 ♀; 26-IV-1994, G. Hurtado, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Zapote de Upala , 10.89470, -85.02339; 56 m, 16-X-1971 GoogleMaps   , J. Mora, 2 ♀; 8-XII-1972, R. Ortíz   , 2 ♀; 10-IX-1973, R. Ortíz   , 2 ♀ ( BBSL). Zapote de Upala, vic. Bijagua , 1007 m, 17-VIII-1972   , R. Ortíz   , 1 ♀ ( BBSL). Cartago: Jiménez: Pejibaye, Estación Biológica Copal , Sendero Mariposa , 9.78156, -83.75299; 1123 m, 4-IV-2005 GoogleMaps   , Y. Cárdenas, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Pejibaye, Reserva El Copal , 9.78889, -83.75278; 1025 m, 24-IV-2006 GoogleMaps   , B. Gamboa, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Turrialba: Tayutic—Aserradero el Seis , Grano de Oro , Turrialba , 9.80612, -83.44735; 1146 m, 18-I-1993 GoogleMaps   , P. Campos, 2 ♀ ( MNCR). Tayutic—Finca El Quetzal   , 9.79612, -83.42915; 1340 m, 30-VI-1993 GoogleMaps   , P. Campos, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Tres Equis, P.N. Barbilla , 2 km S. de Estación Barbilla, 9.96172, -83.44760; 435 m, 10-XII-2002 GoogleMaps   , E. León, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Turrialba , 9.90467, -83.68352; 648 m, 12-IX-1964 GoogleMaps   , Roberts & Roberts, 1 ♀ ( SEMC). Guanacaste: Finca Montezuma, 3 km SE Río Naranjo, 10.66409, -85.09720, 452 m, F. D. Parker : 11-IX-1992 GoogleMaps   , 2 ♀; 23-IX-1993, 1 ♂; 8-VI-1993, 1 ♀ ( BBSL). La Cruz: 9 km S. de Santa Cecilia, Estación Pitilla , 10.99036, -85.42718; 700 m, 4-IV-1995 GoogleMaps   , E. Alfaro, 2 ♀ ( MNCR). Estación Pitilla , 9 km S Santa Cecilia, 10.99261, -85.42948; 680 m, 1-IX-1989 GoogleMaps   , 1 ♀; 21-III-1989, 1 ♀; 1-I-1991, 1 ♀; 19-V-1993, P. Ríos, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Santa Cecilia, Casa de Roberto, Estación Pitilla , 11.00257, - 85.42585; 545 m, 1-I-1989 GoogleMaps   , 2 ♀; 1-X-1994, C. Moraga, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Nicoya: San Antonio , 3 km NO de Nacaome, P.N. Barra Honda, 10.16822, -85.37366; 83 m, 1-I-1993 GoogleMaps   , M. Reyes, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Heredia: San Isidro: Finca las Franbuesas , 10.03527, -84.04171; 1514 m, 13-V-2018 GoogleMaps   , E. Hererra, 1 ♀ ( CINAT). Santo Domingo: Santa Rosa, INBIO, 9.97363, -84.09439; 1127 m, 9-IX-2004 GoogleMaps   , M. Solís, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Santo Tomás , 9.98073, -84.07752; 1194 m, 6-VII-2005 GoogleMaps   , W. Ramírez, Passiflora ambigua   , 1 ♀ ( MZUCR). Sarapiquí: A.C. C. V.C, Sarapiquí, La Virgen , P.N. Braulio Carrillo, Estación Magsasay , 10.40126, -84.04931; 148 m, 1-X-1990 GoogleMaps   , R. Aguilar   , 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Sarapiquí, La Virgen, Estación El Ceibo , 10.32804, -84.08042; 527 m, - III-1990 GoogleMaps   , C. Chavez, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Limón: Matama, Rancho 3, 9.82557, -83.16361; 800 m, 31-X-2007 GoogleMaps   , M. Moraga, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Río Blanco, Veragua Rainforest , 9.92573, -83.19141; 400 m, 1-VII-2008 GoogleMaps   , R. Villalobos   , 2 ♀ ( MNCR). Valle La Estrella , 9.67177, -83.02770; 113 m, 1-IV-1991 GoogleMaps   , A. Moreno, 1 ♀; 1-VII-1992, G. Carballo, 1 ♀; 21-VIII-1992, G. Gallardo, 1 ♀; 1-IX-1992, G. Carballo, 1 ♀; 1-XII-1992, G. Carballo, 2 ♀ ( MNCR). Valle La Estrella , Est. Miramar, R. B. Hitoy Cerere, 9.63336, -83.00343; 500 m GoogleMaps   . 1-X-1992, G. Carballo, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Valle de la Estrella, R. B. Hitoy Cerere, Send Espavel , 9.66144, - 83.03071; 560 m, 27-IX-2003 GoogleMaps   , W. Arana, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Talamanca: Bratsi: Amubri , 9.51935, -82.95628; 80 m, 1-II-1994 GoogleMaps   , G. Gallardo, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Puntarenas: Buenos Aires : 9.16464, -83.33670; 352 m, 21-VII-1964 GoogleMaps   , Roberts & Roberts, 1 ♀ ( SEMC). Coto Brus: Estación Pittier, 4.2 km SW del Cerro Gemelo , 9.02566, -82.96269; 1715 m, 5-I-1995 GoogleMaps   , B. Gamboa, 1 ♀; E. Alfaro   , 1 ♀; E. Fletes   , 2 ♀; E. Nunuez   , 1 ♀; L. Angulo   , 1 ♀; 6-I-1995, F. Alvarado, 2 ♀; M. Lobo   , 2 ♀; 23-I-1995, S. Avila, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Finca Cafrosa, Est. Las Mellizas , P. N. Amistad, 8.89141, - 82.76475; 1459 m, 1-X-1989 GoogleMaps   , M. Ramírez, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Guacimal, Finca Buen Amigo Monteverde , 4 km S. de la Reserva, 10.27672, -84.79662; 1032 m, 1-VII-1992 GoogleMaps   , Z. Fuentes, 4 ♀; 1-VIII-1992, Z. Fuentes, 2 ♀; 24-VIII-1992, F. Quesada, 6 ♀; 1-IX-1992, Z. Fuentes, 1 ♀; 1-X-1992, Z. Fuentes, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Guacimal, San Luis, Monteverde , 10.27401, -84.79662; 1116 m, 1-VII-1992 GoogleMaps   , Z. Fuentes, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Monteverde , 10.30690, -84.80970; 1429 m, 22-V-1976 GoogleMaps   , M. Wasbauer, 3 ♀; 22-VI-1986, G. E. Bohart, W. J. Hanson, 1 ♀ ( BBSL). Monteverde, Pensión Quetzal , 28-V-1992   , Jameson & Ratcliffe, 1 ♀ ( SEMC). San Vito , 6 km. S, 8.78430, -82.95844; 1207 m, 30-IV- 1967 GoogleMaps   , D. F. Veirs, 1 ♂ ( BBSL). Sabalito, Finca Cafrosa , 2 km NW de Mellizas, 8.89147, -82.79294; 1228 m, 1-VI- 1991 GoogleMaps   , M. Ramírez, 1 ♀ ( MNCR). Vito-Las Alturas , 8.82083, -82.96944; 992 m, 26-IV-2008 GoogleMaps   , I. Aguilar, 1 ♀ ( CINAT). San José: Acosta: San Ignacio de Acosta , 4 km E, 9.79989, -84.13020; 1265 m, 8-VII-1963 GoogleMaps   , C. D. Michener, 1 ♀ ( BBSL). San Ignacio de Acosta , 4 km E, 9.79145, -84.19698; 1220 m, 8-VII-1963 GoogleMaps   , C. D. Michener, 2 ♀ ( SEMC). Escazú: San Antonio de Escazú , 2 km N, 9.93618, -84.13385; 1046 m, 2-I-1988 GoogleMaps   , 2 ♀ ( SEMC). San José : 9.91189, -84.07362; 1140 m, C. D. Michener: 10-VIII-1962 GoogleMaps   , 3 ♀; 24-VIII-1962, 2 ♀ ( SEMC). San Pedro Montes de Oca , 9.93651, -84.04882; 1200 m, 7-III-2016 GoogleMaps   , M. Calderón, 1 ♀; 10-X-2017, N. Gamboa, 2 ♀ ( MZUCR). Santa Ana , 9.9336, -84.1841, 902 m; 19-X-1992 GoogleMaps   , B. Musmani, 1 ♀; 28-X-1992, E. Jenkins, 1 ♀; B. Musmani   , 2 ♀ ( CINAT). GUATEMALA: Acatenango : 18-VIII-1951   , R. Painter   , 2 ♀ ( SEMC). Amatitlán : 14.46845, -90.58856; 1199 m, 9-I-1980 GoogleMaps   , G. E. Bohart, 1 ♀ ( BBSL). Huehuetenango: La Democracia: Cajuil , 15.63746, -91.78722; 1026 m, 18- XI-2010 GoogleMaps   , P. Sagot, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Pinalito , 15.66530, -91.86180; 963 m, 2-III-2010 GoogleMaps   , C. Balboa, 1 ♀; 17-XI-2010, M. Hurtado, 1 ♀; O. Argüello   , 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). La Libertad: Camojaito , 15.61604, -91.87273; 940 m, 1-III-2010 GoogleMaps   , P. Sagot, 1 ♂ ( ECOAB). San Antonio Huista: San Andrés , 15.71666, -91.74551; 940 m, 30-IV-2010 GoogleMaps   , P. Sagot, 1 ♂ ( ECOAB). HONDURAS: Cortés: Los Naranjos , 15.50860, -87.98231; 52 m, 11-VIII-1970 GoogleMaps   , P.Adams, 1 ♀ ( SEMC). Francisco Morazán: Escuela Agrícola Panamericana , 14.00780, -87.00960; 799 m, - VII-1967 GoogleMaps   , J. S. Packer, 1 ♀ ( BBSL). Zamorano , 14.06600, -86.38352; 461 m, 6-V-1964 GoogleMaps   , G. A. Axtell, 1 ♀ ( BBSL). Zamorano , 14.00919, - 87.00825; 800 m, 5-V-1964 GoogleMaps   , G. Axtell, 1 ♀ ( SEMC). MEXICO: Chiapas   : 4 ♀ 1 ♂ ( ECOAB). Acacoyagua: Ej. Nueva Reforma 1 km. N, 15.44473, -92.69966; 596 m, M. Guzmán GoogleMaps   , 2 ♀ ( ECOAB). Las Golondrinas , 15.43271, - 92.65260; 862 m, 8-XII-2006 GoogleMaps   , C. Balboa, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Rosario Zacatonales , 15.43365, -92.65051; 915 m, 4-III- 2005 GoogleMaps   , M. Rincón, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Angel Albino Corzo: Las Delicias , 15.64350, -92.49969; 823 m, 1-III-2016 GoogleMaps   , 16:30 h, P. Sagot, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Arriaga: Paraje Poza Verde , 16.34207, -93.95440; 466 m, 24-I-2009 GoogleMaps   , M. Guzmán, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Cacahoatán: Cafetales nr. Guatemala border, 15.02144, -92.12874; 687 m, 7-III-2020 GoogleMaps   , 9:30 h, E. Gómez, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). La Concordia : carretera 157, 15.96350, -92.79847; 583 m, 4-III-2020 GoogleMaps   , 12:10 h, E. Gómez, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Mapastepec: Unión los olivos, 15.52120, -92.80115; 316 m, 10-X-2006 GoogleMaps   , J. Mérida, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Unión Los Olivos-orilla del río, 15.52190, -92.79968: 315 m, M. Guzmán : 2-II-2005 GoogleMaps   , 1 ♀; 1-VI-2005, 1 ♀; 27-VI- 2005, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Motozintla de Mendoza: Belisario Domínguez , 15.30410, -92.38110; 791 m, 5-V-2005 GoogleMaps   , C. Pacheco, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Finca Belen , 15.21944, -92.34916; 1337 m, 23-VI-2000 GoogleMaps   , A. Mazariegos, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Salanueva , 15.31660, -92.34023; 1000 m, 3-II-2019 GoogleMaps   , 11:20 h, I. Pérez, 1 ♀; P. Sagot   , 2 ♀ ( ECOAB). Ocozocoautla: 8.1 km N Nuevo México S de Ocozocoautla , 16.69761, -93.41156; 773 m, 2-IV-1993 GoogleMaps   , C. Mendoza, 1 ♀ ( EBCH). 19 km N Ocozocoautla , 16.8842, -93.4542; 962 m, 10-IV-1993 GoogleMaps   , C. Mendoza, 1 ♀ ( EBCH). Tapachula : 36.7 km N Tapachula, 15.103, -92.3097; 440 m, 17-IV-1993 GoogleMaps   , E. Tovar, 1 ♀ ( EBCH). Carrillo Puerto , 15.00700, -92.19880; 530 m, 7-VII-2007 GoogleMaps   , A. Rodríguez, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Finca Vega de los Gatos , 15.02722, -92.23666; 431 m, 7-VII-2007 GoogleMaps   , 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Tapachula , 14.88670, -92.28660; 127 m, 24-VII-1987 GoogleMaps   , R. Vargas   , 1 ♀ 1 ♂ ( ECOAB). Tuxtla Chico: Rosario Izapa , 14.97330, -92.15460; 445 m, 25-XI-1986 GoogleMaps   , A. Penagos, 1 ♀; 24-VII-1987, R. Santos   , 4 ♀; 25-VII- 1987, R. Santos   , 1 ♀; 8-X-1987, L. Mendoza, 1 ♀; 3-V-1993, A. Aquino, 3 ♀; M. Rincón   , 1 ♀; 26-V-2000, M. Trujillo, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Sección La Toma , 14.96603, -92.16450; 410 m, 9-X-1992 GoogleMaps   , 11:00 h, M. Medina, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Tuzantán: Carr. 211 Huixtla—Motozintla , 15.16280, -92.43290; 110 m, 3-II-2019 GoogleMaps   , 8:45 h, P. Sagot, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Unión Juárez: Santo Domingo , 15.03100, -92.10470; 863 m, 27-VI-1997 GoogleMaps   , C. Pérez, 1 ♀; A. Davila   , 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Talquián , 15.08470, -92.08360; 1650 m, 5-V-2005 GoogleMaps   , A. Mora, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Unión Juárez , 15.06180, -92.08000; 1310 m, 10-VIII-1986 GoogleMaps   , J. Cuadriello, 1 ♀; 25-VIII-1986, J. Cuadriello, 1 ♀; 28-VIII-1986, 1 ♀ 1 ♂; 22- IX-1986, 1 ♀; 15-XI-1986, 1 ♂; 23-I-1987, F. Pérez, 1 ♀; 24-IV-1987, F. Pérez, 1 ♀; 1-X-1987, L. Godínez, 1 ♀; 7-I-1988, L. Godínez, 1 ♀; 28-VII-1988, A. Aquino, 8 ♀; 18-VIII-1988, A. Aquino, 3 ♀; 28-VIII-1988, A. Aquino, 1 ♀; 9-X-1988, F. Pérez, 3 ♀; 4-XII-1988, F. Pérez, 1 ♀; 31-VIII-1989, F. Pérez, 1 ♀; 4-X-1989, F. Pérez, 2 ♀; G. López   , 2 ♀; M. Cigarroa   , 2 ♀; 20-VIII-1990, F. Pérez, 1 ♀; 29-VII-1992, A. Aquino, 3 ♀ ( ECOAB). Villa Corzo: Camino a la presa, 16.35593, -92.96260; 660 m, 19-X-2017 GoogleMaps   , 10:40 h, P. Sagot, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). El Parral , 16.36965, -93.02195; 725 m, 19-X-2017 GoogleMaps   , 8:15 h, P. Sagot, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Villaflores: Carr 230, 16.41139, -93.68287; 644 m, 30-I-2019 GoogleMaps   , 12:20 h, P. Sagot, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). Ricardo Flores Magón , 16.26811, -93.64895; 924 m, 29-I-2019 GoogleMaps   , 9:30 h, G. Mera, 1 ♀ ( ECOAB). San Clemente , 16.41820, -93.71358; 608 m, 30-I-2019 GoogleMaps   , 12:50 h, G. Mera, 1 ♀ (ECO- AB). PANAMA: Chiriquí: Boquete : 8.76667, -82.43333; 1061 m, 17-I-1981 GoogleMaps   , C. D. Michener, 3 ♀ ( SEMC). Boquete , 8 km S, 8.69858, -82.45046; 820 m, 5-I-2012 GoogleMaps   , F. D. Parker, T. D. Mcintyre   , 1 ♀ ( BBSL). Cocle: Antón: El Valle de Antón , 8.61163, -80.13148; 600 m, 28-XI-1957 GoogleMaps   , W. Hanson, 1 ♀ ( SEMC). Colón: Buena Vista: Quebrada Bonita Adentro, NW Madden Dam , 9.29997, -79.70027; 173 m, 23-X-1957 GoogleMaps   , W. J. Hanson, 1 ♂ ( BBSL). Pipeline Road, Gamboa , 9.12149, -79.70061; 91 m, J. A. Bishop: 1-I-1992 GoogleMaps   , 1 ♀, 6-I-1992, 1 ♀ ( BBSL). Panama: Balboa: Albrook Field , 8.96984, -79.56218; 5 m, 24-X-1937 GoogleMaps   , L. Stannard, 1 ♀; 16-I-1938, L. Stannard, 1 ♀ ( SEMC). Cerro Azul , N of Tucumen, 8.80000, -82.38333; 2180 m, 17-XI-1957 GoogleMaps   , Hanson & Fairchild, 1 ♂ ( SEMC), 20-VII-1958   , W. J. Hanson, 1 ♀ ( BBSL). Chilibre , 9.15718, -79.61893; 45 m, 4-I-1946 GoogleMaps   , C. D. Michener, 1 ♀ ( SEMC). Curundú , 8.98542, -79.53661; 24 m, 4-I-1981 GoogleMaps   , C. D. Michener, 2 ♀; 11-I-1981, C. D. Michener, 1 ♀; 19-V-1981, R. Brooks   , 5 ♀ ( SEMC). Panama Oeste: Arraiján: Cerro Galera , 8.93178, -79.61478; 142 m, 22-VIII-1958 GoogleMaps   , W. Hanson, 1 ♀ ( SEMC). Capira: Cerro Campana , 8 km NW Capira, 8.75414, -79.96993; 343 m, 4-V-1981 GoogleMaps   , R. Brooks   , 1 ♀; 7-V- 1981, R. Brooks   , 1 ♀ ( SEMC). Chame : 8.57884, -79.87673; 18 m, 29-IV-1995 GoogleMaps   , C. D. Michener, 1 ♀ ( SEMC)   .

Commentaries. X. frontalis   may be confused with X. fimbriata   and X. nautlana   but may be distinguished from these by the middle ocellus that divides the two projections.

MNCR

Museo Nacional de Costa Rica

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

BBSL

USDA, Agriculture Research Service, Pollinating Insects-- Biology, Management and Systematics Research

SEMC

University of Kansas - Biodiversity Institute

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Apidae

Genus

Xylocopa

Loc

Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) frontalis ( Olivier, 1789 )

Mérida-Rivas, Jorge A., Hinojosa-Díaz, Ismael A., Ayala-Barajas, Ricardo, Pozo, Carmen & Vandame, Rémy 2022
2022
Loc

Xylocopa americana

Prance, G. T. 1976: 238
1976
Loc

Xylocopa (Megaxylocopa) frontalis, Hurd & Moure, 1963: 151

Minckley, R. L. 1998: 151
Hurd, P. D. Jr. & Moure, J. S. 1963: 151
1963
Loc

Xylocopa frontalis var. obscuripennis

Hurd, P. D. Jr. 1978: 82
Cockerell, T. A. 1949: 484
1949
Loc

Xylocopa frontalis var. purpureipennis

Hurd, P. D. Jr. 1978: 81
Cockerell, T. A. 1949: 484
1949
Loc

Xylocopa frontalis fabricii

Hurd, P. D. Jr. 1978: 81
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1926: 658
1926
Loc

Xylocopa frontalis roseata

Hurd, P. D. Jr. 1978: 81
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1926: 658
1926
Loc

Xylocopa frontalis trinitatis

Hurd, P. D. Jr. 1978: 81
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1926: 658
1926
Loc

Xylocopa frontalis var. coeruleomicans

Hurd, P. D. Jr. 1978: 81
Enderlein, G. 1913: 158
1913
Loc

Xylocopa frontalis var. viridimicans

Hurd, P. D. Jr. 1978: 81
Enderlein, G. 1913: 158
1913
Loc

Xylocopa morio callichlora

Hurd, P. D. Jr. 1978: 81
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1911: 287
1911
Loc

Xylocopa frontalis quadrimaculata

Hurd, P. D. Jr. 1978: 81
Meunier, F. 1890: 64
1890
Loc

Xylocopa fasciata

Smith, F. 1874: 284
Lepeletier, A. L. M. 1841: 202
1841
Loc

Xylocopa nitens

Hurd, P. D. Jr. 1978: 81
Lepeletier, A. L. M. 1841: 176
1841
Loc

Apis frontalis

Olivier, G. A. 1789: 64
1789