Hapalotremus vilcanota, Ferretti & Cavallo & Chaparro & Ríos-Tamayo & Seimon & West, 2018

Ferretti, Nelson, Cavallo, Patricio, Chaparro, Juan C., Ríos-Tamayo, Duniesky, Seimon, Tracie A. & West, Rick, 2018, The Neotropical genus Hapalotremus Simon, 1903 (Araneae: Theraphosidae), with the description of seven new species and the highest altitude record for the family, Journal of Natural History (J. Nat. Hist.) 52 (29 - 30), pp. 1927-1984: 1975-1978

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1080/00222933.2018.1506521

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:1C028676-CCD9-4654-A755-6ACA3BCE3E98

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/FD618785-AA75-CA0A-1BCD-CD1DFB2566BD

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Hapalotremus vilcanota
status

sp. nov.

Hapalotremus vilcanota   sp. nov.

( Figures 2c–f View Figure 2 , 3e, g–j View Figure 3 , 34 View Figure 34 , 35 View Figure 35 , 37 View Figure 37 )

Type material

Female holotype ( MUSM – ENT 0508677) from Peru, Upis, Cordillera Vilcanota (- 13.7594 S, - 71.2703 W), 4524 m a GoogleMaps   .s GoogleMaps   .l., 4 July 2006, Tracie Seimon col.; two paratypes females ( MUSM – ENT 0508680, 0508681), same data as holotype GoogleMaps   .

Additional material examined

Immature ( MUSM – ENT 0508679) from Peru, Upis, Cordillera Vilcanota (- 13.7594 S, - 71.2703 W), 4485 m a GoogleMaps   .s GoogleMaps   .l., 4 July 2006, Tracie Seimon col. GoogleMaps  

Etymology

The specific epithet refers to the type locality where this species was found and also to the Cordillera Vilcanota which is a mountain chain located at southeastern Peru; the range extends for about 120 km through Puno and Cusco Departments   . It is the second largest snowy concentration in Peru, with 469 glaciers in an area of about 418 km 2   . It reaches its maximum altitude in the snowy Ausangate , with 6372 m a   .s   .l. ( Salzmann et al. 2013).

Diagnosis

Females of H. vilcanota   sp. nov. differ from those of the other species of Hapalotremus   by the colour pattern, with carapace dark with white setae on margins almost reaching cephalic area and on the fovea; legs and palp with dark femora, the remaining segments white and abdomen ventrally and laterally white almost to dorsal region ( Figure 2c, d View Figure 2 , 34a–e View Figure 34 ). Additionally, females of H. vilcanota   sp. nov. can be distinguished from those of all species by the spermathecae with basal portion wider than apical and with a noticeable constriction on median lateral area; apical median region domed, and apical lateral projections well developed and laterally located ( Figure 35e View Figure 35 ). Male unknown.

Description

Holotype female (MUSM–ENT 0508677): Total length (not including chelicerae and spinnerets) 24.4. Carapace: length, 9.3; width 8.2. Abdomen: length 15.0. Fovea: procurved, width 2.0.

Colour pattern (live specimen): carapace dark, with whitish setae on margins reaching almost cephalic area and on the fovea; chelicerae with white setae; legs and palp with dark femora, the remaining segments white; abdomen dorsally black with red setae on urticating patch, abdomen ventrally and laterally white ( Figure 2c, d View Figure 2 ).

Eyes: anterior eye row procurved, posterior recurved. Eyes sizes and interdistances: AME 0.14, ALE 0.16, PME 0.20, PLE 0.12, AME–AME 0.26, AME–ALE 0.09, PME–PME 0.52, PME–PLE 0.04, ALE–PLE 0.13, Ocular tubercle: length, 1.0; width, 1.25. Clypeus: length, 0.15. Labium: length, 1.25; width, 2.25, with 12 cuspules ( Figure 35b View Figure 35 ). Maxillae: right with 126 cuspules, left with 117 cuspules. Sternum: length, 4.0; width, 4.1. Three pairs of sternal oval sigillae, first pair hardly visible, second and third pairs visible, third pair less than its length from the margin ( Figure 34b View Figure 34 ). Chelicerae: with 13 well-developed teeth on promargin of furrow and 16 small teeth on the retromargin.

Leg formula: IV> I> II> III. Length of legs and palpal segments (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 6.7, 4.6, 5.1, 4.5, 3.3, 24.2; II: 6.4, 4.0, 4.0, 3.8, 3.2, 21.4; III: 5.2, 3.2, 3.5, 4.1, 3.0, 19.0; IV: 6.9, 4.1, 5.4, 6.2, 3.2, 25.8; palp: 5.2, 3.2, 3.5, –, 3.0, 14.9. Field of spiniform setae on basal retrolateral coxal face of palp and legs I–IV. Spinnerets: PMS, 0.75 long; PLS, three-segmented, 4.0 long.

Scopulae: All tarsi densely scopulate and divided by conical long setae increasing in number from tarsus I to IV ( Figure 35c, d View Figure 35 ). Metatarsi I 1/2 scopulate divided by two rows of setae, II 1/2 scopulate divided by two rows of setae, III 1/3 scopulate divided by more than four rows of setae, IV with no scopulae. Dorsal face of all tarsi with two parallel rows of non-plumose clavate trichobothria interspersed with filiform, separated by a row of long, thin setae.

Chaetotaxy (left side): Femora of palp and Leg I, 1d. Patellae of Leg IV, 1v. Tibiae: palp 0; I 0; II 1v, III 3v, 2-1p, 1-1r; IV 2v, 1p, 1r. Metatarsi: I 2v; II 2v; III 1-2v, 2-1-2-2p, 1-1-1r; IV 2-2-3v, 1-1-1r. Tarsi: I–IV 0.

Genitalia: Single spermathecal receptacle with basal portion wider than apical and with noticeable constriction and bulge on median lateral area; apical median area domed and apical lateral projections well developed ( Figure 35e View Figure 35 ).

Urticating setae: Type III present and arranged in one dorsal median patch on the abdomen ( Figure 34d View Figure 34 ).

Variation

Total length, females (n = 3): 24.4–25.4 (mean = 24.8 ± 0.5SD), carapace length, females: 9.3–11.1 (10.4 ± 0.9). Length of palp and legs, females: palp 12.5–14.9 (14.1 ± 1.3), I 22.5– 24.6 (23.7 ± 1.1), II 20.1–22.4 (21.2 ± 1.05), III 17.2–24.2 (20.5 ± 3.5), IV 24.6–25.8 (25.1 ± 0.6). Labial cuspules, females 8–12, maxillary cuspules, right 91–126, left 87–124.

Distribution and habitat

Known only from type locality ( Figure 37 View Figure 37 ). This species was found living at about 4500 m a.s.l. ( Figure 3e, g–j View Figure 3 ). At this area, global elevation records have been documented for agricultural and flowering plants, orchids, amphibians, pelecypods and lizards ( Seimon et al. 2007, 2017). The Cordillera Vilcanota mountain range is among the highest in Peru, with the highest peak (Nevado Ausangate) at 6384 m a.s.l., and glaciers terminating around 4700–5000 m a.s.l. ( Salzmann et al. 2013). Climatically, this area experiences two distinct seasons: a wet and warm (1–2°C higher) season during the summer in southern hemisphere (October–November to April–March) and a dry and cold season (April–May to September–October) ( Rabatel et al. 2013). As a result, most of the precipitation falls during the warm and wet season ( Hanshaw and Bookhagen 2014). High-alpine ecosystems are unique habitats with extreme conditions and at such elevations, atmospheric pressure is 50–60% that of sea level, and plants are adapted to a lower CO 2 environment ( Halloy 1981). Specimens were observed in burrows constructed under big rocks ( Figure 2e, f View Figure 2 ). One adult female was found together with 27 early instar offspring in the same burrow on 4 July 2006.

Identification key to the species of male Hapalotremus  

Males of H. carabaya   sp. nov., H. kuka   sp. nov., H. marcapata   sp. nov. and H. vilcanota   sp. nov. are unknown.

1. Presence of digitiform apophysis at basal tegulum of copulatory bulb ( Figure 8b View Figure 8 ) .................................................................................................................................... 2

– Absence of digitiform apophysis ( Figures 20a View Figure 20 , 31a View Figure 31 ).......................................................... 3

2. Numerous labial cuspules (usually more than 20) ( Figure 19b View Figure 19 )........ H. chasqui   sp. nov.

– Few labial cuspules (about four to eight) ( Figure 30e View Figure 30 )... ... H. perezmilesi   sp. nov.

3. Embolus with an accessory keel (AK) on tip ( Figure 14a, e View Figure 14 )...... ...... H. martinorum  

– Embolus without an accessory keel on tip............................................................................ 4

4. Long spiniform setae on entire pro- and retrolateral coxal faces of legs I–IV ( Figure 10b View Figure 10 , see also Figure 21d View Figure 21 ).............................................................................. H. major  

– Absence of spiniform setae on coxae of legs ...................................................................... 5

5. Embolus almost straight ( Figure 24a–d View Figure 24 ); tibia I as long as metatarsus I ( Figure 23f View Figure 23 ).... .................................................................................................................................. H. chespiritoi   sp. nov.

– Embolus very curved ( Figure 8a–d View Figure 8 ); tibia I shorter than metatarsus I ( Figure 7g View Figure 7 )... ................................................................................................................................................ H. albipes  

Identification key to the species of female Hapalotremus   1. Presence of long spiniform setae on entire pro- and retrolateral coxal faces of legs I–IV ( Figure 21b, d View Figure 21 )....................................................................................................................................................... 2

– Absence of such spiniform setae.................................................................................................. 3

2. Reduced number of labial cuspules (about five) ( Figure 12d View Figure 12 ); basal portion of spermathecae narrower than apical region and lateral projections slightly developed ( Figure 12g View Figure 12 )................................................................. ................................................................. H. major  

– Numerous labial cuspules (about 25) ( Figure 22a View Figure 22 ); basal portion of spermathecae wider than apical region ( Figure 22e View Figure 22 ) and lateral projections well developed and located apically................................................................................................ H. chasqui   sp. nov.

3. Reduced number of labial cuspules (less than 20), usually between 5 and 15 ............. 4

– Large number of labial cuspules (more than 20) .................................................................. 9

4. Femora of palp and legs I–IV bearing one dorsal spine........ H. marcapata   sp. nov.

– Femora of palp and legs I–IV without dorsal spine ............................................................. 5

5. Spermathecae of female with one additional well-developed apical median projection with a long thin wavy groove extending downward dorsal median region from this projection ( Figure 18e–f View Figure 18 )................................................................ H. carabaya   sp. nov.

– Spermathecae of female without additional projection..................................................... 6

6. Spermathecae of female with apical lateral projections well developed ( Figures 26e View Figure 26 , 35e View Figure 35 )............................................................................................................................................................ 7

– Spermathecae of female with apical lateral projections slightly developed or almost inconspicuous ( Figures 9j View Figure 9 , 33e View Figure 33 ) ..................................................................................................... 8

7. Small body size (less than 25 mm in total length); spermathecae with a noticeable constriction and bulge on median lateral area ( Figure 35e View Figure 35 ).............. H. vilcanota   sp. nov.

– Larger body size (about 35 mm in total length); spermathecae without such constriction and bulge on median lateral area ( Figure 26e View Figure 26 ) H. chespiritoi   sp. nov.

8. Abdomen dark without white spots; spermathecae oblong with apical lateral projections almost inconspicuous ( Figure 33e View Figure 33 )............ ............ H. perezmilesi   sp. nov.

– Abdomen dark with two or three white spots, largest spot arrow-shaped, and three or four posterior lateral white lines ( Figure 9c View Figure 9 ); spermathecae with basal portion wider than apical ( Figure 9j View Figure 9 )........................................................................................ H. albipes  

9. Spermathecae with lateral projections well-developed and apically oriented ( Figure 27g View Figure 27 )............................................................................................................ H. kuka   sp. nov.

– Spermathecae with lateral projections less developed and laterally oriented ( Figure 16e View Figure 16 )....................................................... ....................................................... H. martinorum