Hapalotremus chasqui, Ferretti & Cavallo & Chaparro & Ríos-Tamayo & Seimon & West, 2018

Ferretti, Nelson, Cavallo, Patricio, Chaparro, Juan C., Ríos-Tamayo, Duniesky, Seimon, Tracie A. & West, Rick, 2018, The Neotropical genus Hapalotremus Simon, 1903 (Araneae: Theraphosidae), with the description of seven new species and the highest altitude record for the family, Journal of Natural History (J. Nat. Hist.) 52 (29 - 30), pp. 1927-1984 : 1960-1967

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1080/00222933.2018.1506521

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:1C028676-CCD9-4654-A755-6ACA3BCE3E98

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/BBCB7DD1-FDB9-45CA-BFBE-B5DB816C6DAC

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:BBCB7DD1-FDB9-45CA-BFBE-B5DB816C6DAC

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Hapalotremus chasqui
status

sp. nov.

Hapalotremus chasqui   sp. nov.

( Figures 1e View Figure 1 , 19–22 View Figure 19 View Figure 20 View Figure 21 View Figure 22 , 36 View Figure 36 )

Type material

Male holotype ( MACN –Ar 36632) from Argentina, Tucumán, Tafí del Valle, road to Tafí del Valle, 4.5 km west of ‘ El Indio’ , 14 October 1994, P   . Goloboff col   .; paratype female

( MACN –Ar 35596) from Argentina, Tucumán, Tafí del Valle, El Indio (road to Tafí del Valle ), 17 January 1981, A   . Roig col   .

Additional material examined

Immature male ( LZI 542 ) from Argentina, Tucumán, Tafí del Valle, route 307, El Aluvión, road to Tafí del Valle (- 27.0208 S, - 65.6581 W), 1349 m a GoogleMaps   .s GoogleMaps   .l., under stone, 15 February 2017, Nelson Ferretti col .; female ( MACN – Ar 38151) from Argentina, Jujuy, Ledesma, Calilegua (- 23.6714 S, - 64.8661 W), October 1968, M GoogleMaps   . E GoogleMaps   . Galiano col .; female ( MACN – Ar 38192) from Argentina, Salta, General José de San Martín, Bermejo River , 80 km southern Embarcación (- 23.1806 S, - 64.1414 W), February 1948, M GoogleMaps   . Lillo col GoogleMaps   .

Etymology

The specific epithet is a noun taken in apposition and refers to the personal messengers of the Inca, named ‘ chasqui   ’ in Quechua language, which means young runner. The chasqui   ran from one post to another to deliver messages or objects ( Academia Mayor de Lengüa Quechua 2005).

Diagnosis

Males and females resemble those of H. martinorum   and H. kuka   sp. nov. by their small size (about 2 cm long) and the large number of labial cuspules (more than 25), but differ from them by the presence of long spiniform setae on prolateral coxal face of legs I–IV ( Figure 21d View Figure 21 ). Males can be distinguished from those of H. martinorum   by the presence of two spines on the retrolateral branch of tibial apophysis ( Figure 19f View Figure 19 ), by lacking the digitiform apophysis on the bulb ( Figure 20a, b View Figure 20 ) and by the absence of an accessory keel on embolus ( Figure 20a, b View Figure 20 ); also by the pointed ventral crest on PI, located more apically on embolus ( Figure 20a, b View Figure 20 ). Females can also be distinguished from those of all other species by the spermathecae with basal portion wider than apical, apical median region straight and apical lateral projections well-developed ( Figure 22e View Figure 22 ).

Description

Holotype male (MACN–Ar 36632): Total length (not including chelicerae and spinnerets) 21.26, carapace length 10.06, width 9.40, abdomen 11.20 long. Fovea transverse, small and straight, width 1.10.

Colour pattern (in alcohol): carapace reddish brown with white long setae on margins ( Figure 19a View Figure 19 ), legs like carapace with fine white setae on coxae, abdomen brown with long light yellow setae and an urticating setae patch.

Eyes: anterior eye row procurved, posterior recurved ( Figure 19a, c View Figure 19 ). Eyes sizes and interdistances: AME 0.15, ALE 0.44, PME 0.20, PLE 0.40, AME–AME 0.25, AME–ALE 0.11, PME–PME 0.53, PME–PLE 0.08, ALE–PLE 0.09. Ocular tubercle length 0.81, width 1.37, clypeus 0.24. Labium length 1.40, width 2.10 with 26 cuspules ( Figure 19b View Figure 19 ). Maxillae: right with 104 cuspules, left with 96 cuspules. Sternum length 4.40, width 4.30. Three pairs of sternal oval sigillae, third pair about its length and a half from the margin ( Figure 19b View Figure 19 ). Chelicerae with 13 well-developed teeth on promargin of furrow and 5 small teeth on retromargin.

Leg formula: IV> I> II> III. Length of legs and palpal segments (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 9.40, 5.20, 7.30, 6.60, 4.20, 32.70; II: 9.40, 4.70, 6.60, 7.00, 4.20, 31.90; III: 8.20, 4.20, 6.10, 8.30, 4.20, 31.00; IV: 10.30, 4.70, 8.00, 10.20, 5.20, 38.40; palp: 6.60, 3.60, 5.60, –, 2.80, 18.60. Field of spiniform setae on basal retrolateral coxal face of palp and legs I–IV. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.80 long; PLS, three-segmented, 1.80 basal, 1.20 middle, 1.90 distal long.

Scopulae: All tarsi densely scopulate and divided by conical long setae increasing in number from tarsus I to IV. Metatarsi I–II 1/2 divided by two lines of setae, III 1/3 scopulate divided by three lines of setae, IV with no scopulae. Dorsal face of all tarsi and cymbium with two parallel rows of non-plumose clavate trichobothria interspersed with filiform, separated by a row of long, thin setae.

Chaetotaxy (left side, leg I of the left side missing): Femora; palp 1p; I 1p; II 1-1-1p; III 1-1p, 1-1-1r; IV 1p, 1r; patellae; palp 0; I 1v; II 1v; III 1-2p; IV 1v; tibiae: palp 1p; I 2-3-1-1v, 1-1p; II 2-3-1-4v, 1-1-1p, 1r; III 2-2-1-2v, 2-1-2-2-1p, 1-1-1r; IV 2-1-2-1-2v, 2-1-1-1-1p, 1-1r; metatarsi I 2-0-2v; II 1-1-1-1-2-3v, 1-1p, 1-1r; III 2-1-2-1-2-2-3v, 1-1-1-1p, 1-1-1r; IV 3-1-1-2- 2-2v, 1-1-1-1p, 1-2-1r; tarsi I–IV, 0.

Tibia I about 10% shorter than metatarsus I. Tibia I with two apophyses, prolateral branch with a long black thorn on inner side, slightly curved at tip and longer than the spur, retrolateral branch with a small spine on the base of the inner side, a robust and long black spine inserted on ventral side of the spur ( Figure 19e, f View Figure 19 ). Metatarsus I curved at middle area, flexion on the outside of the two branches ( Figure 19e View Figure 19 ).

Palp: palpal tibia with a developed retrolateral rounded process ( Figures 19d View Figure 19 , 20d View Figure 20 ). Palpal bulb base without digitiform apophysis, embolus subcylindrical, strongly curved to the retrolateral side. Prolateral keels well-developed, PI with ventral medial crest pointed distally and apical keel (A) slightly developed ( Figure 20a, b View Figure 20 ).

Urticating setae: type III present and arranged in one dorsal posterior patch on the abdomen.

Paratype female (MACN–Ar 35596): Total length (not including chelicerae and spinnerets), 24.3, carapace length, 11.5, width 8.4, abdomen 11.3 long. Fovea procurved, width 1.3.

Colour pattern (in alcohol): carapace and legs pale brown, abdomen brown with long white setae on dorsal area ( Figure 21a–e View Figure 21 ).

Eyes: anterior eye row procurved, posterior recurved ( Figure 22b View Figure 22 ). Eyes sizes and interdistances: AME 0.16, ALE 0.25, PME 0.15, PLE 0.16, AME–AME 0.23, AME–ALE 0.14, PME–PME 0.58, PME–PLE 0.08, ALE–PLE 0.12. Ocular tubercle length 0.8, width 1.25, clypeus 0.15. Labium length 1.55, width 1.50 with 22 cuspules ( Figure 22a View Figure 22 ). Maxillae: right with 97 cuspules, left with 83 cuspules. Sternum length 4.0, width 4.1. Three pairs of sternal oval sigillae, pairs visible, third pair about its length from the margin ( Figure 21b View Figure 21 ). Chelicerae with 13 well-developed teeth on promargin of furrow and 11 small teeth on the retromargin.

Leg formula: IV> II> III> I. Length of legs and palpal segments (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 4.9, 3.4, 5.1, 3.1, 3.2, 19.7; II: 6.2, 3.5, 4.3, 4.7, 3.5, 22.2; III: 5.2, 3.6, 4.4, 5.1, 3.2, 21.5; IV: 7.0, 3.6, 6.4, 7.2, 3.1, 27.3; palp: 3.2, 2.2, 3.7, –, 3.1, 12.2. Field of spiniform setae on basal retrolateral coxal face of palp and legs I–IV. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.1 long; PLS, three-segmented, 3.8 long.

Scopulae: All tarsi densely scopulate and divided by conical long setae increasing in number from tarsus I to IV. Metatarsi I 1/2 scopulate entire, II 1/3 scopulate entire, III 1/3 scopulate divided by three lines of setae, IV with no scopulae. Dorsal face of all tarsi with two parallel rows of non-plumose clavate trichobothria interspersed with filiform, separated by a row of long, thin setae.

Chaetotaxy (left side): Femora of legs and palp 1d; patellae of legs and palp 0; tibiae: palp 1-2v, 1-1p; I 1-2v, 1r; II 1-2v, 1p; III 1-1-2v, 1-1-1p, 1-1r; IV 1-2-2v, 1-1-1p, 1-1r; metatarsi: I 2-2v, 1r; II 1-1v, 1-1-1r, 1-1p; III 1-1-1v, 2-2-1-2p, 1-1-2-1r; IV 1-1d, 1-1-2v, 2-1- 2p, 1-1-2-1-2r; tarsi I–IV, 0.

Genitalia: Single spermathecal receptacle with basal portion wider than apical; apical median region straight and apical lateral projections well developed ( Figure 22e View Figure 22 ).

Urticating setae: Type III present and arranged in one big dorsal median patch on the abdomen ( Figure 21c View Figure 21 ).

Distribution and habitat

This is the second species reported for Argentina, after H. martinorum   . Hapalotremus chasqui   sp. nov. distributed at about 1300–2000 m a.s.l. in the Yungas region ( Figure 3b, c View Figure 3 ) ( Figure 36 View Figure 36 ) at Tucumán, Jujuy and Salta Provinces. The prevailing climate in this area is temperate with low humidity and winter snowfalls. The average maximum temperature in summer (January) is about 26°C, whereas in winter (July) it is about 16°C, with temperatures dropping as low as −10°C being common. East of this area, in Tucumán Province, is moist and consists of grasslands with groves of conifer, deciduous and pepper trees, while west of this area is less moisture, favouring the presence of scattered cacti such as ‘ cardón ’.

MACN

Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia