Paraleyrodes perplexus, John H. Martin, 2004

John H. Martin, 2004, Whiteflies of Belize (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Part 1 — introduction and account of the subfamily Aleurodicinae Quaintance & Baker, Zootaxa 681, pp. 1-86: 67-68

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.158856

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scientific name

Paraleyrodes perplexus

sp. nov.

Paraleyrodes perplexus  sp. nov.

(Figs 121–122)

PUPARIUM. Margin. Puparial outline ovoid, 0.68–0.90 mm long, widest at about metathorax (n= 21). Margin smooth to slightly irregular, not modified at thoracic tracheal openings. Dorsum. Abdominal segmentation distinct almost as far laterad as compound pores; abdominal segment VII medially similar in length to segment VI. Puparial cuticle without pigmentation and without median sclerotisation that stains differentially. Pores. Cephalic and posteriormost four abdominal pairs of compound pores subequal in size and structure, each 20–25 µ m in overall outer diameter, outer ring with cells only faintly marked as radial "spokes"; anteriormost two pairs of abdominal compound pores similar in outer diameter to, or a little smaller than, remainder, each 15–20 µ m in outer diameter; compound pores appear as those of P. pseudonaranjae Martin  (Fig. 119). Abdominal segment IV with 2–5 submedian bright simple pores, on each side of median line; similar pores also present subdorsally on thorax and abdomen, usually a single pore situated on each side of abdominal segments III and V –VIII. Immediately inside puparial margin is a single row of crater­like pores (Fig. 121), usually viewed laterally through down­curving of puparial margin, about 2 pores per pair of submarginal setae. Other characters typical for Paraleyrodes  (see generic discussion, above, and fig. 119).

ADULT MALE. Body 1.02–1.17 mm long, including parameres (n= 5). Aedeagal apex (Figs 122 a –d) with a single dorsal, thumb­like, process and ventrally with a pair of slightly recurved prongs that appear to be variably membraneous on their posterior edges. Last abdominal segment short, only about 0.10 mm long, normal, similar in length to ultimate rostral segment; claspers 0.125 –0.14 mm long.

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype adult male, BELIZE, CFR, Las Cuevas forest, on Piper yucatanense  ( Piperaceae  ), 2004 (J.H.Martin # 8003 A) ( BMNH). Paratypes: 2 adult males, 15 puparia, 1 third­instar larva / puparium intermoult, same data as holotype ( BMNH, USNM).

Other material: 1 adult male, San Pastor track, on undetermined Asteraceae  , 14.ii. 1996 (Martin # 6662); 1 adult male, 1 puparium with fully developed pre­emergence female, on undetermined woody broadleaf host, Monkey Tail track, 2004 (Martin # 7972); 1 adult male, 5 puparia, Las Cuevas forest, on Casearia sylvestris  ( Flacourtiaceae  ), 30.v. 2004 (Martin # 7950) (all BMNH).

ETYMOLOGY. The specific name is the Latin adjective perplexus  (meaning intricate or confused), reflecting the apparent plasticity of the aedeagal apex in males.

COMMENTS. This species is very similar to P. pseudonaranjae Martin (2001)  , but both the adult male and the puparium display differences. The puparial differences are more consistent: those of P. perplexus  possess a row of rather large crater­like pores in the outer submargin (Fig. 121), whereas those of P. pseudonaranjae  do not (Fig. 119); there is a small bright pore to either side of the vasiform orifice (abdominal segment VIII) in P. perplexus  , but this pair of pores is wanting in P. pseudonaranjae  (Fig. 119). All of the adult males determined as P. perplexus  have the aegeagal apex somewhat different to those of P. pseudonaranjae  . However, there is a degree of variation shown in the aedeagus of P. perplexus  (Fig. 122 a –d), seemingly to do with the degree of devlopment of the membraneous posterior edges of the ventral prongs.

There remains slight doubt as to whether two males, with the most acute aedeagal prongs (aedeagus of one shown in fig. 122 e), are conspecific with the other specimens of P. perplexus  . At the time of this study, no reliably identified material of P. pseudonaranjae  has been seen from anywhere in its native Neotropical Region, and it therefore remains possible that these two individuals could be variants of P. pseudonaranjae  , whose typical aedeagus is also shown here (Fig. 120). The holotype and paratypes of P. perplexus  have therefore been selected from a single sample, from which three adult males were reared in culture (see above); the other available material is not given paratype status.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History