Aleurodicus vinculus, John H. Martin, 2004

John H. Martin, 2004, Whiteflies of Belize (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Part 1 — introduction and account of the subfamily Aleurodicinae Quaintance & Baker, Zootaxa 681, pp. 1-86: 30-32

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.158856

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Aleurodicus vinculus

sp. nov.

Aleurodicus vinculus  sp. nov.

( Figs 11, 79–80)

PUPARIUM. Habitus. Unknown — only post­emergence pupal cases and one unviable puparium found. Margin. Outline broadly oval, 1.12–1.37 mm long, 0.92–1.09 mm wide, widest at abdominal segment III/IV (n= 4). Margin smooth, but a row of pore­like structures present immediately inside margin lend the margin an irregular appearance when seen in relief — margin requires to be completely flattened for its true character to be visible (Fig. 80); margin not modified at tracheal openings. Dorsum. Cuticle pale. Longitudinal moulting suture reaching puparial margin; transverse moulting sutures reaching into submargin. Dorsal disc smooth. Abdominal segment VII not discernible medially, only 7 segments visible on median line, the pockets extending into segment VI ( Fig. 11). Vasiform orifice broadly cordate, smooth; operculum transversely rounded­rectangular, its posterior edge with a pair of stout setae; lingula head very large, rather coarsely spinulose, tongue­shaped, its apex almost attaining posterior margin of puparium ( Fig. 11), its 4 setae conspicuously subapical in position. Chaetotaxy. Anterior marginal setae not evident in the small study sample; posterior marginal setae very stout, similar to caudal setae. Submargin with a row of 12 pairs of hair­like setae present, including the nominal caudal pair; single pairs of pro­, meso­ and metathoracic and eighth abdominal setae present, similar to cephalothoracic submarginal pairs; eighth abdominal setae situated anteromesal to anterior corners of operculum. Pores. Cephalic and anterior 4 pairs of abdominal compound pores large, 40–60 µ m in diameter, size correlated with overall puparium size, their axial processes truncate and hardly protruding beyond pore mouths in the small study sample (Fig. 80); small compound pores, on abdominal segments VII and VIII ( Fig. 11), presenting laterally, ~ 16 µ m wide, with two protuberant basal cells, the pores appearing bell­shaped, with rounded apices and smooth margins. Extreme outer submargin with a single row of dark, pore­like structures (Fig. 80), 7–10 per 0.1 mm (but see Margin, above); between puparial margin and row of submarginal setae lies a regular row of elongate 8 ­shaped pores ( Figs 11, 80), each less than a pore­length from its adjacent neighbours, 4–5 occupying 0.1 mm, the cephalothoracic region sometimes with a few additional 8 ­shaped pores mesal to the main row. Dorsal disc with many septate pores present, many arranged in distinctive chain­like lines (Fig. 79); submedian areas of cephalic region, prothorax and abdominal segments II –VIII each with a single chain on either side of the median line, lying parallel to the intersegmental divisions (thus transverse on anterior abdominal segments, but almost longitudinal on abdominal segment VIII); meso­ and metathorax each with a pair of chains of septate pores which converge towards the median line and forming a shallow “X” shape on each segment (Fig. 79); in the subdorsum, slightly less chain­like rows of septate pores extend between the compound pores, parallel to the transverse moulting sutures. Dorsal disc with scattered tiny pores present that are not in geminate pairs. Ve n t e r. Ventral abdominal setae similar in length to posterior abdominal submarginal setae, but finer. Legs each two­segmented, smooth, the distal segments with a small number of tiny setae and a stout apical claw; middle and hind legs each with a small basal seta; fore legs each with two closely­adjacent minute basal setae with bright bases. Antennal bases situated anteromesal to fore legs, their apices reaching mid­length of hind legs ( Fig. 11). Tracheal folds absent.

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype puparium, BELIZE, CFR, San Pastor track, from a tangle of undetermined woody vines, 20.xi. 1994 (J.H.Martin # 6492 A) ( BMNH). Paratypes: 2 puparia, same data as holotype ( BMNH); 1, same locality, undetermined woody broadleaf host, 23.iii. 2003 (Martin) ( BMNH).

ETYMOLOGY. The specific epithet is the Latin word vinculus  (meaning a band or chain), reflecting the chain­like lines of septate pores running across the submedian part of the dorsal disc in puparia of this species.

COMMENTS. Only a single sample comprising three puparia, and a further single specimen, are known, and these were initially tentatively identified as a variant of A. trinidadensis Quaintance & Baker. In  comparison with study material of A. trinidadensis  from Trinidad, the Belizean specimens have a much greater number of small septate pores on the dorsal disc, these arranged in distinct chain­like rows across the submedian areas of the cephalothorax and abdominal segments II –VIII; on the meso­ and metathorax, there are two such chains of pores. Without more study samples, the degree of variation in A. trinidadensis  is uncertain, but A. vinculus  is considered to be distinct, defined by these chains of septate pores.

Aleuronudus Hempel, 1922 a: 5  . Type species Aleuronudus induratus Hempel  , by monotypy. Pseudaleurodicus Bondar, 1923 a: 85 –87. Type species Aleuronudus induratus Hempel  , by original designation. [Synonymised by Costa Lima, 1928: 137, through community of type species, and discussed by Mound & Halsey, 1978: 236.]

Hexaleurodicus Bondar, 1923 a: 84  . Type species Hexaleurodicus jaciae Bondar. Syn.  nov.

DIAGNOSIS AND COMMENTS. As interpreted here, Aleuronudus  comprises species with the following combination of characters: submedian cephalothoracic setal pairs absent; with 6 pairs of abdominal compound pores of at least two, often three, sizes present, never distributed in an even arc and never all evenly spaced ( Figs 13, 14); two pairs of cicatrices (scars of third­instar compound pores) present on thoracic area; central part of each large compound pore usually occupied by bundled rods that do not protrude beyond the pore; dorsum without distinct groupings of simple pores, except sometimes in extreme outer submargin (Fig. 81); 12 pairs of submarginal setae present (including the nominal caudal pair).

The only difference between the puparia of Hexaleurodicus jaciae  and those of Aleuronudus  species is the displacement of the anterior two pairs of abdominal compound pores towards the median line of the body in H. jaciae  . All other characters are entirely typical for Aleuronudus  , and Hexaleurodicus  is therefore considered its junior synonym (syn. nov.).

When the type species of Aleuronudus  and Metaleurodicus  are compared, the only major  character that separates them, and might be considered to be of generic significance, is the unevenness of the alignment and spacing of abdominal compound pores in Aleuronudus  : characters such as inclusion of lingula within vasiform orifice, and the nature of dorsal disc simple pores, are found across the assemblage of species included within these two genera. It is considered likely that future studies may indicate the synonymy of these two genera, but this character does currently provide satisfactory separation of the two assemblages. Accordingly, Metaleurodicus jequiensis Bondar (1928)  , described from Brazil, is here transferred to Aleuronudus  comb. nov.


Slezsk� zemsk� muzeum Opava, Arboretum Nopv� Dvur














Aleurodicus vinculus

John H. Martin 2004


Bondar 1923: 84


Mound 1978: 236
Costa 1928: 137
Bondar 1923: 85
Hempel 1922: 5