Nealeurodicus fallax, John H. Martin, 2004

John H. Martin, 2004, Whiteflies of Belize (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Part 1 — introduction and account of the subfamily Aleurodicinae Quaintance & Baker, Zootaxa 681, pp. 1-86: 57-59

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.158856

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scientific name

Nealeurodicus fallax

sp. nov.

Nealeurodicus fallax  sp. nov.

( Figs 36, 102, 103)

PUPARIUM. Habitus. Little secretion evident, appearing blackish to naked eye. Margin. Overall outline elongate­oval, somewhat asymmetric with one side less curved through development alongside major  leaf vein ( Fig. 36), with series of shallow indentations lending margin a wavy appearance, puparium 1.75–1.90 mm long, 0.92–1.07 mm wide, widest at abdominal segment III (n= 2). Margin, when not obscured by downcurling, with very small and rather irregular crenulations, about 14 occupying 0.1 mm; margin not modified at tracheal openings. Dorsum. Cuticle darkly pigmented except for a pair of pale submarginal patches on prothorax, metathorax, and abdominal segment V/VI, and a median pale patch posterior to vasiform orifice ( Fig. 36). Abdominal segment VII medially slightly shorter than each of segment VI and segment VIII anterior to vasiform orifice (Fig. 102). Submedian abdominal depressions each marked as two or three contiguous subcircular markings (Fig. 102). Vasiform orifice (Fig. 102) elongate­cordate, about 0.16 mm long, 0.11 mm wide, inset from posterior margin of puparium by 0.21–0.24 mm, thickened but evenly rounded posteriorly, inner lateral margins and orifice floor finely striate; operculum laterally curved, much wider than long, occupying only basal one­third of vasiform orifice, with a very fine pair of posterior­marginal setae just discernible in holotype; lingula head finely spinulose, similar in shape to vasiform orifice, just reaching posterior rim of orifice, with a distinct basal shoulder on each side and bearing the usual 4 stout subapical setae. Chaetotaxy. With 12 pairs of robust, hair­like setae in extreme outer submargin ( Fig. 36), including the nominal caudal pair, most in excess of 100 µ m long; anterior and posterior marginal setae a little shorter than submarginal setae, similar to 4 paired submedian cephalothoracic and pair of eighth abdominal setae. Pores. Single pairs of compound pores present cephalically and on abdominal segments II, IV, V, VI and VIII, the pores on segment VIII situated to either side of apex of vasiform orifice and slightly smaller than remainder (Fig. 102). All compound pores ring­like, with thickened rims, each 15–20 µ m in diameter, the axial lumen with tightly bundled rod­like structures which do not emerge beyond pores; outer torus of each compound pore (excepting those on abdominal segment VIII) with subcircular “spinneret” cells (terminology of Quaintance & Baker, 1913) forming a single ring of 12–15 cells (Fig. 103). Whole of dorsum densely punctuated by evenly­distributed, mostly quadrilocular, simple pores (Fig. 102, expanded detail); small, bright, wide­rimmed pores also occur in small aggregations of 2–5 pores bounding submedian zone; a more distinct aggregation of larger bright pores present to either side of vasiform orifice (Fig. 102, expanded detail). Ve n t e r. All characters as in N. petiolaris  (below) except thoracic tracheal folds unmarked.

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Holotype puparium, BELIZE, CFR, San Pastor track, on Sebastiania longicuspis  ( Euphorbiaceae  ), 31.v. 2004 (J.H.Martin # 7963) ( BMNH). Paratypes: 1 puparium, same data as holotype ( BMNH); 1 third­instar / puparium intermoult, Las Cuevas, on Persea americana  ( Lauraceae  ), 04.xi. 1994 (Martin) ( BMNH). Other material: 1 third­instar larva, 1 second­instar larva, Las Cuevas, on Nectandra  ? nitida ( Lauraceae  ), 23.iii. 2003 (Martin) ( BMNH).

ETYMOLOGY. The specific epithet is the latin adjective fallax  (meaning elusive), reflecting the difficulty in finding specimens of this species.

COMMENTS. This species is represented by only two puparia and one third­instar / puparium mid­moult specimen; there are additionally two earlier larval instars that are tentatively identified as N. fallax  . An exhaustive search of its host plant species failed to reveal any further study material. Although the extensive dark pigmentation of the two fully developed puparia is unusual, such pigmentation is variable within Nealeurodicus  species: however, the combination of extensive pigmentation, five pairs of abdominal compound pores, and a distinct basal shoulder on each side of the lingula (Fig. 102) serve to distinguish N. fallax  from other members of the genus.

N. fallax  shares the same distribution of compound pores as seen in N. octifer (Bondar)  . However, there are several notable differences that preclude regarding the Belize specimens as belonging to N. octifer  . In N. fallax  , there is a ring of bright pores within the outer torus of each of the compound pores (except those on abdominal segment VIII), whereas in N. octifer  this ring of pores surrounds each compound pore, beyond its boundary – thereby placing N. octifer  as a member of the N. altissimus  group; the vasiform orifice of N. fallax  is rather elongate, with the operculum only occupying its basal one­third part, whereas in N. octifer  the broader vasiform orifice has half its length occupied by the operculum; the location of compound pores on abdominal segments II, IV, V and VI differs, with the anteriormost pair in N. octifer  located much further mesad in comparison to the other pairs (as in the distribution of these pores in N. altissimus  , fig. 33), in marked contrast to the more linear arrangement of these compound pores in N. fallax  (Fig. 102); puparia of N. fallax  are much more elongate (i.e. less broad) than the puparia of the several examined samples of N. octifer  , which are also symmetrical in contrast to those of N. fallax  ; a single, rather linear, group of bright simple pores is present to either side of the vasiform orifice in N. fallax  (Fig 102, expended detail), whereas in N. octifer  there are two distinct, less numerous, groups to either side of the vasiform orifice.

The fully developed paratype puparium is most unusual, bearing both a thoracic parasitoid emergence hole (and the expected parasitoid remains) and also a clearly fullyformed adult female whitefly about to emerge. Although few characters of this adult whitefly can be discerned in detail, her abdomen clearly possesses four pairs of large ventro­lateral wax plates), a character which is mentioned because it may prove to be of generic significance in future studies.