Phauloppia lucorum ( C. L. Koch, 1841 ), C. L. Koch, 1841

Seniczak, Stanisław & Seniczak, Anna, 2012, Differentiation of external morphology of Oribatulidae (Acari: Oribatida) in light of the ontogeny of three species, Zootaxa 3184, pp. 1-34: 2-11

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Phauloppia lucorum ( C. L. Koch, 1841 )


Phauloppia lucorum ( C. L. Koch, 1841)  

( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 , 2 View FIGURE 2 A, 3 A, 4 A, B, 5–8, 9 A, 10 A, B)

Phauloppia lucorum: Grandjean 1948   , 1950; Travé 1958, 1961; Sellnick 1960; Marshall et al. 1987; Pérez-Íñigo 1987; Subías 2004, 2011; Weigmann 2006.

Zetes lucorum C. L. Koch, 1841   .

Notaspis lucorum: Michael 1888   .

Oppia conformis Berlese, 1895   .

Eremaeus schneideri Oudemans, 1900   .

Lucoppia (Phauloppia) conformis: Berlese 1908   ; Sellnick 1928.

Oribata geniculatus   (L.) sensu Willmann (1931).

Phauloppia longiporosa Mahunka, 1982   .

Diagnosis. Adult rather large (600–900 µm), drop-shaped ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ), brown. Males usually smaller than females. Most prodorsal and notogastral setae long, curved, and barbed. Prodorsal lamellae (Lam) weakly developed, sensillus (ss) rather short, clavate, with barbed head. Notogaster arched in lateral aspect ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A), with 14 pairs of rather long setae (c 3 lost), and well formed porose areas; Aa elongated, A 1 –A 3 oval. Four pairs of genital setae, two pairs inserted in anterior part, and two pairs in posterior part of genital plates. Three pairs of small setae of ad -series, seta ad 3 located anterolateral from anal opening, far from seta ad 2 ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 A). Solenidion ω 1 on tarsus I thicker than ω 2 ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 A), porose areas on tarsus I–IV ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 B), and other segments of legs (trochanter III–IV, femur I–IV, tibia I– IV). Formulae of leg setae (and solenidia): I – 1-5 - 3 (1)- 4 (2)- 20 (2); II – 1-5 - 3 (1)- 4 (2)- 15 (2); III – 2-3 - 1 (1)- 3 (1)- 15; III – 1-2 - 2-3 (1)- 12. Tarsi tridactylous.

Juveniles oval in dorsal aspect, light-brown, with darker legs. Most prodorsal and gastronotal setae long, curved, and barbed, sensillus clavate, with barbed head. Gastronotum arched in lateral aspect, with 12 pairs of setae in larva, and 15 pairs in nymphs. Some gastronotal setae with excentrosclerites (c 2, l -series and h 1 in larva, c 2, l -, h - series and p 1 in nymphs), small excentrosclerites also at nymphal setae c 1 and d -series.

Description of juvenile stages. Larva oval in dorsal aspect ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ) after hatching, and egg-shaped, when distended, and light-brown, with darker legs. Prodorsum trapezoid. Seta ro rather long, seta le shorter than ro, seta in longer than ro; pair ro inserted closest, pair in inserted widest; all setae slightly curved, and barbed; seta ex short and smooth. Bothridium rounded, sensillus rather short, and clavate, with barbed head.

Gastronotum arched in dorsal aspect, with 12 pairs of setae, including seta h 3, inserted lateral to medial part of anal opening ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 A). Setae c 3, dp and lp approximately as long as seta in ( Table 1), other setae shorter. Seta c 1 approximately as long as le, seta c 2 shorter, setae of d -, l - and h -series increasing in size from anterior to posterior; all setae slightly curved and barbed, seta h 2 distinctly shorter than h 1, and barbed, seta h 3 small and smooth. Basal parts of setae c 2 and l -series and h 1 with excentrosclerites, other setae without excentrosclerites. Cupule ia posterior to seta c 3, cupule im posterior to seta lm, cupule ip between setae h 1 and h 2, cupule ih lateral to anterior part of anal opening. Gland opening gla anteroventral to seta lp. Paraproctal valves (segment PS) with two pairs of small setae. In freshly hatched larva gastronotum with transverse stria, and anal region with longitudinal stria, in distended larva cuticle smooth.

Nymphs slimmer than larva, light-brown, with darker legs, and relatively shorter prodorsum than in larva. Protonymph with 15 pairs of gastronotal setae, including three pairs of p -series ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 B), which appear in this stage first time and remain in deuto- and tritonymph ( Figs. 7 View FIGURE 7 A, B); length increasing from anterior to posterior. In protonymph setae p 3 and p 2 smooth, seta p 1 barbed; in other nymphs setae p 3 and p 2 distinctly longer, and barbed. In deutonymph small setae of ad -series (ad 1 – a d 3) and pair ag appear and remain in tritonymph. Paraproctal valves of proto- and deutonymph glabrous, those of tritonymph with two pairs of small setae.

Prodorsal setae of tritonymph (Fig. 8) relatively longer than in larva, especially seta le; length increasing from ro to in; all setae barbed, seta ex rather short and smooth. Bothridium rounded, sensillus clavate, with barbed head, but slimmer than in larva.

All gastronotal setae long ( Table 1) and barbed, except shorter seta c 2. Setae c 2, l -, h -series and p 1 with rather large excentrosclerites, setae c 1 and d -series with small excentrosclerites; seta c 3 without excentrosclerite. Cupules ia and im as in larva, cupule ip between setae h 2 and p 2 ( Figs. 7 View FIGURE 7 B, 9 A), cupule iad lateral to anterior part of paraproctal valves, cupule ips pushing lateral, and cupule ih pushing anterolateral to cupule iad. Gland opening gla posteroventral to seta lm. In freshly hatched tritonymph gastronotum with transverse stria, and anal region with longitudinal stria ( Figs. 9 View FIGURE 9 A, 9 B), in distended tritonymph cuticle smooth. Tibia I and tarsus I of tritonymph ( Figs. 10 View FIGURE 10 A, B) similar as in adult, but lack setal pair l on tarsus.

Summary of ontogenetic transformations. Prodorsal seta le shorter than ro and in in the larva, but becomes longer in the nymphs, and remains so in the adult. The bothridium is rounded in all instars, and the sensillus is clavate, with barbed head, which is more slender in the nymphs and adult than in the larva.

The larva has 12 pairs of gastronotal setae, the nymphs have 15 pairs (gained p -series), while the adult losses seta c 3, and 14 pairs remain. Lyrifissure ia is located lateroventral to seta c 2 ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A). The formula of gastronotal setae is 12-15 - 15 - 15 - 14 (larva to adult), those of coxisternal setae are: 3 - 1-2 (larva), 3 - 1-2 - 1 (protonymph), 3 - 1-2 - 3 (deutonymph) and 3 - 1-3 - 3 (tritonymph and adult). The formula of genital setae is 1-2 - 3-4 (protonymph to adult), and that of aggenital setae is 1 - 1 - 1 (deutonymph to adult). The formula of segments PS–AN is 23333 -0333-022. All formulae are consistent with those described by Grandjean (1949).

Distribution and ecology. Phauloppia lucorum   is considered to be a Palaearctic species ( Subías 2004, 2011; Weigmann 2006). It is classified as arboricolous, lichenicolous, muscicolous and xerophilous ( Travé 1958, 1963; Pérez-Íñigo 1987; Schatz 2008; Gerecke et al. 2009; Perlinger & Schatz 2009), but was also recorded from the bird feathers ( Krivolutsky & Lebedeva 2002). In this study it was rather abundant in mosses on roofs of old houses in Górzyskowo Quarter in Bydgoszcz ( Poland, N 53 o07.24, E 18 o00.30; 90 m a. s. l.), where in the late spring the juveniles were more abundant than the adults.

FIGURE 8. Phauloppia lucorum   , tritonymph. (A) Apical part of seta le; (B) dorsal aspect, legs partially drawn, scale bar 100 µm; (C) basal parts of setae c 1 and c 2.














Phauloppia lucorum ( C. L. Koch, 1841 )

Seniczak, Stanisław & Seniczak, Anna 2012

Phauloppia longiporosa

Mahunka 1982

Phauloppia lucorum:

Grandjean 1948

Lucoppia (Phauloppia) conformis:

Berlese 1908

Eremaeus schneideri

Oudemans 1900

Oppia conformis

Berlese 1895

Notaspis lucorum:

Michael 1888

Zetes lucorum

C. L. Koch 1841

Oribata geniculatus

Latreille 1802